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Published  by  the  University  of  Manchester  at 




LONDON  :  39  Paternoster  Row,  E.C.4 

NEW  YORK  :  55  Fifth  Avenue 

BOMBAY  :  Hornby  Road 

CALCUTTA  :  6  Old  Court  House  Street 

MADRAS  :  167  Mount  Road 


?o  f\ 




Professor  of  English  in  the  University  of  Lund 


Manchester        *        *        *        *        *      At  the  University  Press 
London,  New  York,  Bombay,  &c.    *  Longmans,  Green  &  Co. 



All  rights  reserved 



Preface      ............  vii 

Bibliography      ...........  ix 

Abbreviations     ...........  xvi 

Phonetic  Symbols        ..........  xvi 

Introduction       ...........  1 

Elements  in  Lancashire  Place-Names    .......  7 

Notes  on  the  Phonology  of  Lancashire  Place-Names        ....  21 

Anglo-Norman  Spellings       .........  22 


Salford  hundred 26 

Blackburn  hundred       .........  65 

West  Derby  hundred 93 

Leyland  hundred           . 126 

Amounderness  hundred          .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .139 

Lonsdale  hundred  S.  of  the  Sands  .         .         .         .         .         .         .167 

Lonsdale  hundred  N.  of  the  Sands           ......  190 


I.  Britons  in  Lancashire     ........  224 

II.  Anglians  in  Lancashire  .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  227 

III.  Scandinavians  in  Lancashire  .......  241 

IV.  Miscellaneous 257 

Addenda 263 

Index  265 


THIS  book  has  been  some  twelve  years  in  making.  By  the  time  Professor  Wyld's 
book  on  Lancashire  place-names  appeared  it  had  made  good  progress  ;  in  fact, 
the  material  collected  was  on  the  whole  fuller  than  his.  My  first  thought,  when  I 
found  I  had  been  forestalled,  was  to  drop  the  subject  altogether.  On  further  re- 
flection it  seemed  to  me,  however,  that  certain  aspects  of  the  large  subject  might 
repay  further  study,  and  finally  I  decided  to  go  on  with  my  original  plan,  which 
included  a  full  study  of  Lancashire  place-names.  The  publication  of  Mr.  Sephton's 
book  two  years  later  again  caused  some  hesitation,  but  did  not  discourage  me 
from  going  on. 

The  book  would  probably  have  been  published  long  ago  had  it  not  been  for 
the  war,  which  temporarily  prevented  the  carrying  out  of  a  long-cherished  project 
of  going  to  Lancashire  in  order  to  form  a  personal  acquaintance  with  the  topo- 
graphy of  the  district.  It  was  not  until  the  summer  of  1920  that  this  plan  could 
at  last  be  executed.  I  then  spent  over  two  months  in  various  parts  of  the  county, 
and  in  1921  I  had  the  opportunity  of  spending  a  few  more  weeks  there.  The  time 
at  my  disposal  did  not  permit  an  equally  full  study  of  the  whole  district.  Natur- 
ally I  gave  rather  more  time  to  the  north  than  to  the  industrialized  south. 

It  remains  to  acknowledge  gratefully  assistance  received  from  various  quarters. 
I  have  to  thank  the  Manchester  University  Press  Committee  and  the  Council  of 
the  Chetham  Society  for  undertaking  the  publication.  I  thank  Professor  W.  J. 
Sedgefield  for  his  good  offices  in  the  negotiations  for  the  publication.  I  understand 
that  I  owe  special  thanks  to  Professor  James  Tait  for  using  his  weighty  influence 
both  on  the  Press  Committee  and  in  the  Chetham  Society.  I  have  also  had  the 
privilege  of  discussing  various  questions  with  Professor  Tait,  who  has  read  a  proof 
and  offered  numerous  valuable  suggestions.  It  need  hardly  be  said  that  the 
criticism  and  advice  of  a  scholar  like  Professor  Tait,  whose  knowledge  of  Lanca- 
shire and  its  history  is  unrivalled,  has  been  an  inestimable  advantage. 

I  thank  Mr.  W.  G.  Collingwood  for  important  information  and  many  instruc- 
tive talks,  from  which  I  have  learnt  far  more  than  he  would  perhaps  admit. 
Dr.  William  Farrer,  from  whose  publications  I  have  derived  perhaps  the  greater 
part  of  the  material,  has  given  valuable  advice  and  otherwise  shown  interest  in 
the  work. 

Special  thanks  are  due  to  the  numerous  helpers,  mostly  unknown,  who  with 
unfailing  courtesy  have  answered  questions  concerning  local  pronunciation  and 
topography.  The  greatest  debt  of  gratitude  in  this  respect  I  owe  to  Mr.  Sam 
Dixon,  of  Edgend,  Nelson. 

My  wife  has  given  inestimable  help  in  collecting  the  material,  in  preparing  the 
manuscript  for  the  press,  and  in  reading  the  proofs. 


LUND,  March  1922 


§  i.     SOURCES      OF      EARLY      AND      DIALECT      FORMS1 

AD  :  A  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  Ancient  Deeds.  Rolls  Ser.   1890  ff. 

Ant.  It.  :    Itinerarium  Antonini  Augusti  et  Hierosolymitanum.    Ed.  Parthey  and  Finder. 

Berlin,  1848. 

AP  :  Placitorum  . .  abbreviatio,  Ric.  I. — Ed.  II.  Record  Com.   1811. 
BCS  :  Cartularium  Saxonicum.  Ed.  W.  de  Gray  Birch.  London,  1885-93. 
Beck  :   Annales  Furnesienses.   History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Abbey  of  Furness.   By  Thomas 

Alcock  Beck.  London,  1844. 
Bede  :  Venerabilis  Baedae  Opera  Historica.  Ed.  C.  Plummer.  Oxford,  1896.  [The  place-names 

in  Bede  are  collected  in  Sweet,  The  Oldest  English  Texts,  and  in  Miller,  Place-names  in 

the  English  Bede.'] 
BF :    The  Book  of  Fees  commonly  called  Testa  de  Nevill,  reformed  from  the  earliest  MSS. 

I.  Rolls  Ser.   1920.  [Contains  among  other  things  the  important  Great  Inquest  of  1212, 

printed  in  translation  in  LI  i,  pp.  1-114.] 

Burghley  :  Lord  Burghley's  Map  of  Lancashire  in  1590.  Catholic  Record  Soc.  London,  1907. 
Cal.  Sc.  :  Calendar  of  Documents  relating  to  Scotland.  Edinburgh,  1881  ff. 
Camden  :  Camden,  Magna  Britannia.  London,  1586. 
Cart.  Glam.  :  Cartce  et  alia  munimenta  quce  ad  dominium  de  Glamorgan  pertinent.  Ed.    G.  L. 

Clark.  Cardiff,  1910. 
CC:  The  Chartulary  of  Cockersand  Abbey.  Chetham  Soc.  New  Ser.  xxxviii,  etc.  [Thechartu- 

lary  was  compiled  in  1267-8.] 
CCR  :    Court  Rolls  of  the  Honor  of  Clitheroe,  1377-1663.   Ed.  William  Farrer.   Manchester, 


CD  :   Codex  diplomaticus  cevi  Saxonici.  Ed.  J.  M.  Kemble.  London,  1839-48. 
Ch  :   Early  Lancashire  charters.   See  LPR. 
Chart.  Chester  Abbey  :   The  Chartulary  or  Register  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  Werburgh,  Chester.    Ed. 

James  Tait.   Chetham  Soc.  New  Ser.  Ixxix. 

Chr.  :  The  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle.  Quoted  from  :  Earle-Plummer,  Two  of  the  Saxon  Chroni- 
cles parallel,  Oxford,  1892,  and  Petrie's  Monumenta  historica  Britannica,  London,  1878. 
ChR  :    Charter  Rolls.   Rotuli  chartarum,  1199-1216.    Record  Com.   1837.    Calendar  of  the 

Charter  Rolls,  1226-1341.  Rolls  Ser.   1903-12. 
C1R  :  Close  Rolls.   Rotuli  litterarum  clausarum  1204-27.  Record  Com.  1833-44.  Close  Rolls  of 

the  Reign  of  Henry  III  1227-42.   Rolls  Ser.  1902  ff.   Calendar  of  the  Close  Rolls  1272  ff. 

Rolls  Ser.  1892  ff. 
CR  :  "  Calendar  of  Rolls  of  the  Chancery  of  the  County  Palatine."   Deputy  Keeper's  Reports 

xxxii.  app.  i,  331-65  ;  xxxiii.  app.  i,  1-42. 
Crawf.  Ch.  :   "  The  Crawford  Collection  of  Early  Charters  and  Documents."  Ed.  Napier  and 

Stevenson.  In  Anecdota  Oxoniensia.  Oxford,  1895. 
CS  :  The  Publications  of  the  Chetham  Society.  Manchester,  1844,  etc.   (New  Ser.  1882,  etc. 

=  CSNS). 

CW  :  Index  to  the  Wills  at  Chester,  1545-1620.  Record  Soc.  ii. 
CWNS  :    Transactions  of  the  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Antiquarian  and  Archaeological 

Society.  New  Series.  Kendal,  1901  ff. 

DB  :   Domesday  Book.  London,  1783-1816.  [Compiled  in  1086.] 
DD:  "  Dunkenhalgh  Deeds  c.  1200-1600."  Ed.  G.  A.  Stocks  and  James  Tait.  In  Chetham 

Miscellanies,  vol.  iv.  Chetham  Soc.  New  Ser.  Ixxx. 

1  References  to  volume  and  page  of  works  quoted  are,  as  a  rule,  given  only  in  the  case  of 
sources  wanting  a  full  or  reliable  index. 

A  simplified  mode  of  dating  has  been  adopted  where  a  document  is  stated  to  belong  to  such 
and  such  a  year  of  the  reign  of  a  king  or  queen.  Instead  of  1203-4  (=  6  John),  and  the  like,  the 
later  year  (1204,  etc.)  is  used,  unless  there  is  (to  my  knowledge)  definite  proof  that  the  docu- 
ment belongs  to  the  earlier  year.  This  has  no  doubt  led  to  some  inconsistency,  which  it  is 
hoped  will  do  no  practical  harm. 


DL  :  Ducatus  Lancastrian  calendarium  inquisitionum  post  mortem,  Edw.  I. — Ch.  I.  Record 
Com.  1823. 

Dugdale  :   Monasticum  Anglicanum.  New  Ed.  London,  1846. 

Eddi :  "Vita  Wilfrid!  Episcopi  Eboracensis."  In  Historians  of  the  Church  of  York,  i.  Chron. 
and  Mem.  Ixxi. 

Ellis  :  On  Early  English  Pronunciation.  By  A.  J.  Ellis.   Part  V.  London,  J889. 

FA  :   Inquisitions  and  Assessments  relating  to  Feudal  Aids.   Rolls  Ser.  1899,  etc. 

FC  :  The  Coucher  Book  of  Furness  Abbey.  Chetham  Soc.  New  Ser.  ix,  xi,  xiv  (=  FC  or  FC  I). 
Vol.  ii.  New  Ser.  Ixxiv,  Ixxvi,  Ixxviii  (  =  FC  II).  [The  bulk  of  the  coucher  was  compiled 
in  1412.  In  vol.  ii  the  original  charters,  when  preserved,  are  printed  instead  of  the  tran- 
script in  the  coucher]. 

Gaunt  R  :  John  of  GaunCs  Register  (1371-75).  Camden  Soc.   1911. 

Grueber  :  A  Catalogue  of  English  Coins  in  the  British  Museum.  Anglo-Saxon  Series.  Vol.  ii. 
By  H.  A.  Grueber  and  C.  F.  Keary.  London,  1893. 

Guisb.  C  :  Cartularium  prioratus  de  Gyseburne.  Surtees  Soc.   1889-94. 

Harr.  :   William  Harrison,  "  The  Description  of  Britaine."  In  Holinshed's  Chronicle,  1577. 

Hawkshead  R  :  The  oldest  Register  Book  of  the  Parish  of  Hawkshead,  1568-1704.  Ed.  H.  S. 
Cooper.  London,  1897. 

Higden  :  Polychronicon  Ranulphi  Higden.  Chron.  and  Mem.  xli.   1865-86. 

Hist.  St.  Cuthbert :  "  Historia  de  S.  Cuthberto."  In  Symeonis  Dunelmensis  Opera  et  Collec- 
tanea. Surtees  Soc.  Ii,  138-52.  [Compiled  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  twelfth  century.] 

HR  :   Rotuli  hundredorum,  temp.  Hen.  Ill  and  Edw.  I.  Record  Com.   1812-18. 

HS  :  The  Transactions  of  the  Historic  Society  of  Lancashire  and  Cheshire,  1849,  etc.  [Con- 
tains reprints  of  old  deeds,  e.g.  Ince  Blundell  charters,  vol.  xxxii ;  Schedule  of  deeds 
chiefly  relating  to  Warrington,  vol.  xl ;  Crosse  deeds,  vol.  xli  ff . ;  Hospitallers  charters 
relating  to  Much  Woolton,  vol.  liv.  Cf.  SO]. 

IM  :  Calendar  of  Inquisitions  Miscellaneous  preserved  in  the  Public  Record  Office.  Rolls  Ser. 

IN  :  Nonarum  Inquisitiones  temp.  Edw.  III.  Record  Com.  1807. 

Ind  :  Index  Locorum.  Index  to  the  Charters  and  Rolls  in  the  British  Museum.  I.  1900  ;  II. 
1912  (=  Ind  II). 

IPM  :   Calendar  of  Inquisitions  post  mortem.   Rolls  Ser.    1898  ff. 

Kirkstall  C  :  The  Coucher  Book  of  the  Cistercian  Abbey  of  Kirkstall  Thoresby  Soc.  viii.  Leeds, 

Lacy  C  :  Two  "  compoti  "  of  the  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  manors  of  Henry  de  Lacy,  earl  of 
Lincoln,  24  and  33  Edward  I.  Chetham  Soc.  Old  Ser.  cxii. 

LAR  :  Lancashire  Assize  Rolls.  Ed.  Col.  John  Parker.  Record  Soc.  xlvii,  xlix. 

LC  :  Materials  for  the  history  of  the  Church  of  Lancaster.  Chetham  Soc.  New  Ser.  xxvi  ff. 
1892-1906.  [Contains  the  chartulary  of  the  priory  of  Lancaster  ;  MS.  from  "  the  latter 
part  of  the  first  half  "  of  the  fifteenth  century.] 

LCR  :  Lancashire  Court  Rolls  A.D.  1323-4.  Ed.  W.  Farrer.  Record  Soc.  xli. 

Leland  :  The  Itinerary  of  John  Leland  in  or  about  the  years  1535-43.  Ed.  Lucy  Toulmin  Smith. 
London,  1907  f. 

LF  :  Final  Concords  of  the  County  of  Lancaster.  Ed.  W.  Farrer.  Record  Soc.  xxxix,  xlvi,  1,  Ix. 

LI :  Lancashire  Inquests,  Extents,  and  Feudal  Aids.  Ed.  W.  Farrer.  Record  Soc.  xlviii,  liv. 

LL  :  Liber  Landavensis.    The  Text  of  the  Book  of  Llan  Dav.   Oxford,  1893. 

LP  :  Pleadings  and  Depositions  in  the  Duchy  Court  of  Lancaster.  Record  Soc.  xxxii,  xxxv,  xl. 

LPD  :  "  Duchy  of  Lancaster  :  Calendar  of  Ancient  Charters  or  Grants  "  [private  deeds]. 
Deputy  Keeper's  Reports,  xxxv,  1-41,  xxxvi,  app.  i,  161-205.  [Report  xxxvi  (=  LPD  n) 
contains  original  document  now  partly  published  in  Furness  Coucher,  vol.  n.] 

LPR  :  Lancashire  Pipe  Rolls  (1130-1216).  Also  Early  Lancashire  Charters.  Transcribed  and 
annotated  by  W.  Farrer.  Liverpool,  1902. 

LR  :  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Records.  Ed.  W.  D.  Selby.  Record  Soc.  vii,  viii. 

LS  :  The  Exchequer  Lay  Subsidy  Roll  . .  in  the  County  of  Lancaster  A.D.  1332.  Record  Soc. 
xxxi.  1896.  [Contains  a  list  also  of  townships  in  the  Subsidy  Roll  of  1327  and  a  list  of 
subscribers  to  the  stipend  at  Ormskirk  in  1366.] 

LV  :  Liber  Vitce  Ecclesice  Dunelmensis.  Surtees  Soc.  1841.  [The  early  pers.  names  are  collected 
in  Sweet's  Oldest  English  Texts.] 


M  :    Mamecestre  :  Chapters  from  the  early  History  of  . .  Manchester.     Ed.   John  Harland. 

Chetham  Soc.   Old  Ser.  liii,  Ivi,  Iviii. 
Moore  MSS  :    Calendar  of  . .  Deeds  and  Papers  of  the  Moore  Family  of  Bankhall,  co.  Lane. 

Record  Soc.  Ixvii. 
Morris  :    T" 'Siege  of  Brou'ton.    A  sketch  in  the  Furness  dialect.    By  a  Native  [J.  P.  Morris]. 

Carlisle,  1867. 

NG  :   Norske  Gaardnavne.   Christiania,  1897  ff. 

NoB  :   Namn  och  Bygd.    Tidskriftfor  nordisk  ortnamnsforskning.   Uppsala,  1913,  etc. 
O.E.T.  :   The  Oldest  English  Texts.   Ed.  Henry  Sweet.  London,  1885. 
OR  :   Rotulorum  originalium  in  curia  scaccarii  abbreviatio.   Record  Com.  1805-10. 
Owen's  Pembrokeshire.   Ed.  Henry  Owen.   Cymmrodorion  Record  Series.   1892. 
PatR  :  Patent  Rolls.    Rotuli  litterarum  patentium  1201-16.   Record  Com.    1835.   Patent  Rolls 

of  the  reign  of  Henry  III  (1216-32).    Rolls  Ser.    1901-3.    Calendar  of  the  Patent  Rolls 

1232  ff.  Rolls  Ser.  1891  ff. 

PC  :  Documents  relating  to  the  Priory  of  Penwortham.  Ed.  W.  A.  Hulton.  Chetham  Soc.   1853. 
PD  :   The  Pudsay  Deeds.  The  Yorks.  Archseol.  Soc.  Record  Series.  Vol.  Ivi. 
Percy  C  :   The  Percy  Chartulary.   Surtees  Soc.   1911. 
PR  :   The  Great  Roll  of  the  Pipe.  Pipe  Roll  Soc.   1884  ff. 
PW  :  Placita  de  quo  warranto,  Edw.  I-Edw.  III.  Record  Com.   1818. 

R  (Cockerham  R,  etc.)  :  Parish  Register,  published  by  the  Lancashire  Parish  Register  Soc. 
RB:   The  Red  Book  of  the  Exchequer.  Rolls  Ser.   1896. 
Rec.  Cam.  :    The  Record  of  Caernarvon.   Record  Com.    1838. 
Richard  of  Hexham  :    "  Gesta  Stephani."    In  Chronicles  of  the  Reigns  of  Stephen,  Henry  II, 

and  Richard  I.  Chron.  and  Mem.  Ixxxii.   1886. 

Rot.  Obi.  :   Rotuli  de  oblatis  etfinibus  [1-18  John].   Rec.  Com.  1835. 
RS  :  Publications  of  the  Record  Society  for  the  publication  of  original  Documents  relating  to 

Lancashire  and  Cheshire,  1879,  etc. 

RSB  :   The  Register  of  the  Priory  of  St.  Bees.   Surtees  Soc.   1915. 
RW  :  Index  to  the  Lancashire  Wills  proved  at  Richmond,  1457-1608.  Record  Soc.  x. 
Saxton  :   Lancastrice  Comitatus  palatin'  vera  et  absoluta  descriptio.   Anno  Dni  1577.   Christo- 

phorus  Saxton  descripsit. 

SC  :   "  Ancient  Charters  at  Scarisbrick  Hall."   Historic  Soc.  xlviii,  xlix. 

Selby  C  :    The  Coucher  Book  of  Selby.   The  Yorkshire  Archaeological  and  Topographical  Asso- 
ciation.  Record  Series.  Vols.  x,  xiii.    1891,  1893. 

Sim.  Durh.  :  Symeonis  Dunelmensis  Opera  et  Collectanea.   Surtees  Soc.   1868. 
Staton  :    J.  T.  Staton  :    The  Lankishire  Loominary  un   Widely  Lookin  Glass,  Manchester, 

1863  ff. — Bobby  Shuttle  un  his  woife  Sayroh  at  th'  Grand  Review  in  Jetton  Perk,  1872. — 

Kestor  un  Betty,    Manchester,  1865. — Bobby  Shuttle  un  his  woife  Sayroh  at  th'  Darrun 

Eggsibishun,  1868. 
Surv.  Denbigh  :  Survey  of  the  Honour  of  Denbigh,  1334.  Ed.  by  Paul  Vinogradoff  and  Frank 

Morgan.   London,  1914. 

TE  :    Taxatio  Ecclesiastica.  Record  Com.   1802. 

Thorpe  :    Diplomatarium  anglicum  cevi  Saxonici.    Ed.  B.  Thorpe.   London,  1865. 
TI :  Abstracts  of  Inquisitions  post  mortem  made  by  Chr.  Towneley  and  R.  Dodsworth.  Chetham 

Soc.   Old  Ser.  xcv,  xcix. 
TN:    Testa  de  Nevill.   Record  Com.    1807. 

Trevisa  :  Higden's  Polychronicon.   Translated  by  John  Trevisa.   Chron.  and  Mem.  xli. 
VHL  :   Victoria  History  of  the  County  of  Lancaster.  London,  1906,  etc. 
Warr.  :   W arrington  in  1465,  as  described  in  a  contemporary  rent-roll.  Chetham  Soc.   1849. 
Waugh  :    Edwin  Waugh   (1817-90),   Lancashire  Sketches. — Tufts  of  Heather. — Poems  and 


West :  The  Antiquities  of  Furness,  or  an  Account  of  the  Royal  Abbey  of  St.  Mary.  London,  1774. 
WhC  :  The  Coucher  Book  of  Whalley  Abbey.  Chetham  Soc.  Old  Ser.  Vol.  x,  etc.  [The  coucher 

was  compiled  in  the  fourteenth  century.] 

Whit.  :  T.  B.  Whitaker,  History  of  the  Original  Parish  of  Whalley.  4th  ed.  1872. 
WR  :   The  Register  of  the  Priory  of  Wetherhal.   Ed.  J.  E.  Prescott.  London,  1897. 
YCh  :  Early  Yorkshire  Charters.  Ed.  W.  Farrer.  Edinburgh,  1914,  etc. 
YFF:  Pedes  Finium  Ebor.  A. D.  1199-1214.  Surtees  Soc.   1897. 


§  ii.    MAPS 
Saxton  1577.  See  i. 
Burghley  1590.  See  i. 

The  County  Palatine  of  Lancaster.  Surveyed  by  William  Yates.   1786. 
Smith :  New  and  accurate  Map  of  the  Lakes.    1800. 
Smith :  A  New  Map  of  the  County  Palatine  of  Lancaster.    1801. 
The  Ordnance  Survey  Maps.  Scale  6  inches  to  the  mile.   1846-51  (=  O.M.  1846-51). 
The  Ordnance  Survey  Maps.   Scale  6  inches  to  the  mile.    1904,  etc. 
The  Ordnance  Survey  Maps.  Scale  1  inch  to  the  mile. 


The  list  only  contains  works  quoted  or  frequently  consulted.  An  excellent  bibliography  of 
Lancashire  is  to  be  found  in  Cheetham's  Lancashire,  p.  67ff. 

Aarbdger  for  nordisk  Oldkyndighed  og  Historie.   Copenhagen,  1866,  etc.   (Aarb.) 

Aasen,  I.  :  Norsk  Ordbog.   Christiania,  1873.   (Aasen.) 

Alexander,  H.  :   The  Place-Names  of  Oxfordshire.   Oxford,  1912. 

Baddeley,  W.  St.  C.  :   The  Place-Names  of  Gloucestershire.  Gloucester,  1913. 

Bannister,  A.  T.  :   The  Place-Names  of  Herefordshire.  Cambridge,  1916. 

Bardsley,  C.  W.  :  A  Dictionary  of  English  and  Welsh  Surnames.  Oxford,  1901. 

Bartholomew,  J.  G.  :   The  Survey  Gazetteer  of  the  British  Isles.  London,  1904. 

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a.  ante 

A.  F.  Anglo-French 

Am.  Amounderness  hundred 

A.  N.  Anglo-Norman 

Bl.  Blackburn  hundred 

Bret.  Breton 

Brit.  British 

Corn.  Cornish 

Dan.  Danish 

De.  West  Derby  hundred 

Derby.  Derbyshire 

E.  East(ern)  or  English 

E.  Fris.  East  Frisian 

el.  element 

G.  German 

Gael.  Gaelic 

Gaul.  Gaulish 

Germ.  Germanic 

h.  hamlet 

Icel.  Icelandic 

IT.  Irish 

Le.  Leyland  hundred 

L.  G.  Low  German 

Lo.  Lonsdale  hundred 

m.  mile(s) 

M.  Bret.  Middle  Breton 

M.  Du.  Middle  Dutch 

M.  E.  Middle  English 

M.  H.  G.  Middle  High  German 

Mn.  E.  Modern  English 

M.  W.  Middle  Welsh 

N.  North(ern) 

NLo.  Lonsdale  North  of  the  Sands 

Norw.  Norwegian 

O.  Bret.  Old  Breton 

O.  Corn.  Old  Cornish 

O.  Dan.  Old  Danish 

O.  E.  Old  English 

O.  H.  G.  Old  High  German 

O.  Ir.  Old  Irish 

O.  N.  Old  Norse  ( =  Old  West  Scandina- 

O.  Sax.  Old  Saxon 

O.  Swed.  Old  Swedish 

O.  W.  Old  Welsh 

par.  parish 

p(ers).  n.  personal  name 

pi.  n.  place-name 

Prim.  Celt.  Primitive  Celtic 

S.  South(ern) 

Sa.  Salf  ord  hundred 

Sc.  Scottish,  Scotland 

SLo.  Lonsdale  South  of  the  Sands 

Swed.  Swedish 

trib.  tributary 

v.  village 

W.  West(ern) 

W.  R.  The  West  Riding 

A  f  at  the  end  of  an  article  indicates  that  the  name  is  also  dealt  with  in  the  Addenda  page  263. 












Northern  a,  as  in  man  [g] 

as  in  father  [dz] 

Northern  e,  as  in  ale  [tj] 

as  in  there  [j] 

„     see  [n] 

„     hot  [z] 

„     law  [J 
Northern  o,  as  in  no. 

as  in  pwll  [x 
„     do 

„     better  [}> 

„     out  [& 

„     die  e 

„     now  e 

a  Northern  diphthong,  as  in  Isnott  o 

front  k  o 

front  g 
as  in  jet 

„     chin 

„     yet 

„     sing 

„     zeal 

„     she 

„     pleasure 

the  voiceless  velar  fricative,  as  in  G.&ch 
the  voiced  velar  fricative 
as  in  thing 

„     this 

M.E.  open  e,  as  in  hep  (O.E.  heap) 
M.E.  close  e,  as  in  kepe  (O.E.  cepan) 
M.E.  open  6,  as  in  lode  (O.E.  lad) 
M.E.  close  6,  as  in  do  (O.E.  don) 


THE  county  of  Lancaster  developed  out  of  the  post-Conquest  honour  of  Roger 
of  Poitou,  which  comprised,  besides  other  districts,  practically  the  whole  of  the 
present  Lancashire.  The  Lancashire  portion  consisted  of  at  least  two  distinct 
parts :  (1)  the  land  between  the  Kibble  and  the  Mersey,  which  in  Domesday  is 
placed  under  Cheshire,  which  belonged  (with  Cheshire)  to  the  Midland  diocese 
of  Lichfield,  and  probably  at  one  time  formed  part  of  Mercia  ;  and  (2)  the  dis- 
tricts north  of  the  Kibble,  which  in  Domesday  are  dealt  with  under  Yorkshire 
and  ecclesiastically  belonged  to  York.  But  the  districts  north  of  the  Ribble 
do  not  seem  originally  to  have  formed  a  political  unit.  At  least  we  may  safely 
distinguish  the  district  between  the  Ribble  and  the  Kent  (Amounderness  and 
Lonsdale  proper),  which  seem  to  have  been  parts  of  Yorkshire,  and  Lonsdale 
North  of  the  Sands,  which  belongs  geographically  to  the  Lake  district  and  was 
very  likely  once  connected  with  Cumberland  politically.  The  latter  district  in 
the  early  Middle  Ages  (at  least  in  1291)  belonged  to  the  deanery  of  Copeland 
(Cumberland),  while  the  former  was  divided  between  Kirkby  Lonsdale  and 
Amounderness  deaneries. 

If  Lancashire  thus  consists  of  parts  historically  unconnected,  there  is  also 
much  variety  in  the  topography  of  the  different  parts.  We  have  reason  to  expect 
the  place-nomenclature  of  such  a  district  to  show  much  variety.  This  is  also 
the  case.  The  Lancashire  place-names  consequently  offer  many  interesting 
and  difficult  problems. 

Previous  Treatment  of  Lancashire  Place-Names 

Three  monographs  on  Lancashire  place-names  have  been  published. 

Henry  Harrison's  "  Place-Names  of  the  Liverpool  District,  1898,"  deals 
only  with  the  names  of  South- West  Lancashire. 

H.  C.  Wyld  and  T.  0.  Hirst,  "  The  Place-Names  of  Lancashire,  1911."  The 
chief  author  is  Professor  Wyld.  This  work  aims  at  dealing  etymologically  with 
names  found  in  early  sources,  and  including  (in  Part  II.)  all  those  given  in  the 
one-inch  Ordnance  Survey  Maps.  This  is  a  valuable  contribution  to  English 
place-name  study,  but  it  is,  in  my  opinion,  open  to  a  good  deal  of  criticism. 
A  few  remarks  on  the  book  may  be  offered  here.1 

The  book  is  by  no  means  complete.  Many  interesting  names,  and  names 
of  important  places,  are  missing  (at  least  in  the  first,  etymological  part).  Here 
belong,  for  instance,  the  majority  of  names  of  rivers  and  hills.  Of  others  may 
be  mentioned  at  random  Bacup,  Barrow-in-Furness,  Birkland  Barrow,  Cadley, 
Church,  Eccles,  Levenshulme,  Roose,  Sharpies,  Stennerley,  Wycoller.  On  the 

1  Professor  Wyld's  book  was  reviewed  at  some  length  by  the  present  writer  in  Anglia- 
Beiblatt  xxiii.  p.  177ff.  ;  reference  may  here  be  made  to  the  detailed  criticism  in  the  review. 
Critical  remarks  similar  to  those  given  there  will  be  found  in  the  reviews  by  Dr.  Bradley  in 
EHR  xxvi.  (1911),  and  by  Bjorkman  in  Englische  Studien  xliv.  p.  249ff. 



other  hand,  some  non-Lancashire  names  are  included  because  they  happen  to 
be  mentioned  in  Lancashire  documents,  as  Angerby,  Cromblebottom,  Egger 
(river  Ehen),  Firbank,  Winsterthwaite,  and  others. 

The  early  sources  have  not  been  exhaustively  excerpted.  In  numerous  cases 
earlier  examples  than  those  given  are  to  be  found.  Not  rarely  the  forms  adduced 
do  not  refer  to  the  names  under  discussion.  Examples  will  be  found  under 
Alderbarrow,  Audley,  Ayre  (Eyre,  1271-2,  is  eyre  "  circuit "),  Birchall  (Birche- 
halgh,  1295,  is  in  Eccles,  not  in  Manchester),  Birtle,  Blackstone  Edge,  Bowerham, 
Cockden,  Goodber,  Greeta,  Pex  Hill,  Worsley,  and  others. 

A  good  many  names  are  not  explained.  Of  etymologies  suggested  quite  a 
number  can  not,  in  my  opinion,  be  regarded  as  convincing.  Sometimes  sufficient 
regard  has  not  been  paid  to  the  testimony  of  early  forms.  Sometimes  the  early 
material  is  insufficient.  Further,  Professor  Wyld  has  deliberately  omitted  to 
make  sure  that  the  etymologies  suggested  suit  the  topographical  conditions  of 
the  places  they  designate.  "  The  book,"  he  says,  "  is  not  concerned  with 
the  question  whether  the  names  fit  the  places  to  which  they  are  attached,  nor 
whether  they  ever  did  so  *'  (Preface,  p.  viii).  This  has  resulted  in  such  ex- 
planations as  "the  marsh  of  Alta"  for  Altmarsh  (on  the  river  Alt),  or  "Kok's 
ham  "  for  Cockerham  (on  the  Cocker),  or  "  the  middle  valley  "  for  Mythop, 
though  the  place  stands  on  a  slight  elevation  in  flat,  marshy  country.  Professor 
Wyld  has  also  overlooked  the  fact  that  the  different  parts  of  Lancashire 
show  much  variety  as  regards  dialectal  development.  The  etymologies  of 
Scandinavian  names,  as  pointed  out  by  Bjorkman,  are  open  to  a  good  deal  of 

John  Sephton's  "Handbook  of  Lancashire  Place-Names"  appeared  in 
1913.  Mr.  Sephton  evidently  possessed  intimate  familiarity  with  Lancashire 
topography.  He  corrects  several  of  the  mistakes  in  Wyld's  book.  But  his  book 
has  certain  shortcomings.  It  gives  very  few  early  forms,  in  the  case  of  some 
names  none  at  all.  While  some  etymologies  testify  to  sound  judgment,  others 
show  plainly  that  their  author  was  not  a  trained  etymologist.  He  derives  the 
first  element  of  Cuerdale  from  Germanic  war,  wcer,  etc. ;  that  of  Grassendale 
from  a  personal  name  Gcer,  Ger\  that  of  Bartle  from  a  personal  name  Berchta  ; 
that  of  Edenfield  from  Gaelic  eadanan,  to  mention  some  few  obvious  cases. 
Yet  with  its  shortcomings  Sephton's  book  is  undoubtedly  a  valuable  con- 

The  three  monographs,  in  my  opinion,  by  no  means  exhaust  the  difficult  and 
interesting  subject.  A  very  great  deal  still  remains  to  be  done  in  the  field  of 
Lancashire  place-names.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  evident  that  it  is  not  necessary 
to  deal  with  all  names  equally  fully.  Names  that  have  already  been  on  the 
whole  satisfactorily  explained  may  be  dealt  with  briefly.  I  am,  of  course,  not 
alluding  here  only  to  the  three  monographs  mentioned,  but  also  to  the  important 
contributions  of  other  scholars,  as  Mr.  Collingwood,  who  in  "  Thorstein  of  the 
Mere  "  (1895),  and  "  The  Report  of  the  Barrow  Naturalists'  Field  Club,"  Vol.  xi. 


(1896),  gives  the  correct  explanation  of  many  Scandinavian  names  in  Furness, 
and  whose  later  publications  contain  many  suggestions  of  great  value ;  or  Dr. 
Harald  Lindkvist,  who  in  his  important  work  on  Scandinavian  names  in 
England  gives  the  final  etymology  of  numerous  Lancashire  place-names  of 
Scandinavian  origin  ;  or  Dr.  Bradley,  who  in  his  various  publications  on  place- 
names  (esp.  his  review  of  Wyld)  has  dealt  with  several  Lancashire  names. 

Concerning  the  relation  between  the  present  study  and  its  predecessors  an 
additional  remark  may  be  made.  I  have  not  as  a  rule  considered  it  necessary 
to  subject  to  criticism  etymologies  suggested  by  previous  workers  but  not 
adopted  by  me.  Nor  have  I  deemed  it  obligatory  always  to  point  out  that  an 
etymology  given  has  already  been  suggested  before.  In  the  case  of  etymologies 
practically  self-evident  in  the  light  of  the  early  material  this  would  be  meaning- 
less. It  is  different  with  etymologies  that  do  not  immediately  suggest  them- 
selves. In  the  case  of  such  I  often  point  out  where  I  have  first  seen  it  suggested, 
even  if  I  had  already  found  it  independently.  And,  of  course,  I  acknowledge 
my  indebtedness  when  I  have  actually  adopted  an  etymology  from  a  previous 
investigator.  I  may  be  allowed  to  point  out  here  that  I  had  devoted  a  good  deal 
of  time  to  the  study  of  Lancashire  place-names  before  the  books  of  Wyld, 
Sephton,  and  Lindkvist  appeared. 

On  the  Plan  and  Scope  of  the  Present  Study 

The  book  aims  at  including  (1)  all  names  of  parishes  and  townships ;  (2)  of  other 
names  such  as  are  now  or  were  till  recently  in  use  and  have  been  found  in  early 
sources,  provided  they  offer  sufficient  interest ;  (3)  of  names  now  lost  only  such 
as  seem  to  be  particularly  interesting.  Names  not  found  in  early  sources  are 
generally  omitted. 

Practical  considerations  have  rendered  it  impossible  to  give  the  whole  of 
the  material.  It  has  been  necessary  to  make  a  selection:  Of  names  falling  under 
heading  (2)  the  leading  principle  has  been  to  deal  first  of  all  with  such  as  need 
explanation  and  such  as  denote  fairly  important  places.  Names  etymologically 
more  or  less  transparent  are  sometimes  included  because  they  are  needed  as 
illustration  of  the  types  of  names  used  in  the  district.  Of  course,  names  found  in 
mediaeval  sources  have  been  preferred  to  those  found  only  from  the  16th  century 
or  later,  but  frequently  names  recorded  comparatively  late  have  been  con- 
sidered sufficiently  important  to  be  included.  In  many  cases  the  late  appearance 
of  names  in  the  sources  is  due  simply  to  the  fact  that  the  early  material  is  scanty. 
This  is  particularly  the  case  with  the  Cartmel  and  part  of  the  Furness  districts. 

The  study  is  based  on  an  examination  of  practically  the  whole  of  the  early 
material  accessible  in  print.  Of  course,  it  is  quite  possible  that  I  have  overlooked 
some  sources.  Of  the  early  forms  collected  only  a  selection  is  included  in  the 
material.  I  have  as  far  as  possible  avoided  giving  examples  already  adduced 
by  previous  investigators ;  this  book  and  its  predecessors  will,  therefore,  to 


some  extent  supplement  each  other.  Of  course,  when  a  different  etymology 
is  suggested,  it  has  often  been  necessary  to  abandon  this  principle.  And  in 
several  cases  few  early  forms  are  on  record.  I  have,  of  course,  given  preference 
to  early  forms  found  in  original  sources,1  but  often  the  only  ones  available  are 
those  in  the  transcripts  found  in  monastic  chartularies  or  similar  sources.  Forms 
from  late  sources,  e.g.,  from  parish  registers,  have  been  adopted  chiefly  to 
illustrate  dialectal  sound-changes. 

The  aim  is  to  offer  not  only  a  phonetically  acceptable  explanation  of  each 
name,  but  to  determine  as  nearly  as  possible  the  exact  etymology.  The  chief 
means  at  our  disposal,  besides  a  careful  examination  of  the  early  material  and 
a  comparative  study  of  the  place-names  of  other  districts,  are  the  following  two. 
The  situation  of  a  place  often  gives  a  clue  to  the  etymology  of  its  name.  A  study 
of  the  special  features  of  the  place-nomenclature  of  a  district  often  gives  valuable 
results.  Thus  the  frequency  of  Scandinavian  names  varies  from  district  to 
district ;  for  a  name  found  in  a  district  where  Scandinavian  names  are  rare 
English  origin  is  most  probable,  while  Scandinavian  origin  is  plausible  in  dis- 
tricts where  undoubtedly  Scandinavian  names  abound.  To  take  an  example, 
Rainford  and  Rainhill  have  probably  an  English  first  element,  for  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood Scandinavian  names  are  extremely  scarce.  The  nature  of  a  first 
element  may  often  be  practically  settled  by  an  examination  of  the  relative 
frequency  with  which  different  kinds  of  first  elements  (personal  names,  descriptive 
common  nouns,  etc.)  are  combined  with  a  certain  element.  For  instance,  tun 
has  mostly  a  descriptive  common  noun,  often  a  tree-name,  as  first  element. 
It  is,  therefore,  improbable  that  the  common  name  Ashton  should  have  as 
first  theme  the  rare  O.E.  personal  name  Msc.  Some  English  words  are  found  to 
be  practically  always  combined  with  English,  some  Scandinavian  words  prac- 
tically always  with  Scandinavian  first  elements,  while  others  frequently  appear 
in  hybrids. 

Particularly  helpful  is,  in  my  opinion,  the  light  thrown  on  the  etymology 
of  place-names  by  a  study  of  the  topography  of  places.  For  this  reason  informa- 
tion concerning  the  situation  of  places  will  be  given  very  frequently,  and  to 

1  In  some  works  on  place-names  lately  published  forms  not  found  in  original  sources  are 
marked  by  an  obelus  or  some  such  sign.  I  have  considered  the  advisability  of  making  a 
similar  distinction  between  forms  found  in  original  sources  and  forms  that  are  not.  However, 
it  is  difficult  to  carry  through  such  a  distinction,  as  it  is  not  always  easy  to  determine  if  early 
documents  are  genuine  or  not.  Besides,  I  think  this  distinction  is  of  considerable  practical 
importance  only  in  the  case  of  forms  from  O.E.  charters,  and  hardly  any  Lancashire  charters 
from  O.E.  time  are  extant.  Obviously,  forms  found  in  transcripts  (especially  late  ones)  of 
original  documents  must  be  used  with  some  caution,  but  on  the  whole  I  have  the  impression 
that  scribes  (for  instance,  those  of  monastic  chartularies)  at  least  attempted  to  render  their 
originals  faithfully. 

Some  of  the  most  important  sources  of  early  forms  of  Lancashire  place-names  are  monastic 
chartularies  or  similar  collections,  which  mostly  contain  transcripts  of  documents,  e.g.,  the 
early  Lancashire  Charters  published  by  Dr.  Farrer  (Ch)  and  those  referred  to  as  CC,  FC,  LC. 
The  forms  quoted  from  these,  unless  the  contrary  is  stated,  are  taken  from  transcripts,  not 
from  original  documents. 


an  extent  unparalleled  in  earlier  works  on  English  place-names.  In  many 
cases  the  exact  etymology  cannot  be  established  without  such  information. 
To  take  one  example :  the  common  element  den  (in  Clayden,  Denton)  may  be 
O.E.  denu  "  valley,"  or  denn  "  swine-pasture  "  (or  in  Denton,  also  O.E.  Lena 
"  of  Danes  ").  If  a  place  with  such  a  name  is  found  to  be  situated  in  a  valley, 
we  may  be  fairly  sure  that  den  is  denu  "  valley."  In  other  cases  a  topographical 
examination  will  contribute  to  a  more  exact  knowledge  of  the  meaning  of  place- 
name  elements,  as  O.E.  eg,  halh,  heafod,  hop,  hoh,  twisla.  In  the  case  of  names 
given  without  reference  to  the  situation  of  places  (as  Abram,  Aldingham) 
information  concerning  topography  is  in  itself  unnecessary,  but  even  in  such 
cases  a  hint  as  to  the  situation  may  be  useful. 

For  the  purpose  of  finding  out  the  situation  of  places  I  have  made  diligent 
use  of  maps,  especially  the  Ordnance  Survey  six-inch  and  one-inch  maps,  and 
the  valuable  special  maps  found  in  the  Victoria  History  of  Lancaster.  I  have 
derived  much  help  from  the  topographical  descriptions  found  in  the  last- 
mentioned  work.  I  have  also  had  an  opportunity  of  studying  Lancashire 
topography  on  the  spot  during  my  visits  to  Lancashire  in  the  summers  of  1920 
and  1921.  I  made  it  my  object,  in  those  visits,  to  acquire  a  general  familiarity 
with  the  topography  of  the  various  parts  of  the  county  and  to  examine  the 
situation  of  places  whose  names  offer  particular  difficulties.  At  least  in  some 
cases  such  observations  on  the  spot  have,  in  my  opinion,  rendered  a  final 
etymology  possible. 

It  should  be  added,  however,  that  in  the  case  of  Lancashire  place-names, 
which — with  very  few  exceptions — are  not  recorded  in  O.E.  forms,  a  final 
etymology  can  frequently  not  be  attained.  It  is  often  necessary  to  give  two  or 
more  alternative  explanations,  and  in  some  cases  no  definite  suggestion  can  be 

The  purpose  of  the  present  study  is  not  exclusively  etymological.  It  aims 
at  giving  a  fairly  accurate  idea  of  the  distribution  of  name-types  and  names  of 
various  provenance,  and  thereby  at  throwing  light  on  the  early  history  of  the 
county,  the  distribution  of  the  population,  the  survival  of  a  Celtic  element,  the 
Scandinavian  immigration,  etc.  Questions  of  this  kind  are  discussed  chiefly 
in  the  Summary. 

In  the  material  names  are  given  in  a  geographical  arrangement.  This  has 
the  disadvantage  that  it  will  be  necessary  to  consult  the  Index  to  find  a  name 
required.  On  the  other  hand,  the  arrangement  chosen,  which  agrees  on  the 
whole  with  that  usual  in  works  on  Scandinavian  place-names,  seems  to  me  to 
have  obvious  advantages.  It  is,  in  my  opinion,  unsatisfactory  to  deal  with 
the  Lancashire  place-names,  which  show  so  much  variety  from  an  etymological 
point  of  view,  in  an  alphabetical  order.  To  judge  of  many  etymologies,  it  is 
of  importance  to  be  able  to  find  out  the  general  characteristics  of  the  place- 
nomenclature  of  the  neighbourhood.  With  the  arrangement  adopted  the 
material  forms  a  convenient  basis  for  the  discussions  and  conclusions  in  the 


Summary.  Information  on  topography  can  be  given  much,  more  briefly  and 
yet  much  more  satisfactorily.  The  space  saved  under  this  head  makes  up  for 
the  extra  space  involved  by  the  Index. 

Under  each  hundred1  the  names  of  rivers,  hills,  and  lakes  are  given  first. 
The  division  into  parishes,  as  being  in  most  cases  convenient  and  practical,  is, 
on  the  whole,  followed,  though  not  rigidly.  Under  each  township  names  of 
minor  places  are  usually  arranged  alphabetically.  Salford  and  Blackburn 
hundreds,  which  have  a  practically  English  place-nomenclature,  are  placed 
first.  Then  follow  West  Derby,  Leyland,  Amounderness,  and  Lonsdale  hundreds. 
The  general  idea  has  been  to  proceed  from  South  to  North  ;  yet  in  the  case  of 
Blackburn  hundred,  where  the  oldest  settlements  seem  to  be  in  the  Northern 
part,  a  somewhat  different  plan  is  followed. 

A  numeral  is  placed  before  the  name  of  each  township,  an  exception  being 
made  only  in  the  case  of  one-township  parishes.  This  numeral,  which  is  really 
added  for  practical  purposes,  to  show  where  one  township  ends  and  another 
begins,  at  the  same  time  indicates  that  the  place  is  a  township,  and  consequently 
in  the  majority  of  cases  an  old  manor  and  vill.  If  names  denote  villages  or 
hamlets  a  statement  to  the  effect  (v.,  h.)  is  added.  Where  no  indication  as  to 
the  status  of  a  place  is  given  it  may  generally  be  taken  for  granted  that  the 
name  designates  an  estate  or  a  farm. 

In  this  place  I  feel  it  a  duty  to  acknowledge  gratefully  the  inestimable  help 
I  have  derived  from  that  storehouse  of  information  on  Lancashire  topography 
and  history,  the  Victoria  History  of  the  County  of  Lancaster,  not  only  in  the 
arrangement  of  the  material,  but  in  many  other  directions.  It  is  a  pleasure  to 
testify  to  the  wealth  of  its  material,  the  accuracy  of  its  information,  and  the 
intimate  familiarity  with  Lancashire  history  and  topography  evidenced  by  its 

In  the  course  of  my  visits  to  Lancashire  I  have  made  it  my  object  also  to 
collect  local  pronunciations  of  place-names.  I  want  to  point  out  here  that  the 
material  collected  is  somewhat  uneven.  Some  of  the  forms  given  represent  the 
educated  local  rather  than  the  "  broad  "  Lancashire  pronunciation.  The  forms 
do  not  claim  to  render  nice  shades  of  pronunciation.  To  get  exactly  correct 
forms  it  would  be  necessary  to  study  the  various  Lancashire  dialects  carefully. 
Sometimes  the  forms  will  be  found  to  differ  from  those  recorded  by  Ellis.  One 
important  reason  for  this  is,  I  believe,  that  the  pronunciation  of  names  has 
changed  in  the  last  few  decades. 

The  forms  given  lay  no  claim  to  being  the  only  ones  used.    They  are  those 

1  Lancashire,  from  early  mediaeval  times,  has  been  divided  into  six  hundreds  :  Salford, 
Blackburn,  West  Derby,  Leyland,  Amounderness,  Lonsdale.  At  the  time  of  the  Conquest  a 
slightly  different  division  was  recognized. 

The  division  at  present  recognized  is,  on  the  whole,  followed  in  this  book.  The  only 
deviation  of  any  importance  is  the  following  :  Under  Amounderness  I  deal  also  with  the  parts 
belonging  to  it  at  the  time  of  the  Conquest,  but  later  joined  to  Blackburn  and  Lonsdale 
respectively.  The  reason  is  that  these  parts  belong  geographically  to  Amounderness,  this 
being  originally  the  district  between  the  Kibble  and  the  Cocker. 


I  have  heard  myself  from  inhabitants  of  the  places  or  persons  living  in  the 
neighbourhood,  during  my  rambles  or  journeys  through  the  county.  In  this 
field  much  remains  to  be  done.  After  all,  I  do  not  think  the  testimony  of  the 
modern  pronunciation  is,  on  the  whole,  of  very  great  value  for  etymological 
purposes.  At  any  rate,  my  own  experience  has  brought  me  to  the  conviction 
that  place-names  are  influenced  to  a  greater  extent  than  other  words  by  spelling- 
pronunciation.  Seventeenth-  or  eighteenth-century  spellings  and  forms  from 
dialect-literature  of  the  last  century  are  really  more  valuable  as  evidence  of  the 
genuine  local  pronunciation  than  the  modern  spoken  forms.  At  the  same  time 
I  readily  admit  that  sometimes  the  modern  forms  are  of  value  for  etymological 
purposes,  and  they  have  considerable  intrinsic  interest. 

Elements  Found  in  Lancashire  Place-Names 

This  section  deals  chiefly  with  the  elements  found  as  the  second  part  of  place-names. 
Those  occurring  as  the  first  part  are,  as  a  rule,  easily  found  by  the  help  of  the  Index  at  the 
end  of  the  book.  It  is  meant  as  a  supplement  to  the  Index,  giving  information  as  to  the 
frequency  and  distribution  of  the  various  elements.  Absolute  completeness  is  aimed  at  only 
as  regards  the  more  important  elements,  such  as  -ham,  -tun,  -worp,  etc. 

This  section  has  been  considered  the  best  place  for  a  discussion  of  the  etymology  and 
meaning  of  commonly  occurring  elements,  and  in  the  material  references  are  frequently 
given  to  it. 

In  the  case  of  more  important  elements  a  brief  survey  is  given  of  the  various  kinds  of 
first  elements  combined  with  them  (personal  names,  descriptive  common  nouns,  adjectives, 
etc.).  It  has  also  been  considered  important  to  point  out  if  and  to  what  extent  elements 
occur  in  hybrid  formations.  It  will  be  seen  that  hybrid  formations  in  the  case  of  most  elements 
are  by  no  means  very  common. 

O.N.  &  "  river,  stream  "  :    Greeta  SLo,  Brathay,  perhaps  Eea,  Cunsey,  Eauthey  NLo. 

O.E.  ac  "  oak  "  :  Shorrock  Bl,  Broad-,  Graveoak,  Laffog,  Mossock  De,  Harrock  Le ; 
Aighton  Bl  (Am),  Aughton  De,  Akefrith  SLo,  Ogden  Sa,  Oglet  De,  etc. 

O.E.  secer,  O.N.  akr  "  cultivated  field."  The  first  el.  is  Scandinavian  in  Hose-,  Stirz-, 
Tarnacre,  perh.  Barn-,  Stansacre,  Am.  It  is  mostly  English,  being  a  common  noun  (Cliviger 
Bl,  Linacre,  Shurlacres,  Waddicar  De,  Woodacre  Am) ;  or  an  adj.  (Whitaker  Bl,  Kenacres 

O.E.  sern  "  house  "  :  Hordern  Sa,  Hardhorn  Am. 

O.N.  afnam:  see  Avenham  Am. 

O.E.  alor  "  alder "  :  Cobhouse,  Lightollers  Sa,  Wycoller  Bl ;  OUerton  Le,  perhaps 
Allerton  De. 

O.E.  angel  or  O.N.  Qngull  "  hook " :  see  Ovangle  SLo. 

O.E.  *anger  "pasture"  or  O.N.  angr  "bay"  :   Angram  Bl,  Angerton  NLo. 

O.E.  bsec,  O.N.  bak  "  back  "  :  see  Bacup  Bl,  Backbarrow  Lo. 

O.E.  balg  adj.  (prob.  in  balgandun  704-9  BCS  123),  M.E.  balgh  (ball  ben  Gaw.)  "  rounded  ; 
smooth  "  :  Balladen  Sa,  Ballam  Am.  Cf .  the  lost  name  Balshaw  (Spotland  Sa) :  de  Balghschae 
1296  Lacy  C,  de  Balschagh  1311  LI.  The  same  name  formerly  occurred  in  Ainsworth  Sa 
(Balshahe  c  1200  CC)  and  Ditton  De  (de  Balsagh  1246  LAR). 

?  O.E.  ball  :  cf.  Cabus  Am. 

M.E.  banke<O.N.  bakM(<*banki),  O.Dan,  banke,  "bank,  ridge."  In  Lane,  place-names 
bank  mostly  means  "  hill "  :  Roughbank,  Windy  Bank  Sa,  Pickup  Bank,  Yate  Bank  Bl, 
Dove  Bank,  Haws  Bank,  Speel  Bank,  Tottlebank  (2)  NLo.  Another  meaning  is  "  sea-shore  " 
or  "  bank  of  a  river  "  :  Halebank  De,  Kent's  Bank  NLo,  Bank  Hall  (various).  The  first  el. 
of  names  in  -bank  is  mostly  English. 

O.E.  bearo  "  grove  "  :   Bare  SLo,  Barrow  Bl,  De,  Longbarrow  De. 

O.N.  bekkr  "  brook  "  :   Eller  Beck  De,  Artlebeck,  Cant  Beck,  Escow-   Harterbeck  SLo, 


Grize-,  Hole-,  Roosebeck,  etc.,  NLo.  The  first  el.  is  mostly  Scandinavian ;  it  is  a  pers.  n. 
in  Artlebeek. 

O.E.  beonet  "  bent  "  :   Chequerbent  Sa,  Chowbent  De. 

O.E.  beorh,  O.N.  berg  "  hill."  The  greater  part  of  the  names  seem  to  have  a  Scand.  first 
el.  and  to  be  of  Scand.  origin  :  Firber  Bl,  Aigburth,  Mossborough  De,  Birkland  Barrow, 
Cringle-,  Scaleber  SLo,  Ella-,  Hart-,  How-,  Latter-,  Leg-,  Quernbarrow  NLo  ;  cf.  also  Crosse- 
berg,  Struteberg  (O.N.  strutr  "  peak  of  a  cap  "),  Sorithsteinberg  (for  South-)  1202  LF  (Lo). 
Here  perhaps  belongs  Habergham  Bl. 

O.E.  beretun,  berewic  "  barton  "  (see  Barton  Sa  p.  38) :  Barton  Sa,  De,  Am,  perh.  Pem- 
berton  De  ;  Berwick  SLo. 

M.E.  bigging  "  dwelUng -place  ;  cottage  "  (from  big  "  to  build  ;  to  dwell  "<O.N.  byggia) : 
Newbigging  Am,  NLo. 

Early  Mn.E.  borwen,  burian  "  cairn,"  see  Burwains  Bl. 

O.N.  bot  "  piece,"  see  Laithbutts  SLo. 

O.N.  botn  "  bottom  "  etc.,  see  Botton  SLo. 

O.Dan,  bdj),  O.N.  btid  "  booth,"  Engl.  dial,  booth  "  a  cow-house,  a  herdsman's  hut " 
(Yks.,  Lane.).  Names  in  -booth  are  found  chiefly  in  the  hilly  districts  of  Bl.  :  Goldshaw 
Booth,  Haw-,  Oozebooth,  Higher,  Lower  Booths,  etc.,  Bl ;  Dunnishbooth,  Booths  Hall  Sa. 
The  first  el.  is  often  English.  The  O.N.  form  bud  is  found  only  in  Lo  :  Bouth  (2),  Rulbuth 

O.E.  *b6pl,  bold,  botl  "  dwelling,  house,  palace  "  :  Bold  De  ;  Newbold  Sa,  Parbold  Le  ; 
Bootle  De,  Fordbottle  NLo.  Bolton  contains  *bo}>L  Very  likely  O.E.  *bopltun  had  a 
special  technical  meaning  ;  we  may  perhaps  compare  O.Swed.  bolbyr  "  the  village  proper  "  in 
contradistinction  to  umceghur  "  outlying  land  "  (Hellquist,  Ortnamn  pa  -by,  p.  19).  On  the 
different  forms  of  the  O.E.  word  (bopl,  botl,  bold)  see  Anglia-Beiblatt1  28,  p.  82fl. 

O.E.  *bopm,  botm  "  bottom,"  M.E.  bothem,  also  "  valley,  deU,"  etc.  :  Oaken-,  Rams-, 
Shilling-,  Shipperbottom  Sa. 

O.N.  brekka,  Norw.  dial,  brekka  f.,  brekk  m.  "  slope,  hill "  :  Breck,  Scarisbrick,  Walton 
Breck,  Warbreck  De,  Limbrick  Le,  Esprick,  Larbrick,  Mowbrick,  Norbreck,  Swarbrick, 
Warbreck  Am,  Brantbeck,  Eden-,  Inglebreck,  Norbrick  SLo,  Sunbrick  NLo.  The  first  el. 
apparently  is  or  may  be  Scandinavian  in  all  cases.  In  Brownbrinks  Bl  a  form  without 
assimilation  (O.N.  brekka  <  *brinka)  appears. 

O.E.  broc  "  brook  "  :  Corn-,  Cringle-,  Ellenbrook,  Gilda  Brook,  Gore  Brook  Sa,  Glaze-, 
Holbrook,  Tarbock  De,  Sid  Brook,  Warth  Brook  Le,  Swill  Brook  Am,  Lucy  Brook,  Rowton 
Brook,  Tarnbrook  SLo. 

O.E.  bra  "  brow,"  later  "  projecting  edge  of  a  cliff  ;  a  slope  "  :  Chantry  Brow  Sa,  Mere 
Brow  Le. 

O.E.  bryce,  see  Bruche  De. 

O.E.  brycg  "  bridge  "  :  Bamber  Bridge  Bl,  Tawdbridge  De,  Walnter  Bridge  Le,  Dowbridge 
Am,  Cowan  Bridge  SLo,  Haybridge,  Newby  Bridge  NLo. 

O.E.  burh  "  fortified  place ;  town,"  etc.  The  exact  meaning  is  often  doubtful.  It  is 
sometimes  "  fort,"  as  in  Burrow  SLo  (2),  Arbury  De,  cf.  Tilberthwaite  NLo  ;  sometimes 
"borough,"  as  in  Flookborough  NLo  (first  el.  Scand.),  ? Littleborough  Sa,  Newburgh  De. 
A  meaning  "  manor  "  is  probable  sometimes  when  the  first  el.  is  a  pers.  n.,  as  Didsbury  Sa, 
Duxbury  Le,  Bilsborrow  Am.  Other  examples  are  :  Pendlebury  Sa,  Sales-,  Samlesbury 
Bl,  Bury  Sa,  De,  Burgh  Le  ;  Broughton  Sa,  Burscough  De.  On  Burton  see  under  Broughton 
Sa,  p.  32. 

O.E.  *burh,  M.E.  borow  "  burrow  "  :  Badsberry  Am,  Musburv  Sa  :  cf.  Swineburyheuid 
c  1200  CC  342  (Forton). 

O.E.  burna  "  stream,  brook  "  :  Burn  Am,  Black-,  Chat-,  Hyndburn  Bl,  Golborne  De, 
Perburn  Le,  Cowburn  Am,  Hind-,  Roeburn,  Ludder  Burn  NLo. 

O.E.  byht  "  bend  "  :   Sidebeet  Bl. 

O.N.  byr,  beer  "  homestead  ;  village  ;  town,"  O.Dan,  by  "  village,  town  "  :  Cross-,  Der-, 
Form-,  Greet-,  Kirk-,  Roby  De,  Aschebi,  Nate-,  Rib-,  Sower-,  Westby  Am,  Horn-,  Ire-, 
Thirnby  SLo,  Birk-,  Kirk-  (2),  Sowerby  NLo.  Cf.  [Birstath]  Bryning,  Byrewath  Am.  The 

1  The  suggestion  made  in  this  article  that  the  regular  Northumbrian  form  was  one  with 
a  long  vowel  is  corroborated  by  the  pronunciation  [birol,  blind  bu-al]  for  Bothel,  Blindbothel, 


word  is  always  combined  with  elements  that  are  or  may  be  Scandinavian.  The  first  el.  is 
mostly  a  common  noun  or  a  personal  or  national  name.  These  names  as  a  rule  denote  fairly 
important  places. 

O.E.  byre  "  cow-house  "  :  Byrom  De. 

O.E.  ceaster,  csester  "  a  city  or  walled  town,"  originally  one  that  had  been  a  Roman 
station  :  Man-,  Ribchester,  Lancaster. 

O.N.  kelda  "  spring,  well  " :    Calkeld,  Kellet  SLo,  Trinkeld  NLo. 

O.N.  kiarr  "  brushwood,"  Norw.  kjerr,  kjarr  "  wet  ground,  esp.  where  brushwood  grows  ; 
brushwood,"  M.E.  kerr.  The  meaning  in  Lane,  names  seems  to  be  "  fen  or  bog,  especially 
overgrown  with  bushes."  The  first  el.  is  often  English,  as  in  Dunscar  Bl,  Bescar,  Hopecarr 
De.  Other  examples  :  Hall  Carr  Bl,  Alt-car,  Barker,  Hoscar  De,  Riscar,  Sower  Carr  Am, 
Holker  NLo. 

O.E.  cirice  "  church  "  :   Church  Bl,  Newchurch  Bl,  De. 

O.N.  kirkia  "  church  "  :  Ormskirk  De,  Bradkirk  Am.  Of.  Kirkby,  etc.  To  some  extent 
kirk-  may  have  supplanted  O.E.  cirice,  as  in  Kirkham,  Bradkirk  Am.  Kirk-  is,  in  my  opinion, 
always  a  Scand.  form  ;  cf.  Scandinavians,  p.  48.  That  kirk  is  Scandinavian  in  names  found 
S.  of  the  Ribble  is  obvious,  for  here  palatalization  of  O.E.  c  is  very  well  evidenced  (Childwall, 
Chorley,  Church,  etc.).  No  certain  examples  either  of  palatalization  or  non-palatalization  of 
O.E.  c-  before  e,  i  are  found  N.  of  the  Ribble,  except  in  Bl  N.  of  the  Ribble  (Chipping, 
Ribchester).  But,  in  my  opinion,  palatalization  of  O.E.  c  must  have  taken  place  in  all  dialects 
initially  before  i,  e,  ea,  eo  and  medially  at  least  before  j  ;  this  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  in 
the  earliest  M.E.  Northern  text  words  such  as  chide,  chicken,  child,  cheap,  cheek,  leche,  wrecchet 
always  have  ch.  Exceptions  such  as  Keswick,  Kildwick  are  due  to  Scand.  influence.  Cf. 
Anglia-Beiblatt  30,  p.  224,  and  Gevenich,  Die  englische  Palatalisierung  von  k>5  im  Lichte 
der  englischen  Ortsnamen  (Halle  1918). 

O.N.  kleif  "hill-side":   see  Claife  NLo. 

O.E.  clif  "  a  cliff,  especially  on  the  sea  shore,"  M.E.  clif,  Mod.  Engl.  cliff  also  "  a  steep 
slope,  a  declivity,  a  hill."  The  latter  appears  to  be  the  usual  meaning  in  Lane,  names  ;  the 
sense  "  rock  "  seems  certain  in  Radcliffe  Sa.  Other  examples  :  Horncliffe,  Rockliffe,  Stani-, 
Tonacliffe  Sa,  Briercliffe,  Cunlifife,  Finiscliffe  Bl,  Aid-,  An-,  Oxcliffe  SLo,  Baycliff  NLo.  The 
first  el.  is  French  in  Castercliff  Bl,  Scaitcliffe  Sa,  Bl.  Rawcliff e  Am  has  a  Scand.  first  el. ;  the 
second  may  very  well  be  O.N.  klif  (Swed.  kliv)  "  steep  hill." 

"O.E.  cldh  "  a  ravine  or  valley  with  steep  sides,  usually  forming  the  bed  of  a  stream  "  : 
Cowclough  Sa,  Deadwin  Clough,  Love  Clough,  Meer  Clough,  Sow  Clough  Bl,  Hawksclough 
De  ;  cf.  Clougha,  Swaintley  Hill  SLo. 

M.E.  clos  (<O.F.  clos)  "  enclosure  "  :  Filly  Close,  West  Close  Bl. 

M.E.  knot  "  a  hill  "  from  O.E.  cnotta  "  knot  "  or  O.N.  knpttr  "  hill  "  (in  place-names) ; 
cf.  Scandinavians,  p.  40  :  Knott  End  Am,  Blow  Knott  or  Blawith  Knott  NLo  (a  hill). 

O.E.  copp  "  top,  summit,"  prob.  also  "  hill "  :  Copp  Am,  Coppull  Le,  Pickup  Bl  (2), 
Cross  Copp  SLo. 

O.E.  cot  n.,  cote  f .  "  a  small  house,  cottage  "  ;  M.E.  cot,  cote,  also  "  a  small  erection  for 
shelter,  as  for  sheep."  Perhaps  O.E.  cot,  like  cot-Kf,  also  meant  "  a  manor  "  ;  cf.  Prescot. 
Examples  :  Ancoats  Sa,  Alkin-,  Coldcoats,  Huncoat  Bl,  Cottam  Am.  In  NLo  -cote  usually 
means  "  a  sheep-cote  "  :  the  source  is  here  very  likely  O.N.  kot  "  a  hut,"  common  in  Icel. 
names.  The  first  el.,  except  in  Idlecote  and  possibly  Hawcoat,  seems  to  be  a  place-name  : 
Billing-,  Ireleth-,  Roose-,  Waltoncote. 

M.E.  crag  "rock  "  (Ir.-Gael.  creag  or  Brit,  crag1) :  Craggs  Bl,  Ellel  Crag,  Crag  House 
SLo,  Buckcrag,  Groffa  Crag,  Whelpshead  Crag  NLo. 

O.E.  cranoc  "  crane  "  :  Cranshaw  De,  Cronkshaw  Bl. 

O.E.  croft  "  a  piece  of  enclosed  ground  used  for  tillage  or  pasture  ;  a  small  piece  of  arable 
land  adjacent  to  a  house  "  :  Age-,  Massey-,  Scowcroft  Sa,  Barcroft  Bl,  Croft,  Flit-,  Hoi-, 
Martins-,  Wolfscroft  De,  Brimmicroft  Le.  The  names  denote  comparatively  small  places. 

O.Ir.  cross  (>O.N.  kross,  late  O.E.  cros)  "  cross  "  :  Norcross  Am,  Askelescros  SLo  ;  cf. 
Crosby,  etc.  Engl.  cross  was  probably  adopted  chiefly  from  Scand.  kross. "\ 

O.E.  eumb  "  a  deep  hollow  or  valley  "  :  Cowm,  Holcombe  Sa,  perh.  Compton  Am. 

O.E.  dsel,  O.N.  dalr  "  valley."  It  is  impossible  to  decide  with  certainty  to  what  extent 
dale,  in  Lane,  names  is  English  or  Scandinavian.  There  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  dcel  was  in 

1  Cf.  Forster,  Keltisches  Wortgut  im  Englischen  (1921)  p.  126f. 


living  use  in  early  O.E.  time  in  dialects,  and  that  names  such  as  Rossendale,  Rochdale, 
Dalton,  Dallam  may  be  English.  On  the  other  hand,  names  in  -dale  often  have  a  Scand. 
first  el.,  as  Skelmers-,  Birk-,  Kirkdale  De,  Ulvesdale  Le,  Bleasdale  Am,  Grizedale  Am,  NLo, 
Ewe  Dale  NLo  ;  many  names  in  -dale  are  no  doubt  Scandinavian.  The  first  el.  of  names  in 
-dale  is  frequently  a  river-name,  as  Wyresdale  Am,  Lons-,  Roeburndale  SLo,  perhaps  Dunner- 
dale  NLo.  Other  names  in  -dale  are  :  Ains-,  Drummers-,  Grassendale  De,  Oxendale  Bl, 
Chippingdale  Bl  (Am),  Deepdale  Am,  Little-,  Mallow-,  Silverdale  SLo,  Lindal,  Lin-,  Yewdale 

O.E.  denu  "  a  vale,  especially  the  deep,  narrow,  and  wooded  vale  of  a  rivulet."  This  is 
obviously  the  meaning  of  -den  in  Lane,  names.  The  el.  is  very  common  in  Sa  and  Bl,  but 
rare  in.  other  hundreds  :  Cokerdene  Le,  Huntingdon  and  Ragden  Bl  (Am),  Duxendean  Am, 
perh.  Duddon  NLo.  The  first  el.  of  names  in  -den  is  as  a  rule  of  English  origin ;  possible 
exceptions  are  those  of  Ragden,  Naden,  Ravden.  It  is  mostly  a  common  noun,  as  in  Buck-, 
Burn-,  Clay-,  Dear-,  Harsen-,  Mos-,  Og-,  Sladen  Sa,  Asp-,  Baxen-,  Cock-,  Hen-,  Mars-,  Mus-, 
Stan-,  Swin-,  Trawden  Bl.  It  is  a  pers.  n.  in  e.g.  Bors-,  Pigs-,  Walsden  Sa,  Bottin,  Hoddlesden, 
Ogden  Bl ;  an  adj.  in  e.g.  Balla-,  Sudden  Sa,  Hasling-,  Hoi-,  Warmden  Bl ;  a  river-name 
perhaps  in  Spodden  Sa,  Cokerdene  Le.  Other  examples  :  A1-,  Ghees-,  Droyls-,  Egbur-,  Goo-, 
Pol-,  Roo-,  Todmor-,  Walk-,  Woolden  Sa,  Crib-,  Knuz-,  Sab-,  Thurs-,  Waiver-,  Wolfenden  Bl, 
Worden  Le. 

O.E.  die  "  ditch  "  :    Ditchfield,  Ditton  De,  Reddish  Sa, 

Engl.  dial,  dub  "  pool "  :   Arnside  Dub  SLo,  St.  Ellen  Dub  NLo. 

O.E.  dun  "  a  hill,"  later  also  "  open  expanse  of  elevated  land  "  :  Quarlton  Sa,  Billington, 
Hameldon  (3)  Bl,  Smithdown  De,  Downham  Bl. 

O.E.  ea  "  river  "  :  Mersey  ;   Ewood  Sa,  Bl ;  perh.  Eea  NLo. 

O.E.  ecg  "  edge,"  M.E.,  Mn.E.  edge  "  the  crest  of  a  sharply  pointed  ridge  ;  ridge,  water- 
shed ;  brink  or  verge,"  also  "  a  steep  hill  or  hillside  "  (EDD).  In  Lane,  place-names  the 
usual  meaning  seems  to  be  "  hill  "  or  "  ridge  "  :  Blackstone  Edge,  Horsedge  Sa,  Revidge 
Bl,  etc.  The  meaning  of  -edge  in  Burna,ge,  Burnedge  Sa,  Brownedge  Bl,  is  not  quite  clear. 
In  Agecroft  Sa,  Edgeworth  Sa,  Egton  Lo,  the  pers.  n.  Ecga  is  also  a  possible  source. 

O.E.  edisc  "  pasture  "  :   Standish  Le. 

O.E.  efes  "  edge  of  a  wood,"  later  also  "  brow  of  a  hill  "  :  Eaves  Le,  Am,  Wicheves  Sa, 
Habergham  Eaves,  Oakeneaves  Bl. 

O.E.  eg,  O.N.  ey  "  island  "  :  Barrow,  Fouldray,  Foulney,  Roa,  Walney  NLo,  all  very 
likely  Scandinavian.  O.E.  eg  must  also,  like  Mn.  dial,  ea,  have  meant  "  a  well- watered 
piece  of  land ;  a  meadow  or  piece  of  ground  near  a  river  partly  surrounded  by  water  " 
(e.g.,  in  Cerotaes  ei  Bede,  now  Chertsey).  This  may  be  the  meaning  of  the  second  el.  of 
Cockney,  Hardy  Sa,  Livesey  Bl,  Finney  Le,  Corner  (Row)  Am,  Bardsea  NLo  :  cf.  also 
Edenfield  Sa.  As  a  field-name  Eea  (Ees)  is  common  in  Lane. 

O.N.  eik  "  oak  "  :    Aigburth  De. 

O.N.  eng  "  meadow  "  :   Mickering  De. 

M.E.  ergh,  argh  "  a  shieling  :  a  (hill)  pasture  ;  a  hut  on  a  pasture  "  from  O.N.  ergr<M.Ir. 
airge  "  a  herd  of  cattle,  dairy,"  Ir.  airghe  "  a  shieling,"  Gael,  airidh  "  a  shieling,  hill  pasture," 
etc.  Cf.  Scandinavians,  p.  74ff.  In  Lancashire  the  el.  is  found  chiefly  N.  of  the  Ribble.  It 
occurs  alone  in  Arkholme  SLo,  perh.  Little  Arrow  NLo.  In  compounds  the  first  part  is  as 
a  rule  undoubtedly  a  Scand.  or  Ir.  pers.  n.  (as  in  Anglezark  Sa,  Goosnargh,  Grimsargh,  Kella- 
mergh,  ?  Dandy  Birks  Am,  Scambler  SLo),  or  a  common  noun  that  at  least  may  be  Scandi- 
navian (Docker,  Salter,  Winder  (2)  SLo,  Stewnor,  Winder  NLo).  Other  examples  or  possible 
examples  are  :  Sholver  Sa,  Aynesargh,  Brettargh  De,  Barker,  Medlar  Am,  Ortner  SLo, 
Bethecar,  Biggar,  Houkler  Hall,  Robsawter,  Torver  NLo.  Some  names  in  -ergh  found  in 
early  sources  are  now  lost ;  cf.  Scandinavians,  p.  74ff. 

O.E.  erj>  "  ploughed  land  "  :   Hengarth  De. 

O.N.  eyrr  "  gravel  bank  "  :  see  Salt  Ayre  SLo. 

O.E.  foelging  "  faUow  land  "  (cf.  babban  fcelinge  849  BCS  455) :  Falinge  Sa,  Falling  De, 
perh.  Haresfinch  De.  Here  belongs  Fallings  (Staffs.)  :  Olde  Falinge  a  1200  (Duignan). 

O.E.  feer  "  passage  "  :  Hollinfare  De.  Some  examples  quoted  by  Jellinghaus,  Angh'a  XX, 
p.  281  (as  O.E.  Lagefare,  Walhfare),  may  belong  here. 

O.E.,  O.N.  fall  :  Woodfall  De,  Threlfall  Am,  Sinkfall  NLo.  The  meaning  in  the  last  two 
is  probably  "  place  where  trees  have  been  felled ;  forest-clearing,"  a  sense  found  in  Norw. 
dialects  and  in  English  names  such  as  Horsfal,  Micklefal,  Monkfal,  which  denoted  inclosures 


from  woodlands  in  the  13th  cent,  in  Balderston  Bl  (VHL  vi.  313).  In  Woodfall  the  meaning 
is  not  so  clear. 

O.E.  fearn  "  fern  "  :  Redfern  Sa. 

O.E.  feld  "  field."  The  meaning  seems  to  be  either  "  a  plain,"  as  probably  in  Fallowfield 
(Heaton)  Sa,  Makerfield  De,  Cantsfield  SLo ;  or  "  common  field  "  as  perhaps  in  Eden-, 
Hundersfield  Sa  ;  or  "  one  of  the  parts  of  the  common  field,"  as  probably  in  Inch-,  Scholefield 
Sa,  Hen-,  Port-,  Saxi-,  Schole-,  Shelfield  Bl,  Ditch-,  Scholefield  De,  but  it  is  impossible  to 
distinguish  neatly  between  the  different  meanings.  Other  examples  :  Bel-,  Fallow-,  Stans-, 
Whitefield  Sa,  Tewhitfield  SLo.  O.E.  gefilde  "  plain  "  :  Fylde  Am. 

O.N.  fell,  fiall  "  fell,  mountain  "  :  Beacon  Fell  Am,  Little  Fell,  Winfold  Fell  SLo,  Cartmel 
Fell,  Furness  FeU,  Hampsfell,  Whinfield  NLo. 

O.N.  flpt  "  level  piece  of  land,"  M.E.  flat  "  a  piece  of  level  ground."  In  Yks.  dialects 
flat  means  particularly  "  one  of  the  divisions  of  a  common  field,  a  shot  or  furlong."  This 
is  no  doubt  the  original  meaning  in  Quarry  Flat,  Tarn  Flat,  Thwaite  Flat  NLo. 

O.E.  ford  "  ford  "  :  Bam-,  Brad-,  Sal-,  Stret-,  Trafford  Sa,  Barrow-,  Horrocks-,  Sharney- 
ford,  Heysandforth  Bl,  Bed-,  Or-,  Rainford  De,  Middleforth,  Rufford  Le,  Cat-,  HoUowforth 
Am,  Cam-,  Scotforth  SLo.  The  form  -forth  is  late.  The  reason  why  it  supplanted  -ford 
in  some  cases  is  not  clear.  Its  late  appearance  tells  against  Scand.  influence.  There  is  a 
tendency  for  final  [p]  and  [d]  to  become  [t] ;  cf.  p.  21f.  Perhaps  [forpj  replaced  [fort]  as  a 
reaction  against  the  change  [p]>[tj. 

O:E.  furlang  "  furlong,"  i.e.,  "  a  division  of  an  unenclosed  field  "  :  Bam-,  Peasfurlong  De. 

O.E.  fyrhj),  gefyrhjte  "  frith,"  i.e.  "  wood,  wooded  country  "  :  Akefrith  SLo,  Frith  NLo, 
Firber  Bl. 

O.E.  gaet,  geat  "  gate  "  :  Wingates  Sa,  Haggate,  Yate  Bank  Bl,  Lydiate  De,  Water 
Yeat  NLo. 

O.N.  gardr  "  yard,  fence,'-'  M.E.  garth  "  a  piece  of  enclosed  ground  used  as  a  yard,  garden, 
or  paddock  ;  a  fence  or  hedge  "  :  Eggergarth  De,  Lingart  Am,  Fleagarth  SLo,  Grassguards, 
Loppergarth  NLo,  Gartside  Sa,  Gascow  NLo.  Occasionally  Engl.  yard  has  replaced  the 
Scand.  word  as  in  Grassyard  SLo.  Sideyard  SLo  may  contain  the  Engl.  word. 

O.N.  gata  "  road  "  :   Ridgate  De,  Galgate  SLo,  Soutergate  NLo. 

O.N.  geil  "  ravine,  narrow  valley  "  :   High  Gale  SLo,  ?  Hasty  Gill  NLo. 

O.N.  gil  "  ravine,  narrow  valley  "  :  Damas  Gill,  Hoi-,  Low-,  Ra-,  Thrush-,  Todgill  SLo, 
Beacons  Gill,  Dane  Ghyll  NLo.  The  first  el.  is  often  Scandinavian. 

O.E.  graef  "  grave  "  :    Orgrave  NLo. 

O.E.  graef,  graf  "  grove,  brushwood,  thicket  "  :  Greaves  Am,  Ramsgreave  Bl,  Tingreave 
Le,  Sidgreaves  Am. 

O.N.  grein  "  branch,"  Engl.  dial,  grain  "  branch  of  a  valley,"  etc.  :  Haslingden  Grane  Bl. 

M.E.  grene,  Mn.E.  green  "  a  common  "  :  Hollins  Green  De,  Dinkling  Green  Bl  (Am). 

O.E.,  O.N.  grund.  Dial,  ground  means,  among  other  things,  "  a  farm,  especially  an  out- 
lying one."  Names  such  as  Dixonground,  Rogerground  are  common  in  High  Furness.  They 
are  all  late.  The  distribution  of  the  el.  rather  suggests  Scand.  origin.  In  Iceland  grund  is  quite 
common  in  place-names.  It  means  "  flat,  grass-grown  ground,  esp.  on  streams  and  lakes." 

O.E.  hses.    See  Malkins  Wood  Sa,  Hey  sham  Lo. 

O.E.  haga  "  enclosure  ;  homestead,"  O.N.  hagi  "  enclosure  "  :  Haigh  De,  Haw  Booth  Bl, 
Hawcoat  Lo  ;  Turnagh  Sa,  Crookhey,  Locka,  Stodday,  Smeer  Hall  SLo. 

O.E.  halh  "  corner,  nook,"  Mn.  dial,  haugh  "  low-lying,  level  ground  by  the  side  of  a 
river."  The  latter  meaning  is  that  of  the  el.  in  Lane,  names,  the  places  in  question  being 
situated  on  rivers  or  streams  or  at  the  edge  of  mosses  (Halsall,  Maghull  De,  Midge  Hall  Le) ; 
cf.,  however,  Wolf  hole  Crag  SLo.  The  first  el.  of  names  in  -Jialh  is  English  or  pre-Scand. ; 
possible  exceptions  are  Dunkenhalgh  Bl,  Killinsough  Am.  It  is  usually  a  pers.  n.  (as  Kersal, 
Ordsall,  Redvales  Sa,  Whackersall  Bl,  Halsall,  Kinknall  De,  Earnshaw,  Wignall  Le, 
Hothersall  Am,  Ellel  SLo)  or  an  adj.  (as  Broadhalgh,  Siddal,  Woodhill  Sa,  Langho,  Ridihalgh, 
Syddles,  White  Hough,  Whithalgh  Bl,  Chisnall  Le,  Fernyhalgh,  Rowall  Am).  It  is  a  common 
noun  in  Ringstonhalgh  Bl,  Knowley,  Midge  Hall  Le,  Lynnall  De,  Midghalgh  Am.  Further 
instances :  Bullough,  Crumpsall,  Lomax,  Monsall  Sa,  ?  Cuerdale,  Ponthalgh,  Reedley 
Hallows  Bl,  Wolfall  De,  Comberhalgh,  perh.  Catterall,  Rossall  Am,  Haugh,  Haulgh  Sa, 
Hale  De,  Haughton,  Houghton,  Westhoughton  Sa,  Haighton  Am,  Halton  SLo. 

O.E.  hall  "  court ;  residence."  In  place-names  the  usual  meaning  is  no  doubt  "  manor- 
house,  residence  "  :  Chingle  Hall,  New  Chingle  Hall  Am,  Wolfhall  Bl  (Am),  Challen  Hall, 


Robert  Hall,  West  Hall  SLo,  etc.,  perh.  Prestall  Sa.  In  Mn.  dial,  hall  also  means  "  farm- 
house, cottage  "  ;  this  seems  to  be  the  meaning  in  New  Hall  Sa,  perh.  Hollo whead  Bl. 

O.E.,  O.N.  hals  "  neck,"  dial,  hause  "  a  col  "  :  Hawes  Water  SLo,  Wrynose  NLo. 

O.E.  ham  "  village  ;  dwelling,  manor  "  and  hamm  "  a  meadow,"  etc.,  are  always  difficult 
to  distinguish  in  place-names.  In  Lane,  names  ham  is,  on  the  whole,  the  more  probable 
source.  At  least  in  S.  Lane.,  O.E.  a  before  a  nasal  often  appears  as  o  (cf.  Ramsbottom  Bl), 
and  we  expect  isolated  spellings  -horn,  if  the  source  is  frequently  O.E.  hamm.  No  such 
spellings  are  on  record,  except  perh.  in  Dallam  De.  We  may  assume  that  names  in  -ham 
which  denote  more  important  places  mostly  go  back  to  O.E.  ham.  There  is  some  doubt  as 
regards  names  of  minor  places,  as  Newham  (now  Newhall)  Sa,  Higham  Bl,  Hecham  Am. 
The  usual  meaning  of  O.E.  ham  in  place-names  seems  to  be  "  village  "  or  "  manor  "  ;  neither 
seems  plausible  in  these  names.  Bxit  the  meaning  may  be  "  homestead."  On  the  other  hand, 
O.E.  hamm  seems  usually  to  have  meant  "  flat,  low-lying  pasture-land."  This  sense  is  im- 
possible in  Higham,  and  if  hamm  had  no  other  senses  the  second  el.  of  this  name  must  be 
O.E.  ham.  But  the  original  meaning  of  hamm  seems  to  have  been  "  enclosure,"  and  that 
may  have  been  preserved  in  some  parts  of  England.  There  seems  no  reason  to  derive  -ham 
in  any  Lane,  name  from  O.N.  heimr.  Names  in  -ham  have  as  first  el.  sometimes  a  pers.  n. 
(or  the  like),  as  Abram  De,  Padiham  Bl,  Bispham  Le,  Am,  Whittingham  Am,  Tatham  SLo, 
Aldingham  NLo  ;  sometimes  a  place — or  river — name,  as  Cheetham,  Irlam  Sa,  Cockerham 
SLo  ;  sometimes  a  common  noun,  as  Thornham  Sa,  Kirkham  Am,  Heysham  SLo.  There  are, 
further  :  Alt-,  Habergham  Bl,  Penwortham  Le,  Gressingham  SLo  ;  see  also  Rochdale  Sa. 

O.N.  haugr  "  hill ;  mound  "  is  sometimes  difficult  to  distinguish  from  O.E.  hoh,  as  haugr 
in  early  sources  seems  occasionally  to  appear  as  -ho  (cf.  e.g.  Hackinsall  Am).  This  may  point 
to  confusion  between  the  two  elements.  But  O.N.  au  often  becomes  M.E.  o  (Bjorkman, 
Loanwords,  p.  68ff.)  and  -ho  may  be  a  substitution  for  or  development  of  normal  -hou.  Names 
in  -hou  denote  hills  (mountains)  and  hillocks  or  mounds.  They  are  most  common  in  Bl  and 
N.  of  the  Ribble.  Examples  :  Harcles  Hill,  Tittleshaw  Sa,  Blacko,  Clitheroe,  Cadshaw, 
?  Gannow,  Gerna,  Noyna,  ?  Worsaw  Bl,  Becconsall  Le,  Hawes,  Hackinsall,  Revoe,  Sharoe 
Am,  ?  Kitlow,  Melishaw,  Threaphaw  SLo,  Haume,  Haws  Bank,  Fiddler  Hall,  Groffa,  Houkler 
Hall,  Knapperthaw,  Picthall,  Satterhow,  Sella,  Sow  How,  Tarn  Hows,  Tock  How,  Whitestock 
Hall  NLo. 

O.E.  heafod  "  head  "  sometimes  means  "  upper  end "  (Shireshead  Lo  (Am),  Field-, 
Waterhead  NLo),  sometimes  "  headland  "  (Lindeth  SLo,  Humphrey  Head,  Kirkhead  NLo), 
usually  "  hill  or  eminence  "  (cf.  EDD  head  13).  The  first  el.  is  usually  English,  but  Scand.  in 
e.g.  Gambleside  Bl,  Grizehead  SLo  ;  French  in  Castlehead  NLo.  Other  examples  :  Hades, 
Hartshead  Sa;  Henheads,  Hollin-,  Hollow-,  Oakenhead,  Read  Bl;  Burton-,  Elton-,  Fearn-, 
Lamber-,  Mickle-,  Slyne-,  Westhead  De ;  Hazel-,  Ingolhead  Am  ;  Birkett,  Conishead, 
Roanhead  NLo.  In  Rampside  NLo  the  meaning  may  be  literally  "  head." 

O.E.  hege  "  hedge,  fence  "  :  Cockey,  Harpurhey  *Sa,  Blackay,  Carry  (Bridge),  Newhall 
Hey  Bl,  Heapey  Le.  The  meanings  in  place-names  are  probably  "  enclosed  tract  meant  for  a 
hunting-ground  "  and  "  enclosure  "  generally. 

O.N.  helkn.    See  Helks  SLo. 

M.E.  helm  "  shed."    See  Helmshore  Bl,  Elmridge  Bl  (Am). 

Engl.  dial,  hile  "  cluster,"  etc.    See  Moor  Isles  Bl. 

O.N.  hlada  "  barn  "  :  Lathoin  De,  Laithbutts,  Laithwaite  SLo,  perh.  Leagram  Bl  (Am). 

O.N.  hlaw  "  hill ;  mound."  The  meaning  in  Lane,  place-names  varies  from  "  mountain  " 
(as  Horelaw,  Pike  Law  Bl,  Brownlow  De)  to  "  hillock,  slight  eminence  "  (as  in  Low  Bl, 
Lowton  De,  Bar-,  Greenlow  Sa,  Spellow  De),  or  even  "  mound  "  (as  perh.  in  Wharles  Am, 
Dragley  NLo).  Other  examples  are  :  Croichlow,  Tetlow,  Wickenlow  Sa,  Catlow  Bl  (2), 
Gidlow  De,  Compley  Am,  Strellas  SLo.  An  interesting  hybrid  is  Osmotherley  NLo. 

O.E.  hlenc.    See  Lench  Bl. 

O.E.  hlip  "  slope  ;  hill,"  O.N.  hlid  "  slope."  The  former  is  found  with  certainty  in  Lytham 
Am,  the  latter  in  Litherla.nd  De  (2),  Lythe  SLo  (2).  As  second  part  the  el.  is  sometimes 
combined  with  a  Scand.  word  (Bleansley,  Kellet  SLo,  Stennerley  NLo)  and  may  then  be 
identified  with  Scand.  hlid.  Adgarley  NLo  has  an  Engl.  first  el./while  that  of  Ireleth  NLo 
may  be  Scand.  or  English. 

O.E.  hlose,  apparently  "  pig-sty  "  (Liebermann,  Gesetze,  Gloss. ;  B-T,  Suppl.) ;  cf.  dial. 
lewze  "  pigsty  "  (EDD).  The  el.  occurs  in  Loose  Kent,  Loosebeare  Dev.,  Looseley  Bucks, 
etc.  ;  in  Lane,  in  Lostock  Sa,  Le,  and  perhaps  in  Luzzley  Sa.  The  word,  as  shown  by  Mn.E. 


forms,  had  O.E.  6,  and  is  probably  connected  with  O.E.  hlop  "  troop,"  hlcest,  O.N.  hlada 
"  barn,"  etc. 

O.E.  blot  "lot,  allotment"  :   Oglet  De,  Haylot  SLo  (which  see). 

O.E.  hoh  "  heel ;  projecting  ridge  of  land,"  Mn.E.  hoe,  heugh  "  a  crag,  cliff,  precipice  ; 
a  height  ending  abruptly  "  :  Down-,  Upholland  De,  Houghton  De,  Hoghton,  ?  Howick, 
Hutton  Le,  Hutton  SLo  (2) ;  Nuttall,  ?  Way  oh  Sa,  Trunnah  Am,  Clougha  SLo  :  cf.  Billington 
Bl.  The  meaning  is  sometimes  "  steep,  abrupt  ridge,"  sometimes  "  a  slight  ridge  "  or  the 
like.  In  Hough  End  Sa  the  meaning  is  "  ravine." 

O.E.  holh,  hoi  "  hollow,  hole,"  O.N.  hoi  "  hole."  Where  the  first  el.  is  the  name  of  an 
animal  the  meaning  is  "  burrow  "  :  Foxholes  Sa,  Brockhall  Bl,  Brockholes  Am.  Otherwise 
the  meaning  seems  to  be  "  a  hollow,  depression  in  the  ground  "  or  "  valley."  The  first  el.  is 
frequently  a  pers.  n.  Examples  :  Edi-,  Tockholes,  Clover  Hill  Bl,  Greenhalgh  (2),  Ingol, 
Lickow  Am.  The  first  el.  is  fairly  often  Scand.  (Corcas,  Kilgrimol,  Staynall  Am,  perh.  others). 

O.N.  holmr,  holmi  "  islet,"  etc.,  M.E.,  Mn.E.  holme  "  islet ;  piece  of  flat,  low-lying  ground 
by  a  river."  Both  these  senses  are  evidenced  in  Lane,  names,  the  former  (at  least  originally) 
in  Dunnerholme  NLo,  the  latter  e.g.  in  Holme  Bl,  Holmes  Le,  Am,  Thorneyholme  Bl.  A 
third  meaning  is  "  a  piece  of  dry  land  in  a  fen  or  marsh  "  ;  originally  such  names  may  have 
referred  to  islands.  Examples  are  :  Ballam,  Eastham,  Hayholine,  Skitharn  Am,  Trailholme, 
Sugham  SLo,  Wraysholme  NLo  ;  cf.  Calfholme,  etc.,  under  Bolton  SLo.  A  meaning  "  piece 
of  land  partly  surrounded  by  streams  "  may  be  that  of  Levenshulme  Sa  and  others.  The  first 
el.  is  often  Scand.,  but  frequently  English  (as  Wolstenholme  Sa,  Bitherham  Am,  etc.). 
Sometimes  -holm  has  been  replaced  by  -ham.  Further  examples  :  Brandlesome,  Gawksholme, 
Oldham  Sa,  Hunter-,  Mart-,  Rams-,  Ravensholme  Bl,  Denham  Le,  Dolphinholme,  Linholm 
Am,  Gamblesholme,  Gilberton,  Maure-,  Torrisholme,  Waitholme  SLo,  Peaseholmes, 
Rougholme,  Waitham  (2)  NLo. 

O.Dan,  hulm  (cf.  O.Swed.  hulmber)  occurs  in  some  names  in  S.  Salford  (Hulme,  Davy- 
hulme,  Kirkraanshulme,  Levenshulme)  and  once  in  De  (Hulme).  See  further  the  Sum- 

O.E.  hop,  Mn.E.  hope  (1)  "  a  piece  of  enclosed  land,  e.g.  in  the  midst  of  fens,"  etc.  ;  (2) 
"  a  small  enclosed  valley,  esp.  a  smaller  opening  branching  out  from  the  main  dale,  and 
running  up  to  the  mountain  ranges  ;  the  upland  part  of  a  mountain  valley  ;  a  blind  valley  " 
(NED).  The  first  meaning  is  seen  in  Mythop  Am  (though  it  is  perhaps  rather  "  dry,  firm  land 
in  a  fen  "),  the  latter  in  Hope  Sa,  Brinsop,  Hopwood  Sa,  Bacup,  Cowpe,  Dunnyshope  Bl, 
Brinsop,  Ritherope  De,  perh.  Tytup  NLo. 

O.N.  hofud  "  head  "  and  hpfdi  are  used  in  the  sense  "  a  promontory,"  also  (in  place-names) 
"  a  projecting  hill  or  ridge."  This  el.  is  found  twice  in  Am  (Holleth,  Preesall)  and  fairly 
often  in  SLo  :  Escowbeck,  Hawks-,  Ramshead,  Sellet.  The  meaning  is  "  hill  or  ridge." 

O.N.  hogg  "  felling  of  trees,"  etc.    See  Hagg  NLo. 

O.N.  hreysi,  hreysar  (pi.)  "  cairn  "  :  Roseacre  Am,  Raisthwaite,  Toppin  Rays  NLo. 

O.E.  hrycg  "  ridge  "  :  Foulridge  Bl,  Elm-,  Longridge  Bl  (Am) ;  O.N.  hryggr  :  Bail-, 
Esk-,  Hazelrigg  SLo,  Bandrake,  Haverigg,  Borde-,  Mansriggs  NLo. 

O.E.  hulu.    See  Hoole  Le. 

O.E.,  O.N.  hus  "  house  "  :  Newsham  De,  Am,  Wesham  Am,  Aynesom  NLo  ;  Healdhouses 
Sa,  Cow-,  Hey-,  Wymondhouses  Bl ;  Dwerryhouse  Le,  Colt-,  Salthouse,  Head  House  NLo. 

O.E.  hyp  "  landing-place  "  :  Huyton  De,  ?  Sa. 

O.E.  hyll  "  hill  "  is  a  common  el.  S.  of  the  Ribble,  rare  N.  of  that  river  (Duddel  Bl  (Am), 
Bazil,  Hillam  SLo,  Mousell,  Windhill  NLo).  The  meaning  varies  from  "  mountain,"  as  in 
Pendle,  Brown  Hill,  Crow  Hill  Bl,  Great  Hill  Le,  etc.,  to  "  hillock,"  as  Pex  Hill  (200  ft.)  De, 
Bazil  (50ft.)  SLo,  etc.  The  first  el.  is  usually  English  (or  pre-Scand.),  but  it  is  French,  e.g., 
in  Clerk  Hill,  Friarhills  Bl.  Other  instances  :  Aspul,  Birtle,  Blindsill,  Buersill,  Smithills, 
Stakehill,  Warcockhill,  Wardle,  Whittle,  Wuerdle  Sa,  Braddyll,  Combe  Hill,  Coo  Hill,  Cowhill, 
Eccleshill,  Hindle,  Ightenhffl,  Royle,  Salthill  Bl,  OrreU  (2),  Rainhill,  Windle  De,  Brindle, 
Coppull,  Withnell,  Whittle  (2)  Le. 

O.N.  hylr  "  a  pool,  deep  place  in  a  river  "  :   Lickle,  Troutal  NLo. 

O.E.  hyrst,  Mn.E.  hurst  "  eminence,  hillock,  knoll  or  bank,  esp.  one  of  a  sandy  nature  ; 
a  grove  of  trees  ;  a  copse  ;  a  wood  ;  a  wooded  eminence."  The  original  meaning  was  perhaps 
"  brushwood  "  ;  cf.  the  cognate  Welsh  prys  "  brushwood  "  (Jones,  128).  The  exact  meaning 
of  the  el.  cannot  be  determined  in  each  case.  A  meaning  "  hillock  "  is  plausible  in  names 
such  as  Copster,  Smethurst,  Bromyhurst  Sa,  Copthurst  Bl,  Le,  Grindlestonehurst  Bl,  Hay 


Hurst,  Stonyhurst  Bl  (Am),  while  "  copse  "  seems  preferable  in  Ha/el-,  Nuthurst  Sa,  Icorn- 
hurst  Bl,  Blindhurst  Am.  The  el.  is  rare  N.  of  the  Ribble  except  in  the  Blackburn  part : 
Croglinhurst,  Aulthurstside  NLo.  The  first  el.  is,  as  a  rule,  English.  It  is  mostly  a  descriptive 
common  noun,  as  Wilders  Sa,  Brockle-,  Studlehurst  Bl,  Ashhurst  De,  Lickhurst  Bl  (Am), 
or  an  adj.,  as  Bromy-,  Collyhurst,  Smethurst  Sa,  Fairhurst  Le.  Other  examples  :  Gristle-, 
Sillinghurst  Sa,  Dewhurst  Bl,  Crookhurst  De,  Gathurst  Le. 

-ing.  This  ending  has  been  much  discussed.  The  chief  sources  in  Lane,  names  are  the 
following  : 

1.  O.E.  plur.  -ingas,  mostly  in  derivatives  from  pers.  ns.1 :    Melling  De,  SLo,  Staining  Am, 
possibly  Billinge  De,  Bryning  Am  ;  further  Alkring-,  Dumpling-,  Pilking-,  Tottington  Sa, 
Billington,  Padiham,  Pleasington,  perh.  Habergham  Bl,  Penning-,  Warrington  De,  Adling-, 
perh.    Worthington  Le,  Whittingham  Am,  Wenning-,  Whittington  SLo,  Aldingham  NLo. 
All  these  denote  (or  used  to  denote)  rather  important  places. 

2.  O.E.  sing.  -ing.     The  words  in  -ing  were  either  old  river-  or  hill -names  (  :  Riving  in 
Rivington,  Shilling  in  -bottom  Sa,  perh.  Billinge  De,  Bl,  Billings  Lo,  Wenning  Lo),  or  originally 
common  nouns  :    Falinge  Sa,  Falling  De,  Stubbins  Sa,  Hacking  Sa,  Bl,  Faldworthings  Le, 
Chipping  Bl  (Am),  Newbigging  Am,  NLo,  -ridding  (see  infra) ;  Gressingham  SLo,  Pennington 

3.  O.E.  n  of  various  origin,  as  the  adj.  ending  -en  (Haslingden  Bl,  Withington  Sa),  the 
gen.  pi.  ending  -na  (Wrightington),  -n  in  nouns  :  Hollingworth  Sa,  Hastingley,  perh.  Accring- 
ton  Bl,  Farington  Le. 

4.  There  remain  :   Pilling  Am,  Sillinghurst  Sa,  Shevington  Le. 
k-;  see  c. 

O.E.  lacu  "  stream  "  :   Medlock  Sa,  Hatlex  SLo. 

O.E.  l&d  "  water-course,"  Mn.  dial,  lode  also  "  road  "  :    Layton  Am. 

O.E.,  O.N.  land.  The  first  el.  is  Scand.  in  Down-,  Uplitherland  De,  Thur-,  Thursland 
SLo,  Big-,  Rusland  NLo  ;  French  in  Muchland  NLo  ;  English  in  Hillara,  Mar-,  Spotland  Sa, 
Down-,  Upholland  De,  Leyland  Le,  Yeland  SLo,  New-,  Woodland,  prob.  Templand  NLo, 
Sunderland  Sa,  Bl,  SLo.  Bowland  Bl  (Am)  is  dubious.  The  meaning  may  be  "  ground  or 
soil,"  "  estate,"  "  a  piece  of  land  in  a  common  field,"  etc.  The  exact  meaning  can  rarely  be 

O.F.  lande  "  lawn,"  i.e.,  "  glade  ;  pasture  "  :  New,  Old  Laund  Bl. 

O.E.  lanu  "  lane  "  :  Markland  De  ;   cf.  Asland  Le. 

O.N.  life  "  lair  "  :   Latterbarrow,  Hulleter  Lo. 

O.E.  leah  "  meadow,  field,"  Mn.E.  lea  "  a  tract  of  open  ground,  either  meadow,  pasture, 
or  arable  land."  The  original  meaning  may  have  been  "  glade,  clearing  "  ;  cf.  O.H.G.  IdTi, 
M.H.G.  I6h  "  low  brushwood,  clearing  overgrown  with  small  shrubs,"  Lat.  lucus.  The  meaning 
of  the  el.  in  place-names  seems  to  have  varied.  A  meaning  "  wood  "  is  probably  sometimes 
to  be  assumed  (cf.  esp.  Nomina  Geographica  Neerlandica,  I.  155ff.).  Waltonelega  is  called 
"  nemus  "  in  CC  629,  and  names  such  as  Buckley,  Hartley  go  well  with  a  meaning  "  wood." 
The  common  occurrence  of  names  in  -ley  in  the  old  Forest  of  Pendle  rather  points  to  a  meaning 
"  glade  ;  forest  clearing  "  ;  very  likely  the  frequent  occurrence  of  names  in  -ley  in  a  district 
suggests  an  old  forest  district.  Names  such  as  Ryley  point  to  a  meaning  "  (clearing  used  as) 
arable  land  "  ;  such  as  Calverley,  Studley  to  a  meaning  "  pasture  ground."  The  fact  that 
names  in  -ley  frequently  have  as  first  el.  an  adj.  denoting  form  or  extent  (as  broad,  long)  is 
worthy  of  notice.  Names  in  -ley  are  common  S.  of  the  Ribble  and  in  Blackburn  N.  of  the 
Ribble,  rare  elsewhere.  The  first  el.  is  usually  English  ;  exceptions  are  Gamelsley  Sa,  ?  Gautley 
De,  Thorpen  Lees  Am,  Dolphinlees  SLo  with  a  Scand.,  Constable  Lee  Bl,  Mawdesley  Le  with 
a  Fr.  first  part.  The  first  el.  is  (1)  the  name  of  a  cereal,  as  Royley  Sa,  Bar-,  Ry-,  Wheatley  Bl, 
Wheatley  Bl  (Am),  or  of  a  tree  or  plant,  as  Ashley  Sa,  Reed-,  ?  Thieveley  Bl,  Birch-,  Risley  De, 
Appley  Le,  Ashley  Am,  or  of  an  animal,  as  Buck-,  Hart-,  Shepley  Sa,  Antley  Bl,  Hind-, 
Swinley  De,  Studley  Bl  (Am),  or  some  other  common  noun,  as  Mossley,  Wardley  Sa,  Acorn-, 
Burn-,  Hasting-,  Mear-,  Towneley  Bl,  Cow-,  Fazakerley,  Morleys,  Sherd-,  Stonebridgley 
De,  Bir-,  Tunley  Le,  Greystoneley  Bl  (Am),  Cleveley  Lo  (Am),  Staveley  NLo  ;  (2)  a  pers. 

1  Some  scholars  think  -ing  in  such  names  as  Tottington  is  only  partly  patronymic  (O.E. 
Totinga-tun,  etc.),  while  in  other  cases  it  is  rather  possessive  (O.E.  Werburgingwic,  etc.), 
being  a  sort  of  adjectival  suffix.  (Cf.  e.g.  Mawer,  P1.N.  of  Northumberland,  p.  xxiv.ff.  with 
references).  I  am  not  convinced  that  this  theory  is  correct. 


n.,  as  Bards-,  Pigsley  Sa,  Loveley  Bl,  ?  Chaigley  Bl  (Am),  Eckers-,  Harders-,  Knows-,  Tyldes-, 
Winstanley  De,  Chor-,  Kingsley  Le,  Beesley,  Cadley,  Winmarleigh  Am;  (3)  an  adj.,  as 
Black-,  Dearn-,  Hea-,  Langley  Sa,  Audley,  Helly  Platt,  Roughlee,  Smalley  Bl,  Ast-,  Black-, 
Brad-,  How-,  Norley,  Westleigh  De,  Healey  Le,  Bradley  Bl  (Am),  Longley  Am.  Other 
examples  are  :  Ar-,  Kears-,  Luzz-,  Rid-,  Walmers-,  Wors-,  Wrigley  Sa,  Ar-,  Dimpen-,  Dinck-, 
Dine-,  Row-,  Show-,  Whalley  Bl,  Bai-,  Thorn-,  Winckley  Bl  (Am),  Arp-,  Cay-,  Cuerd-,  Shaker-, 
Whelley,  Dalton  Lees  De,  Baggan-,  Shackerley  Le,  Lees  Sa,  Leigh  De,  Leece  NLo.  The  list 
is  not  quite  complete. 

M.E.  leche,  lache,  Mn.E.  letch  "  a  stream  flowing  through  boggy  land ;  a  muddy  ditch 
or  hole  ;  a  bog  "  :  Brindle  Heath  Sa,  Fulledge  Bl,  Blacklache  Le. 

O.N.  leir  "  clay  "  :   Larbrick  Am. 

O.E.  loc,  loca  "  enclosure  "  :   Parh'ck  Am,  Locka  SLo. 

Engl.  dial,  lum  "a  deep  pool  in  the  bed  of  a  river"  (Lakel.,  Lane.,  etc.) :  Lumb  Sa,  Bl, 
?  Lomax  Sa,  ?  Redlam  Bl,  ?  Blelham  NLo. 

O.N.  lundr  "  grove  "  :  Lunt  De,  Lund,  Kirkland  Am,  Birkland  Barrow  SLo. 

O.E.  (ge)msere  "  boundary  "  :  Mersey,  ?  Marland  Sa  ;  Mearley,  Meer  dough  Bl,  High 
Mere  Beck  NLo. 

O.E.  med  (msed)  "  meadow  "  :    Breightmet,  Medlock  Sa. 

O.N.  melr  "  sand  hill,"  Engl.  dial,  meal,  meol  "  sand-bank,  sand-hill "  :  Argarmeles, 
North  Meols,  Ravensmeols  De,  Cartmel  NLo. 

O.E.  mercels  "  mark  "  etc.    See  Marsden. 

O.E.  mere  "  lake  "  :  Windermere  NLo  ;  ?  Marland  Sa,  Martin  De,  Mere  Brow  (Side)  Le, 
Marton  Am,  Martin  NLo. 

O.E.  mersc  "  marsh  "  :  Alt  Marsh  De,  ?  Admarsh  Am. 

O.E.  mor  "  moor."  The  meanings  in  Lane,  names  are  "  hill,  high  moorland,"  as  in  Shore 
Moor,  Siddal  Moor,  etc.,  Sa,  Deerplay  Moor  Bl,  Gunnolf's  Moors  Le,  Quernmore  SLo,  Parka- 
moor  NLo,  and  "  marsh,"  as  in  Black-,  Wolmoor  De,  Barbers  Moor  Le,  Swarthmoor  Lo. 
Further  examples  :  Beal  Moor,  Kaskenmoor,  Theale  Moor  Sa,  Rakes  Moor  NLo. 

O.E.  mos,  O.N.  mosi  "  bog,  swamp,  morass  "  :  Chat  Moss  Sa,  Wirples  Moss  De,  Rath- 
moss  NLo. 

O.E.  (ge)mdt  "  meeting  "  :  Emmott  Bl,  Emmetts  Lo. 

O.E.  muda  "  mouth  of  a  river  "  :  ?  Wymott  Le.  O.E.  gemyde  "junction  of  streams"  : 
Mitton  Bl,  Loud  Mytham  Bl  (Am). 

O.N.  mynni  "  mouth  of  a  river  "  :  Stalmine  Am. 

O.N.  myrr,  M.E.  mire  "  a  piece  of  wet,  swampy  ground,  a  boggy  place  "  :  Walmer  Le, 
Myerscough'Bl  ?,  Am,  Goldmire  NLo. 

O.N.  nabbr,  nabbi  "  a  projecting  peak  "  :  Whalley  Nab  Bl,  Gascow  Nab  Lo. 

O.E.  naess,  O.N.  nes  "  cape,  headland."  M.E.  ness  may  be  an  unstressed  or  dialectal 
variant  of  ncess  or  Scand.  nes  (NED) :  Widnes  De  (prob.  O.E.  -ncess),  Amounderness,  Crossens 
Am,  Furness  NLo  (O.N.  -nes). 

O.N.  oddi  "  point,  cape  "  :    Greenodd  NLo. 

O.F.,  M.E.  pare  "  park,"  also  "  an  enclosed  piece  of  ground  for  pasture  or  tillage  ;  a  field  ; 
a  parrock  or  paddock."  The  meaning  "  a  pasture  ground  "  is  obvious  in  such  cases  as 
Hill  Park,  Stot  Park  NLo.  O.E.  parroc  "  paddock  "  seems  to  be  found  in  Parrox  Am. 

O.E.  pic  "  a  sharp  instrument,"  M.E.  pik  "  a  pointed  summit ;  a  pointed  hill  "  (ace.  to 
NED,  possibly  from  Norw.  pik  "  a  pointed  mountain,"  but  more  probably  native) :  Rivington 
Pike,  Whittle  Pike  Sa,  Clougha  Pike  Lo,  etc.  ;  Pickup  Bl.  An  adj.  piked  is  the  first  el.  of 
Pike  Law  Bl,  Picthall  Lo. 

O.E.  plega  "  play  "  :   Deerplay  Bl. 

O.E.  pol,  pull  "  pool,"  in  Mod.  dial,  also  "  a  slow-moving  rivulet,  esp.  in  carse-land ;  a 
small  creek  "  (Scotl.).  In  Lane,  names  the  sense  "  a  rivulet  "  is  certain  in  Otterpool,  Otter's 
Pool  De,  Skippool  Am,  Wrampool  SLo,  Otterpool,  Rusland  Pool,  Steers  Pool  NLo,  probable 
in  Poulton  De,  Am,  SLo,  Poolstock  De  ;  "a  tidal  creek  "  :  Liverpool.  The  meaning  "  pool  " 
is  found  in  Blackpool  Am,  perh.  Kitepool  Sa  ;  the  first  el.  is  sometimes  Scand.,  as  in  Skip-, 
Wrampool,  Steers  Pool.  In  the  last  it  is  a  pers.  name. 

O.E.  port  (<Lat.  portus)  :  Alport  Sa,  Portfield  Bl. 

O.N.  rann  "  house  "  :   perh.  Cowran,  Cowpren  NLo. 

O.E.  raw  "  row,"  later  also  "  a  row  of  houses,  a  street  ":  Mihirow  Sa,  Corner  Row  Am. 
Perhaps  the  meaning  is  really  "  hamlet  "  ;  cf.  street  in  this  sense  in  Kentish  dialects. 


O.E.  rod,  Mn.  dial,  royd  "  clearing  in  a  wood."  The  el.  is  common  in  Sa  and  Bl  names, 
some  of  which  (as  Aken-,  BromyrodeWhCGQlf.)  are  stated  to  denote  "  assarts,"  i.e.,  clearings. 
The  first  el.  is,  as  a  rule,  English  ;  an  exception  is  Ormerod  Bl.  It  is  an  adj.  in  Black-,  Brim-, 
Brothe-,  Copt-,  Hey-,  Oakenrod  Sa,  Hey-,  Langroyd  Bl ;  a  common  noun  in  Standroyd, 
Linedred  Bl ;  a  pers.  n.  in  Ellenrod  Sa,  Huntroyde,  Monkroyd,  Ormerod  Bl.  Cf.  Rhodes  Sa. 

O.E.,  O.N.  rum  "  room."  Bum  is  a  common  place-name  el.  in  Denmark  and  Sweden  ; 
it  seems  to  have  meant  "  a  forest-clearing  "  (Lindroth,  De  nordiska  ortnamnen  pa  -rum). 
Such  a  meaning  or  use  of  O.E.  rum  has  not  been  pointed  out,  but  in  Scotland  rum  from  c  1500 
has  been  used  in  the  sense  "  an  estate,  a  farm."  In  Lancashire  there  are  some  names  in 
-rum,  chiefly  found  in  early  sources  :  Bretteroum  (first  el.  O.N.  Bretar,  or  O.E.  Brettaa 
"  Britons  "),  Hawkeroum  (first  el.  O.E.  Jiafoc  or  O.N.  haukr  "  hawk  "  or  O.N.  Hauler  pers.  n.) 
c  1320  LI  (in  Bolton-le-Sands),  Wytheruum  (Am)  c  1260  CC  156  (called  "  cultura  "  ;  first  el. 
app.  O.E.  widig  or  O.N.  vidir  "  willow  ").  This  el.  seems  also  to  be  found  in  Dertren  SLo, 
Dendron  NLo.  In  all  probability  -rum  is  Scand.,  and  means  "  a  clearing." 

O.N.  runnr  "  a  brake  or  thicket  "  :  perhaps  in  Bowerham  SLo,  Ronhead  Lo.  For  other 
examples  see  Scandinavians,  p.  93f. 

O.E.  ryding  "  clearing  "  (hryding  in  Aelfr.  Gl.) :  Armetridding  Le,  Abbot's  Reading, 
Row  Ridding  NLo.  Names  in  -ridding  are  common  in  early  Lane,  documents.  The  word 
ryding,  like  M.E.  ridden  "  to  clear  land  "  and  rod  "  clearing,"  is  no  doubt  native  English. 

O.N.  ssetr  "  shieling  "  :   Satterhow,  Satterthwaite  Lo  ;    cf.  -set  infra. 

O.E.  sand,  O.N.  sandr  :  Cockersand  Lo. 

O.E.  scaga  "  shaw,"  i.e.,  "  a  thicket,  a  small  wood,  copse,  or  grove."  The  first  el.  is,  as  a 
rule,  English ;  an  exception  is  Kershaw  Sa.  It  is  very  often  the  name  of  an  animal,  as  in 
Hawk-,  Henshaw  Sa,  Craw-,  Cronk-,  Dunnockshaw  Bl,  Cranshaw  De,  Buck-,  Cranshaw  Le, 
Cat-,  Dunken-,  Marshaw  SLo  ;  often  some  other  common  noun,  as  in  Bir-,  Cold-,  Prickshaw 
Sa,  Nutshaw  Bl,  Forshaw  De,  Nutshaw  Le  ;  or  an  adj.,  as  in  Birten-,  Brad-,  Cowli-, 
Hather-,  Open-,  Small-,  Wheatshaw  Sa,  Fulshaw  Bl,  Lightshaw  De,  Blashaw  Le  ;  more 
rarely  a  pers.  n.,  as  in  Auden-,  Bernshaw  Sa,  Beard-,  Goodshaw  Bl,  Occleshaw  De.  Other 
instances  :  Brun-,  Grim-  (2),  Walshaw,  Lomeshay  Bl,  Bicker-,  Hardshaw  De. 

O.N.  skali,  M.E.  scale  "  a  temporary  hut  or  shelter,  a  wooden  shed" :  Scholes  De,  Scales 
Am  (2),  NLo,  Scale  Hall  SLo,  Scholefield,  Scowcroft  Sa,  Scholefield,  Feniscowles  Bl,  Brinscall 
Le,  Davyscoles  Bl  (Am),  Landskill,  Loudscales  Am,  Summersgill  SLo,  Baskell,  Cockenshell, 
Elliscales,  North  Scale,  Sandscale  NLo.  The  el.  is  often  found  in  hybrids. 

O.N.  skard  "  notch,  cleft,  mountain  pass  "  :   Scarth  Hill  De. 

O.N.  sker  "  skerry,"  etc.  ;  Norw.  sker,  also  "  rock,  rocky  hill  "  :  Billinge  Scar  Bl,  Stone- 
star,  Seawood  Scar  NLo.  Cf.  Skerton  Lo. 

O.E.  scir  :  Lancashire,  Wilpshire.  The  word  -shire  is  often  added  to  names  of  hundreds, 
as  Salfordshire. 

O.N.  skogr  "  wood  "  :  ?  Myerscough  Bl,  Bur-,  Cun-,  Tarlscough  De,  Blainscough,  Roscoe, 
Sarscow  Le,  Humble-,  Myerscough,  Liscoe  Am,  Gascow,  Greenscoe  NLo.  The  first  el.  is, 
or  may  be,  Scand.,  except  in  Burscough,  where  it  seems  to  be  a  place-name. 

M.E.  set,  sat  (in  place-names)  apparently  "  a  shieling,  a  pasture  "  :  Cadishead,  Summer- 
seat  Sa,  Barnside,  Belsetenab  Bl,  Stephen's  Head,  Swainshead,  Yarlside  SLo,  Arnside, 
Hawkshead,  Roshead,  Whelpshead,  Yarlside  NLo,  perh.  Ayside  NLo.  Original  -set  has  often 
been  changed  to  -side  or  -ahead  owing  to  the  tendency  of  final  -d  to  pass  into  -t,  which  caused 
-set  and  -side  to  fall  together  in  pronunciation.  According  to  Ellis  V.  606,  names  such  as 
Selside,  Ormside  (no  doubt  originally  -set)  are  pronounced  [selsit,  ormsit]. 

Names  in  -set  usually  denote  places  in  a  high  situation  or  on  hill  slopes,  sometimes  even 
hills.  An  exception  is  Cadishead  (see  infra).  The  el.  -set,  -sat  is  clearly  identical  with  dial. 
seat  "  a  dwelling  ;  a  pasturage ;  usually  a  farmhouse  on  the  lower  slope  of  the  mountain, 
with  a  right  of  pasture  above,  and  the  rest  of  the  farm  around"  (Cumb.,  Wml.;  see  EDD). 
The  seats  are  no  doubt  old  shielings,  and  this  is,  as  a  rule,  also  the  case  with  the  Lane,  (and 
Cumb.,  Wml.)  places  with  names  in  -set,  -sat.  The  distribution  of  the  word  renders  a  Scand. 
origin  probable.  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  (except  in  isolated  cases,  as  Cadishead)  it  can 
go  back  to  O.E.  set  "a  fold  "  ;  the  interchange  of  the  forms  -set  and  -sat  could  hardly  be 
explained  if  O.E.  set  were  the  source.  The  el.  has  been  derived  from  O.N.  scetr  "  shieling." 
This  word  has  exactly  the  sense  wanted.  It  explains  the  interchange  of  -set  and  -sat,  as  ce 
could  be  shortened  to  e  and  a.  The  only  difficulty  about  the  derivation  is  the  absence  of  the 
r  of  scetr.  But  O.N.  scetr  is  an  old  «-stem,  and  s-stems  often  exhibit  an  interchange  of  forms 


with  and  without  r.  A  form  *scet  may  very  well  once  have  been  common  by  the  side  of  sodr. 
I  believe  there  are  still  traces  of  such  a  form  in  Norw.  place-names.  Here  may  belong  isolated 
names  found  in  NG  passim  (e.g.,  i  Hafuoscete  ii.  180) ;  but  especially  important  is  the  name 
Sommerscet,  which  is  common  in  the  North  of  Norway  and  apparently  means  "  a  shieling 
or  deserted  homestead  used  ^only  in  the  summer  "  (NG  xvi.),  I  do  not  believe  that  seat, 
-set,  -sat  can  go  back  to  O.N.  sceti  "  seat."  This  word  does  not  mean  "  a  shieling,  a  temporary 
dwelling."  It  means  "  permanent  residence,"  and  is  particularly  used  in  the  compound 
Herrescete,  which  (like  Swed.  herresdte)  means  "  mansion."  Cf.  also  Scandinavians,  p.  32f. 

O.E.  sett  "  dwelling."    See  Seattle  NLo. 

O.E.  sic  "  a  streamlet  "  :   Gorsuch  De. 

O.E.  side  "  side  "  :   Facit,  Gartside,  Moss  Side  Sa.    Cf.  set. 

O.N.  slakki  "  valley,"  M.E.,  Mn.E.  slack  "  a  small  shallow  dell  or  valley ;  a  hollow  or 
dip  in  the  ground,"  etc.  (common  in  Lane.,  W.Yks.,  Cumb.,  Scotl.) :  Slack  Sa,  NLo,  Ayneslack, 
Hay  Slacks  Bl,  Ashlack,  Nettleslack  NLo.  O.N.  slakki  seems  to  go  back  to  *slankan-,  cognate 
with  Dan.  slank  "  a  hollow  "  (Noreen,  Urg.  Lautl.,  p.  172,  Torp,  NynorskEt.  Ordbog  s. v.  slakke). 

O.E.  slsed  "  a  valley,  dell,  or  dingle  ;  a  forest  glade  "  :  Slade,  Bagslate  Sa. 

O.N.  sletta  "  a  plain,  a  level  field,"  Engl.  dial,  sleet  "  a  flat  meadow,  a  level  moor  "  : 
Bracelet  NLo,  Deerslet  SLo. 

O.E.  snaJd  "apiece."    See  Halsnead  De. 

M.E.  snape  "  pasture  "  ?  :  Snape  De,  Boysnope  Sa,  Blacksnape'  Bl,  Snubsnape  Le,  Bui-, 
Fair-,  Kid-,  Winsnape  Am.  M.E.  snape  (snyppand  snawe  pat  in  pe  snape  li^tis  Alex.)  is 
rendered  in  Stratmann-Bradley  by  ?  "  whiter -pasture  "  ;  in  NED  the  word  is  not  explained. 
A  meaning  "  pasture  "  is  rendered  probable  by  names  with  the  name  of  an  animal  as  first  el. 
(Boysnope,  etc.  ;  cf.  also  Coltesnape  De  CC  596).  Snape  has  been  derived  from  Icel.  snap, 
pi.  sndp  (so  rather  than  snop  f.)  "  a  '  nip,'  scanty  grass  for  sheep  to  nibble  at  in  snow-covered 
fields  "  (Vigfusson),  or  "poor,  insufficient  grazing  "  (f>orkelson,  Supplement  til  Isl.  Ordb.  III.). 
Though  snap  is  never  found  in  old  Scand.  dialects  or  in  Norw.  or  Icel.  place-names,  I  think 
this  derivation  is  very  probably  correct.  The  meaning  of  snape  would  then  be  "  inferior 
pasture  "  or  "  winter-pasture."  Another  possible  source  (suggested  by  Goodall)  is  Dan. 
snabe  "  projecting  point,  part  (of  a  wood),"  etc.,  Swed.  dial,  snape  "  point ;  cape,"  etc. 
The  first  alternative  seems  distinctly  preferable. 

O.E.  stall  (steall)  "  place  "  :  Tunstall  SLo  ;  "  pool  "  :  Rawtenstall  Bl,  perh.  Stalmine 
Am.  A  further  example  of  O.E.  stall  "  a  pool  "  is  (piscaria  de)  Depestale,  mentioned  together 
with  Hawkshead  FC  I.  438,  440  (1208). 

O.E.  stan  "  stone  "  :  Blackstone  Edge,  Harsenden  Sa,  Baxenden,  Hastingley,  Simonstone, 
Wolfstones  Bl,  Garston,  Whiston  De. 

O.N.  stadr  "  place,"  stpd  "  landing-place,"  O.E.  staep  "  bank,  shore."  An  el.  stath  is 
found  in  Bickerstaffe,  Croxteth,  Toxteth  De,  Hubbersty  SLo,  which  probably  or  certainly 
have  a  pers.  n.  as  first  el.,  Birstath  (in  Birstath  Bryning,  now  Bryning  Am),  Todderstaffe 
Am.  Birstath  has  as  second  el.  O.N.  stadr  "  place."  This  el.  is  impossible  in  the  others,  as 
in  Scand.  place-names  it  occurs  only  in  such  compounds  as  Kvernstadr  "  place  of  a  mill," 
B6lstadr  "  dwelling-place,"  etc.  O.E.  steep  is  improbable,  because  the  first  el.  is  in  no  case 
with  certainty  English.  We  have  to  choose  between  O.N.  -stadir  pi.  (ace.  -stadi)  common  in 
Icel.  place-names,  also  in  combination  with  pers.  names,  and  O.N.  stpd.  It  is  difficult  to 
decide  which  of  these  is  more  probable.  The  situation  allows  of  no  definite  conclusion.  On 
the  whole,  the  early  forms  point  rather  to  a  monosyllabic  than  to  a  dissyllabic  second  el. 
(Stochestede  DB  is  too  corrupt  to  carry  much  weight),  but  apocope  of  the  final  vowel  may  have 
taken  place  early,  and,  moreover,  in  early  texts  a  final  -e  was  often  denoted  by  an  abbreviation- 
mark,  which  may  have  been  forgotten  or  lost  in  copying. 

O.E.  stede,  styde  "  place,"  esp.  "  site  of  a  building  "  :  Stidd  Bl  (Am),  High  Halstead  Bl, 
Tunstead  Bl,  De,  Abbeystead  SLo,  Kirkstead  NLo,  in  all  of  which  the  meaning  "  site  "  (hi 
the  last  two  "  deserted  site  ")  is  obvious ;  cf.  Burscough  De.  Rogerstead  in  Heaton  Sa 
(Rogersted  1419  VHL  v.  11)  stands  by  itself.  Either  -stead  has  the  later  meaning  "  estate, 
farm"  (1338£f.,  NED)  or  the  name  goes  back  to  * Rogershusstede  ;  cf.  Rogerishustude  (Caton) 
CC  873,  Cadiave-hustude  (Tarnacre)  CC  248. 

O.N.  stigr,  O.E.  stig  "  path  "  :  Ravensty,  Thorfinsty  NLo  ;  cf.  Swaintley  SLo.  O.E. 
stigu  "  sty  "  is  a  possible,  though  less  probable,  source. 

O.E.  stoc  "  place  "  (cf.  names  such  as  Stoke,  Basingstoke)  :  Lostock  Sa  (2),  Le,  Poolstock 
De.  See  on  the  word  B-T,  who,  however,  mark  the  vowel  as  long. 



O.N.  stord  "  brushwood  "  :   Storrs,  Yealand  Stores  SLo. 

O.N.  stpng  "pole  "  :  Garstang  Am,  Stank  Top  Bl. 

O.E.  stret  "  street ;   Roman  road  "  :  Street  Le,  Stanystreet  Sa,  Stret-,  Trafford  Sa. 

O.E.  swira,  O.N.  sviri  "  neck  "  :  Boulsworth  Bl. 

O.E.  taegl  "  tail  "  :   Bartle  Am. 

O.E.  *tang,  *twang:  Tonge  (2),  Tong  End,  Taunton  Sa,  Tongue  Moor  SLo.  The  places  in 
question  are  in  or  close  to  a  tongue  of  land  formed  by  the  junction  of  two  streams.  The  obvious 
source  of  the  el.  Tong  would  seem  to  be  O.N.  tangi  "  spit  of  land."  But  the  places  in  question 
— with  the  exception  of  Tongue  Moor — are  in  districts  where  Scand.  names  are  rare.  In  one 
case  we  find  an  early  form  Twannge,  which  can  hardly  be  explained  if  the  source  is  O.N.  tangi. 
And  names  such  as  Tong(e),  in  early  sources  sometimes  Twang  and  the  like,  are  found  in 
other  parts  of  England,  as  Kent,  Surrey,  Salop,  where  we  do  not  expect  to  find  Scand.  names. 
Examples  : 

Tong  (Kent,  near  Sittingbourne) :  Tanga  1160-2  RB,  1167,  1187  PR,  Tange  1212  RB, 
Tonge  1306  IPM.— Tong  (Salop) :  Tuange  DB,  Twanga  1167  PR,  Tonge  1280  IPM,  Tunge 
1326  IPM.— Tonge  (Leic.)  :  ?  cet  Twongan  1002  Thorpe,  Tunge  DB,  Tong  1499  AD  (D  850).— 
Tonge  (Yks.)  :  Tuinc  (no  doubt  for  Tuanc)  DB,  Tanga  1166  RB,  1167  PR.— Tangley 
(Sur.)  :  de  Tangele  1293  RB,  Tangelee  1316  IPM.— Tonghain  (Sur.) :  Twangham  1299  IPM.— 
?  Tangmere  (Sus.)  :  Tangmere  680  BCS  50. — The  places,  with  the  exception  of  Tongham  and 
Tangmere,  are  in  a  tongue  of  land  formed  by  the  junction  of  streams.  Tongham,  however, 
is  near  a  sharp  bend  formed  by  a  river,  and  consequently  stands  near  a  tongue  of  land,  too. 
The  original  situation  of  Tangmere  is  doubtful.  The  place  was  named  from  a  lake,  which  has 
now  disappeared.  A  satisfactory  explanation  must  account  for  both  forms  :  tang  and  twang. 
Twang  may  be  compared  with  M.H.G.  zwange  "  tongs."  The  corresponding  word  is  not 
found  in  English,  but  O.E.  twengan  "  to  tweak  "  is  a  derivative  of  *twang  "tongs,"  or  contains 
the  same  base.  I  take  Twang  as  a  place-name  to  be  an  O.E.  *twang  "  tongs,"  used  in  a 
transferred  sense  of  the  fork  of  a  river ;  the  similarity  between  the  fork  of  a  river  and  a 
pair  of  fire-tongs  is  obvious.  I  see  no  reason  to  doubt  that  tang  in  place-names  is  O.E.  tang 
"tongs"  in  a  similar  transferred  sense.  It  remains  to  explain  why  Twang-  is  replaced  by 
later  Tange,  Tonge.  In  some  cases,  as  in  Tongham,  M.E.  loss  of  w  may  be  assumed  ;  thong 
(o  1205  Lay,  etc.)<O.E.  pwang  may  be  compared.  In  some  cases  we  have  apparently  to 
assume  that  an  original  Twang  was  transformed  to  Tang  owing  to  association  with  and  influ- 
ence from  the  synonymous  tang,  or  that  Tang  was  substituted  for  original  Twang.  As  the 
word  twang  must  have  been  lost  at  an  early  period  as  a  living  element  of  the  language  such 
refashioning  is  easy  to  understand. 

O.N.  tiorn  "  tarn  "  :  Blelham  Tarn,  Standing  (Green)  Tarn,  Tarn  Flat,  Tarn  Hows  NLo, 
perh.  Tarnbrook  SLo  ;  cf.  also  under  Martin  Lo. 

O.E.  treo(w),  O.N.  tr6  "  tree  "  :  Aintree,  Wavertree  De,  Langtree  Le,  Hareappletree  SLo. 
Names  in  -tree  are  common  in  England,  esp.  as  names  of  hundreds,  these  having  been  named 
from  some  conspicuous  tree  at  the  place  where  the  hundred  moot  was  held. 

O.E.  trog  "  trough,"  later  also  "  a  hollow  or  valley  resembling  a  trough  ;  bed  or  channel 
of  .a  stream  "  (1513,  etc.,  NED)  :  Trough  Sa,  SLo,  Trawden  Bl,  Troughton  NLo. 

O.E.  tun  "  manor,  farm  ;  village,  hamlet."  These  are  no  doubt  the  usual  meanings  in 
Lane,  place-names.  A  meaning  "  garden  "  is  plausible  in  Leighton,  perhaps  in  Appleton. 
O.N.  tun  "  enclosure  ;  yard  ;  homestead  "  is  quite  common  in  Icel.  place-names.  In  Lane, 
place-names  the  first  el.  is  usually  English,  but  in  some  cases  it  is  Scand.,  once  even  French 

A.  The  first  el.  is  English  (or  pre-Scand.).  It  is  (1)  usually  a  common  noun,  as  the  name 
of  a  tree  or  plant  (Ash-,  Roy-,  Win-,  Withington  Sa,  Aigh-,  Rishton  Bl,  Aller-,  Apple-,  Ash-, 
Augh-,  Thornton  De,  ?  Faring-,  Ollerton  Le,  Ash-  (2),  Plump-  (2),  Thistle-,  Thorn-,  Weeton 
Am,  Ash-,  Augh-,  Leighton  SLo,  Plumpton  NLo  ;  Barton  Sa,  De,  Am,  perh.  Pemberton  De)  ; 
some  other  topographical  feature  or  a  place-name  (Clay-,  Clif-,  Den-,  Foxden-,  Gor-,  Haugh-, 
Hough-,  Westhough-,  Hul-,  ?  Huy-,  Mos-,  Pendle-,  Riving-,  Taunton  ;  Edenfield,  perh. 
Wharton  Sa,  Clay- (2),  Clif-,  Hap-,  Mit-,  More-,  Pendle-,  Twiston  Bl ;  Dal-,  Den-,  Dit-,  Hough-, 
Huy-,  Low-,  Mar-,  Poulton  De  ;  Clay-,  Hogh-,  Hut-,  Wheelton  Le  ;  Brough-,  Clif-,  Comp-, 
Haigh-,  Lay-,  Mar-,  Poul-,  Ribbleton  Am  ;  Forton  Lo  (Am),  Dal-,  Hal-,  Hut-  (3),  Over-, 
Poulton  SLo,  Brough-  (3),  Dal-,  Gleaston,  Martin,  Troughton  NLo) ;  the  name  of  some 
building  (Eccleston  De,  Le,  Am ;  Bolton  Sa  (2),  SLo,  NLo  ;  Burton  De,  Broughton  Sa)  ; 
or  some  other  word  (Swinton  Sa,  Singleton  Am,  Warton  Am,  SLo,  Pennington  NLo).  (2) 


A  personal  name  (Balders-,  Chorl-,  Elton  Sa,  Balders-,  Osbaldes-,  Wit-,  Worston  Bl, 
Ather-,  E1-,  Ethers-,  Harle-,  Rix-,  Wools-,  Woolton  De,  Ander-,  Euxton  Le  ;  Dutton  Bl  (Am), 
Als-,  Els-,  Hambleton  Am,  Hilderston  SLo),  or  a  derivative  in  -ing  (Alkring-,  Pilking-, 
Tottington  Sa,  Billing-,  Pleasington  Bl,  Penning-,  Warrington  De,  Adlington  Le,  ?  Adding-, 
Wenning-,  Whittington  SLo  ;  perh.  Dumplington,  Monton  Sa,  Cronton  De,  Worthington  Le), 
or  some  other  noun  designating  persons  (Chorlton  Sa,  Walton  Bl,  De,  Le,  NLo  (2) ;  Wright- 
ington  Le,  Preston  Am).  (3)  An  adjective  or  adverb  :  Hea-  (3),  Middle-,  Newton  Sa,  A1-, 
Middle-,  Nether-,  New-,  Sut-,  Upton  De  ;  Longton  Le ;  Middle-,  Newton  (2)  Am,  Hea-, 
Middle-,  Newton  (2)  SLo,  Hea-,  Newton  (2)  NLo. 

B.  The  first  el.  is  Scandinavian.  It  is  :  (1)  A  common  noun  (Sefton  De,  Croston  Le, 
Scorton  Am,  Sker-,  Wrayton  SLo,  perh.  Stainton  NLo) ;  (2)  a  pers.  name  (Flix-,  Tur-, 
Urmston  Sa,  Tarleton  Le,  ?  Ulverston  NLo),  or  some  other  noun  designating  a  person 
(?  Bretherton  Le,  Carleton  Am,  Coniston  NLo) ;  (3)  uncertain  in  Claughton  Am,  SLo. 

More  or  less  doubtful  cases  :  Chadder-,  Chatter-,  Crompton  Sa,  Accrington  Bl,  Everton 
De,  Shevington  Le,  Dur-,  Freckleton  Am,  Caton,  Farleton  SLo,  Anger-,  Col-,  Crivel-,  Egton 

The  exact  meaning  of  tun  cannot  be  determined  in  each  case. 

The  form  -town  is  met  with  in  some  late  names  :  Churchtown  Am,  NLo,  Old  Town  SLo, 
Newtown  NLo. 

O.E.  twisla  "  fork  of  a  river  "  :  Entwisle  Sa,  Bastwell,  Birtwisle,  Ex-,  Oswaldtwistle, 
Twiston  Bl.  The  fact  that  -tivisle  is  usually  combined  with  pers.  names  points  to  the  exact 
meaning  being  "  tongue  of  land  at  the  junction  of  two  streams."  Cf.  also  Twiss  De. 

O.E.,  O.N.  pom  "  thornbush  "  :  Rishton  Thorns,  Worsthorne  Bl,  Hubberthorn  SLo, 
Daughtarn  NLo.  Bel-,  Gaulkthorn  Bl  have  not  been  found  in  early  sources.  Both  are  near 
hills  (c  900ft.).  Cf.  Bellthorn-moor  1771  Whitaker,  Hist.  Manch.  I.  121.  It  is  a  remarkable 
fact  that  thorn  often  occurs  in  names  of  hills.  Cf.  Crowthorn  (S.  of  Harcles  Hill  Sa),  Shap 
Thorn  (a  prominent  hill  near  Shap  in  Wml.). 

O.N.  porp  "  a  group  of  homesteads,  a  village,"  perh.  also  "  a  farm,  croft  "  (cf.  Swed.  torp 
"  a  croft  "),  O.Dan,  thorp  "  a  smaller  village  due  to  colonization  from  a  larger  one."  The  el. 
is  rare  in  Lane.  :  Thorpe  Sa,  Gawthorpe  Bl  (old  estates),  Thorp  Le  (an  old  v.  or  h.),  Thorp 
De  (lost) ;  cf.  Cracanethorp  (cultura  ;  SLo)  CC  840. 

O.N.  pveit  ?  "  a  meadow  ;  a  piece  of  land,"  Norw.  tveit  "  a  piece  of  meadow  in  a  wood,  a 
cleared  meadow,  a  clearing,"  etc.,  Engl.  dial,  thwaite  "  a  forest  clearing ;  a  piece  of  land  fenced 
off  or  enclosed ;  a  low  meadow ;  a  fell ;  a  single  house ;  a  small  hamlet,"  etc.  The  history  and 
etymology  of  the  word  are  fully  discussed  by  Lindkvist,  p.  96ff.  The  exact  meaning  in  Lane. 
names  is  by  no  means  clear.  According  to  Ellwood,  Lakeland  and  Iceland,  p.  61,  the  word 
thwaite  is  applied  to  meadows  on  the  margin  of  Coniston  lake.  Mr.  Collingwood  points  out 
to  me  that  in  Lane,  names  thwaite  always  refers  to  a  piece  of  land  sloping  down  towards  a 
stream  or  a  marsh  ;  this  observation  is  certainly  quite  true.  In  Iceland,  according  to  Ellwood, 
a  pveit  is  the  brim  of  dry  meadow-land  that  gradually  inclines  towards  bogland.  It  seems 
very  probable  that  in  many  Lane,  names  thwaite  meant  originally  "  a  low  meadow,"  but 
meanings  such  as  "  clearing  "  or  "  enclosure  "  are  also  possible.  The  word  may  have  had 
different  applications  in  different  periods. 

The  Lane,  thwaites  are  mostly  in  rather  remote,  sometimes  in  hilly  districts,  but  they  are 
not  as  a  rule  in  a  high  situation  ;  few  are  found  at  a  higher  altitude  than  some  300  or  400ft. 
above  sea-level,  and  many,  as  Allithwaite,  Haverthwaite,  Outerthwaite,  are  situated  quite 
low.  So  are  many  Cumb.  thwaites. 

Some  names  in  -thwaite  have  as  first  part  the  name  of  a  cereal,  as  Bean-,  Big-,  Haverthwaite 
Lo  ;  this  shows  that  the  places  were  of  old  cultivated.  The  three  Rosthwaites  must  have 
been  used  as  horse -pastures ;  Scarthwaite  SLo  may  be  a  similar  case.  Other  names  in 
-thwaite  have  as  first  el.  a  (descriptive)  common  noun,  as  Hawthornthwaite  SLo,  Haw-, 
Icken-,  Kirk-,  Rais-,  Satter-,  Scri-,  Sea-,  Walthwaite  NLo  ;  or  an  adj.,  as  Fair-,  Langthwaite 
SLo,  ?  Es-,  Hoa-,  Honey-,  Outerthwaite  NLo  ;  or  a  place-name,  as  Nib-,  Subber-,  Tilber- 
thwaite  NLo  ;  or  a  pers.  n.,  as  Gunner-,  Outhwaite  SLo,  Alii-,  Finsthwaite  NLo.  Other 
examples  :  Laithwaite  De,  Gubberford  Am,  Laithwaite  Lo  (Am),  Burble-,  Gaw-,  Gray-, 
Hea-,  Lone-,  Scathwaite  NLo.  The  first  el.  as  a  rule  is,  or  may  be,  a  Scand.  word.  One 
certain  exception  is  Beanthwaite. 

?  O.E.  *pwit  or  O.N.  *pvit  :  Inglewhite  Am.  The  same  el.  seems  to  occur  in  Little  White 
(Litilwhite  1365)  in  Durh.,  Trewhitt  (Tyrewyt  1229,  Tirwhite  1327,  etc.)  in  Nhb.  (see  Mawer). 


It  is  apparently  a  word  cognate  with  thwaite,  derived  from  O.E.  pwitan  "  to  cut  "  or  a  corres- 
ponding O.N.  verb,  meaning  perh.  "  a  detached  piece  "  or  the  like. 

O.E.  pyrne,  O.N.  pyrnir  "  thornbush  "  :  Henthorn  Bl,  Thurnham,  Stapleton  Terne  SLo. 

O.N.  vardi,  varda  "  cairn,  heap  of  stones  "  :   Warbreck  De,  Am. 

O.N.  vafl  "  ford  "  :  Byrewath,  Howath  Am,  Priest-,  Lang-,  Scamwath  SLo,  Skelwith, 
Tunwath  NLo  ;  cf.  Hala  Carr  SLo. 

O.N.  veidr  "  fishing,  hunting  ;  place  for  fishing  or  hunting  "  :  Ingoe  De,  Waitholme  SLo, 
Waitham  NLo. 

O.N.  vik  "  bay,"  etc.  :   Blowick,  Wyke  De,  Lowick  Lo. 

O.N.  vidr  "  forest  "  :    Blawith  NLo. 

O.N.  VQllr  "  level  meadow,  grazing  ground,  open  field  '* :  Thingwall  De,  Walthwaite  Lo. 

O.N.  (v)ra,  O.Swed.  vra  "  corner,"  Engl.  dial,  wray  "  corner  "  (Wml.).  Norw.,  Swed. 
vra  (vra)  occurs  in  names  of  places  with  a  remote  or  secluded  situation,  as  surrounded  by  hills 
or  merely  isolated  from  other  homesteads.  The  same  description  applies  to  Lane,  places 
with  names  in  vra  :  Wray,  -ton,  Capernwray,  Whiteray  SLo,  Wray,  Birkwray,  Holbiggerah 
NLo,  are  in  more  or  less  remote  valleys.  In  the  case  of  Wrea  Am  a  meaning  "  outlying 
place  "  seems  plausible. 

O.E.  w«l  "  a  weel,  a  deep  pool,  a  gulf,  deep  water  of  a  stream  or  of  the  sea,"  dial,  weel 
(Sc.,  Yks.,  Lane.,  etc.)  "  a  whirlpool,  an  eddy  ;  a  deep,  still  part  of  a  river  ":  Sale  Wheel  Bl ; 
cf.  Freckleton  Am.  Whitaker,  Hist,  of  Manchester  (1771)  I.  p.  122,  mentions  Bolton-weel 
near  Strangeways,  Scarweel  above  Broughton-Ford  (Manchester). 

O.E.  waella,  wselle  (wella,  etc.)  "  well,  spring  ;  stream."  In  place-names  both  meanings 
are  evidenced.  River-names  :  Irwell,  ?  Milkwall  Sa.  Names  of  places  :  Halliwell  Sa,  WisweU, 
Winewall  Bl,  Aspin-,  Childwall,  Thatto  De,  Colloway  SLo,  Hawkswell  NLo.  In  the  last 
the  first  part  seems  to  be  a  Scand.  pers.  n. 

O.E.  gewsesc  :  Strangeways  Sa. 

O.E.  wseter  "  water,"  i.e.,  "  stream  "  :  Blackwater,  Colne,  Pendle  Water  Bl ;  or  "  lake  "  : 
Hawes  Water  SLo,  Elterwater,  Thurston  Water,  etc.,  NLo. 

M.E.  whin  "  saliunoa,  ruscus,"  Mn.E.  whin  "  furze,"  etc.  :  Winfold  Fell  SLo,  Whinfield 
NLo  (second  el.  O.N.  fell  "  fell  "),  perh.  WindhiU  NLo.  The  etymology  of  whin  is  not  quite 
certain.  It  is  considered  by  Torp,  Nynorsk  Et.  Ordb.  (s.v.  kvein)  to  be  related  to  Norw. 
kvein  "  thin  grasses,"  Swed.  hven,  Dan.  hvene,  used  of  various  species  of  agrostis,  etc.,  and 
of  tall,  stiff  grasses,  all  cognate  with  Swed.  dial,  hven  "  low-lying  meadow,"  and  belonging  to  a 
base  *hvin-  "  marsh,  bog."  Whatever  the  ultimate  etymology  may  be,  it  seems  probable  to 
me  that  whin  is  a  Scand.  word,  in  ablaut  relation  to  kvein,  etc.  ;  cf.  early  Dan.  hvinegrces, 
hvinestraa,  hvine  "  festuca  prior "  (Kalkar),  Dan.  dial,  hvene,  hveneknop  (Feilberg),  Icel. 
hvingras  "  agrostis."  A  third  grade  with  short  i  may  have  existed,  but  I  may  have  been 
shortened  in  compounds  such  as  hvingras.  A  change  of  meaning  from  "  tall,  stiff  grass,"  etc., 
to  "  rush  "  (a  M.E.  sense)  and  "  furze  "  seems  plausible.  The  late  appearance  of  the  word 
in  English  rather  suggests  Scand.  origin. 

O.E.  wlC  "  dwelling-place,  residence  ;  village,  town,"  etc.,  prob.  also  "  farm,  cattle-farm  " 
(e.g.,  cealf-,  gatawic) ;  cf.  dial,  wick  "  a  dairy-farm."  The  el.  is  fairly  common  in  Sa,  where 
it  is  always  combined  with  a  pers.  n.  :  Ard-,  Bes-,  Chad-,  Gothers-,  Whittleswick,  Prestwich. 
The  only  example  in  De,  Win  wick,  and  Elswick  Am  also  have  a  pers.  n.  as  first  part.  The 
meaning  here  seems  to  be  "  dwelling-place,  manor,"  in  Prestwich  perhaps  "  village."  In 
Killerwick  NLo  the  first  el.  is  a  Scand.  pers.  n.  On  Borwick  SLo  see  p.  8.  Fish-,  Salwick  Am, 
perh.  Ho  wick  Le  have  a  common  noun,  Urswick  NLo  prob.  the  name  of  a  lake,  as  first  el. 
These  latter  names  denote  old  villages. 

O.E.  wice  "  witchelm  "  :   Horwich,  Wicheves  Sa. 

O.E.  widig,  M.E.  wipin  (prob.  formed  with  the  O.E.  adjectival  suffix  -in)  "  willow."  Dial. 
withen  (Lane.,  Ches.,  Der.)  also  means  "  willow  holt ;  a  piece  of  wet  land  where  willows 
grow  "  :  Win-,  Withington  Sa,  Weeton  Am. 

O.E.  worp  m.,  wyrp  f.  "  enclosure ;  homestead,  farm."  The  first  el.  is  (1)  a  common 
noun  :  Ash-,  Butter-,  ?  Edge-,  Farn-,  Holling-,  Shores-,  Shuttleworth  Sa,  Shuttle-,  Town- 
worth  Bl,  Cle-,  Farn-,  Shuttleworth  De,  Stanworth  Le,  Dilworth  Bl  (Am),  Appletreeworth 
NLo  ;  (2)  a  pers.  n.  :  Ains-,  Chads-,  Pils-,  Uns-,  ?  Whitworth  Sa,  Beardwood,  Snod-,  Tottle- 
worth  Bl,  Roddlesworth  Le  ;  (3)  an  adj. :  Long-,  Rumworth  Sa,  Southworth  De ;  (4)  a 
place-name  :  Wardleworth  Sa  ;  (5)  more  or  less  doubtful  in  Blatchin-,  Fails-,  Haworth  Sa, 
Duckworth  Bl,  Lentworth  SLo.  In  no  case  does  the  first  el.  seem  to  be  a  Scand.  word.  The 


el.  is  most  common  in  Salford  (esp.  Rochdale)  and  in  Blackburn  par.  Yareswurthebroc  (Dean) 
1227  LF  iv.,  Noggarth  (Barrowford:  Nugworth  bancke  1551  LP),  and  Shads-,  Wilworth,  near 
Blackburn,  may  be  added.  The  De  -worths  are  in  the  part  adjoining  Salford,  and  the  Le 
ones  close  to  the  E.  border,  not  far  from  Blackburn  town. 

Few  names  in  -worth  denote  old  townships  or  villages.  Most  of  the  places  in  question 
are  comparatively  insignificant  or  in  a  somewhat  remote  situation  (Roddlesworth,  Snod- 
worth,  Lentworth,  etc.).  Hennewurthe  (Pemberton)  De  is  said  to  be  a  toft  LF  1202. 

O.E.  worp  (<*wurpa-)  and  wyrp  (<*wurpi-)  correspond  to  O.Sax.  wurd,  app.  "soil" 
(Heliand  2478),  M.L.G.  wurt,  wort  "  homestead,"  L.G.  word,  wurt  "  open  place  in  a  village," 
etc.  See  Torp-Fick  p.  395,  also  Forstemann,  Namenbuch  and  Die  deutschen  Ortsnamen, 
p.  40.  The  original  meaning  of  the  words  is  very  likely  "  enclosure,  fence  "  (Torp).  In  Engl. 
place-names  the  usual  meaning  is  very  likely  "  homestead,"  but  "  close,  enclosure  "  seems 
very  probable  in  some  cases,  e.g.,  in  the  curious  name  Shuttlesworth. 

The  second  el.  of  Faldworthings  Le  may  be  O.E.  wordign,  a  word  apparently  of  much 
the  same  meaning  as  worp,  or  wyrding  "  a  cultivated  field  "  ?  (B-T).  The  original  meaning 
of  the  latter  may  be  "  enclosure."  It  seems  to  be  a  derivative  of  an  O.E.  *wyrdan  "  to  enclose  "; 
of.  O.E.  wyrdeland  "  novale,"  i.e.,  "  land  ploughed  for  the  first  time,  cultivated  field,"  and  the 
apparently  synonymous  O.E.  wyrden. 

O.E.  wudu  "  wood  "  :  Brand-,  Cheet-,  Har-,  Hey-,  Hopwood  Sa,  Har-,  Hurstwood  Bl, 
Burton-,  Gars-,  Hale-,  Simonswood  De,  Holmes  Wood  Le,  Fulwood  Am,  Cawood  SLo,  Brant- 
wood,  Sea  Wood  NLo.  The  first  el.  seems  to  be  English  or  pre-Scand.  in  all  cases  exc.  Holmes 

Notes  on  the  Phonology  of  Lancashire  Place-Names 

me  changes  e 
in  the  material  are  con 

Only  some  changes  especially  characteristic  of  the  Lane,  dialects  and  frequently  exemplified 


O.E.  a  before  I  frequently  becomes  o  S.  of  the  Ribble,  especially  in  O.E.  alor  "  alder  "  : 
Lightollers  Sa,  Ollerton  Le  ;  Colne,  Hollowhead  Bl.  The  same  change  is  found  in  Ches. 
(Ollerton),  Yks.  W.R.  (Owlerton),  Derby  (Ollersett)  and  elsewhere  in  the  West-Midlands. 

O.E.  a  becomes  p  S.  of  the  Ribble  :  Coldcoats,  Fenniscowles,  Low,  Oakenhead  Bl,  Roby 
De,  etc.,  also  in  Bl  N.  of  the  Ribble  :  Davyscoles,  but  in  the  rest  of  the  county  a  remains  : 
Loudscales,  Scales,  Wrea  Am. 

O.E.  ce,  i-  mutation  of  a  before  I  +  a  consonant  as  a  rule  appears  as  a  S.  of  the  Ribble,  as  in 
West-Midland  generally  :  Falinge  Sa,  Falling  De,  Winewall  Bl,  Aspinwall,  Cbildwall  De,  etc. 
N.  of  the  Ribble  examples  are  few.  Some  examples  of  a  occur  in  Am,  as  Eedwalle  (Carlton) 
CO  148,  Sewallesike  (Preston)  CO  217.  But  e  is  found  in  Colloway  Lo  ;  cf.  Keldbrekewelle 
(Stalmine)  CC  106,  Quitewellebroc  (Claughton)  CC  261,  Welleker  (Forton)  CC  341. 

O.E.  o  in  an  open  syllable  sometimes  becomes  oi,  as  it  does  in  W.Yks.  :  Boy  sn  ope  Sa, 
Monk-,  Langroyd  Bl. 

O.E.  y  frequently  appears  as  u  (uy)  in  early  sources,  especially  S.  of  the  Ribble.  Some- 
times u  (uy)  is  preserved  in  the  modern  form  :  Bruche,  Huyton  De,  Hulton  Sa. 

O.E.  ow,  03  sometimes  appear  as  aw  :  Trawden  Bl  ;  cf.  fawerhokes  "  four  oaks  "  (Am) 
CC  298.  O.N.  ou  (au)  often  becomes  au  (aw)  as  in  Rawcliffe  Am,  Hawes  Lo  ;  cf.  -hall<-haw 
(O.N.  haugr)  under  I. 


O.E.  d  often  becomes  t  in  a  final  position  :  Breightmet,  Facit  Sa,  Lunt  De.  On  confusion 
between  -head,  -side  and  -set,  see  under  set  p.  16.  On  -forth  for  -ford,  see  p.  11. 

O.E.  3  after  a  often  appears  as  i,  y  instead  of  w,  as  in  Haigh  Sa,  Crookhey,  Stodday  Lo, 
earlier  Bradshaigh  for  Bradshaw  and  the  like.  Shawforth  Sa  is  pronounced  locally  (Je'fep]. 
Note  Aighton  Bl,  Haighton  Am. 

O.E.,  O.N.  h  [x]  occasionally  becomes  k  :  Alkrington,  Anglezark,  Lomax  Sa,  Pex  Hill  De, 
Arkholme  Lo.  It  often  disappears  finally  after  r  :  Medlar  Am,  Ortner,  Torver,  Winder  Lo 
(-ergh  "  a  shieling  "),  Scaleber  Lo  (bergh  "  a  hill  "). 

Initial  h-  has  disappeared  in  Unsworth  Sa,  Audley,  Elmridge  Bl,  perh.  Inchfield  Sa. 
Loss  of  h-  in  early  sources,  as  in  Apton  for  Hapton  is  partly  due  to  A.N.  influence.  The  same 


explanation  probably  applies  to  inorganic  H-,  as  Hinne  for  Ince  DB.  Inorganic  h  is  very 
common  before  the  second  el.  of  compounds,  as  Fyfhokis  "  five  oaks  "  CC  716,  Dodithak 
"  dodded  oak  "  CC  516  ;  -hergh  often  for  -ergh.  This  is  hardly  due  to  A.N.  influence. 

O.E.,  O.N.  k  (c)  sometimes  appears  as  t  before  I,  n  :  Birtle,  Birtenshaw,  Whittleswick  Sa, 
Artlebeck  Lo.  The  opposite  change  seems  evidenced  in  Alkincoats  Bl. 

O.E.  cw  and  Jiw  seem  to  have  fallen  together,  qu  being  often  written  for  O.E.  hw  and  wh 
for  O.E.  cw.  Whiston  is  often  Quistan,  Quick  De  often  Whike  in  early  sources.  Whittleswick 
Sa  seems  to  have  originally  begun  in  Qu-  (Cw-).  This  confusion  is  due  to  the  change  [kw]> 
[hw]>[w]  common  in  Lane.  dial. ;  cf.  Wright,  E.D.Gr.  §  241. 

I  is  frequently  lost  after  au,  ou,  u,  as  in  Audenshaw  Sa,  Gooden  Sa,  Audley  Bl,  Lickow, 
Mowbrick,  Todderstaffe  Am  ;  cf.  further  Marsden,  Twiston  Bl ;  also  Knowsley  De,  Scaitcliffe 
Sa,  Bl  (dissimilation).  But  early  au  for  al  (as  Sauford  for  Salford)  is  due  to  A.N.  influence. 
An  inorganic  I  has  often  been  added  after  au,  ou,  etc.,  as  in  Nuttall  Sa,  Becconsall  Le,  Hackin- 
sall,  Preesall  Am,  Walney  Lo.  In  Lonsdale  N.  of  the  Sands  -hall  has  often  replaced  earlier 
-haw  (O.N.  haugr).  An  intrusive  I  is  found  also  in  Fallowfield,  Quarlton  Sa. 

n  in  weak  forms  of  nouns  and  adjectives  as  the  first  part  of  compounds  as  a  rule  disappears 
except  before  a  vowel  and  h,  as  in  Chadwick,  Tetlow  Sa,  Elton  Sa,  De,  Entwisle  Bl,  Bedford 
De  ;  Bradley,  Newton  De,  etc.,  Heaton  Sa,  etc.  But  n  remains  e.g.  in  Cockney  Sa,  Kinknall 
De,  Wignall  Le.  It  is  doubtful  if  n  ever  remains  before  a  consonant  (other  than  h).  There  are 
a  very  few  isolated  instances  in  the  earliest  sources  (Woolton  De).  Possible  cases  of  preserva- 
tion of  n  are  Blatchinworth,  Monton  Sa,  Cronton  De. 

ng  h)]  often  appears  as  n  before  d,  t  in  early  forms.  Cf.  e.g.  Tottington  Sa,  Whittington 
SLo.  Later  ng  is  usually  reintroduced  and  original  n  in  the  same  position  often  becomes  ng. 
The  genuine  modern  pronunciation  is  probably  as  a  rule  [n].  Loss  of  ng  is  found  in  Padiham. 

p>t  in  Lingart  Am,  Kellet,  Sellet  SLo  (cf.  also  infra).  It  has  disappeared  in  Adgarley, 
Bleansley,  Stennerley  NLo. 

d  has  been  lost  in  Bolton,  Winton,  Weeton,  Elston,  Elswick,  etc. 

w,  of  course,  often  disappears.  This  is  usually  the  case  in  the  genuine  pronunciation  of 
•thwaite  [pdf]. 

Anglo-Norman  Spellings 

Only  some  of  the  more  important  and  frequently  exemplified  deviations  from  normal 
spelling  due  to  A.N.  influence  are  here  pointed  out.  I  refer  to  Skeat,  Notes  on  English 
Etymology,  p.  471ff.,  Stolze,  Lautlehre  der  ae  Ortsnamen  in  Domesday  Book,  and  especially 
to  Zachrisson,  Anglo-Norman  Influence  and  Notes  on  Early  English  Personal  Names  (Studier 
i  modern  sprakvetenskap  vi.,  Uppsala  1917). 


au  replaces  a  before  n.    Cf.  Bamford  Sa,  Sankey  De,  Cantsfield  Lo. 

e  is  occasionally  written  for  ai,  ei,  as  in  Oherestanc,  Suenesat  DB  (Garstang,  Swainshead). 
A  prosthetic  vowel  is  sometimes  added  before  s  +  a  cons.  :  Esmedune  DB  (Smithdown). 


c  often  stands  for  O.E.  c,  M.E.  ch  [tj],  as  in  Cildeuuelle,  Recedham,  Mamecestre  DB  (Child- 
wall,  Rochdale,  Manchester).  Before  t,  c  sometimes  replaces  O.E.  h,  as  in  Licthurst  for 

ch  is  a  common  symbol  for  [k]  before  e,  i,  as  in  Blacheburn,  Cherchebi,  Chellet,  Schelmersdale 
DB  (for  Blackburn,  etc.). 

d  is  substituted  for  th  [5],  as  in  Bodeltone  (for  Bothelton> Bolton),  Liderlant  (Litherland) 

n  replaces  m  in  the  end  of  words  :  Lidun,  Tiernun  DB  (Lytham,  Thurnham). 

s  (ss)  is  a  common  spelling  for  sch,  sh:  Estonior  Ashton,  Suttelesworth  for  Shuttlesworth,  etc. 

t  frequently  replaces  th  [f>]  especially  in  the  beginning  of  words.  Tarbock,  Tarleton, 
Tarlscough,  Torrisholme,  Turton,  Trinkeld  still  have  t.  But  to  some  extent  (at  least  in 
Trinkeld)  an  English  or  a  Scand.  sound-change  may  account  for  t. 

w  for  wh,  as  in  Witul  (Whittle),  Walelega  (Whalley)  is  probably  a  Norman  spelling,  as  wh 
is  long  kept  apart  from  w  in  Northern  dialects. 


Lancashire :  (honor  de)  Lancastre  1140  Ch,  (honor  de)  Lancastro  1158  Gh 
(orig.),  Lancastra  1162,  1165  LPR,  (Comitatus  de)  Lancastra  1169  LPR,  etc., 
(Comitatus)  Lancastrian  1199  LPR,  etc.,  (Comitatus)  Lancastrce  1202  LPR  ; 
Lancastreshire  14  cent.  Higden,  -schire  1387  Trevisa,  Lancasterschire  14  cent. 
Eulogium  Historiarum  (Lancastshire  in  a  15  cent.  MS),  Loncastyr  schyr  1441 
RSB,  Lancaster  1464  Paston  L  II.  152,  Lancastreshir(e)  c  1540  Leland,  Lan- 
kashire,  Lonkashire  1586  Camden. 

The  earliest  quotations  really  refer  to  the  honour  of  Lancaster.  The  full 
status  of  a  county  appears  to  have  been  attained  by  Lancashire  in  1194  (Farrer 
LPR  3,  VHL  II.  187-191).  Lancaster  is  the  county  town. 

The  Lyme. — The  honour  of  Lancaster  included  parts  of  other  counties,  as 
Derby,  Leicester,  Lincoln,  Nottingham.  To  distinguish  the  Lancashire  part  of 
the  honour  from  the  rest  it  became  usual  to  describe  it  as  the  honour  "  infra 
comitatum  "  or  "  infra  Limam,"  the  other  parts  being  referred  to  as  "  extra 
comitatum  "  or  "  extra  Limam  "  ;  these  terms  are  translated  into  English 
as  "  within,  without  (or  beyond)  the  Lyme."  Examples  are  frequently  met 
with  in  records,  e.g.,  The  Book  of  Fees,  pp.  206,  210,  Rotuli  Litterarum 
Patentium  I.  165,  etc.1 

The  element  Lyme  is  found  in  Ashton-under-Lyne  q.v.  Lyme  Wood  was  in 
S.E.  Lane.  :  Lyme  wood  1246  LAR  (app.  near  Ashton-under-Lyne),  [in]  bosco 
de  Lime  1222-68  CC  732  (Chadderton  and  Foxdenton).  Limehurst  is  in  Ashton  : 
del  Lymehirst  1379  Bardsley,  Limehurst  1422  CS  74.  Lyme  Park,  in  Ashton,  is 
mentioned  in  1337  (VHL  IV.  341). 

The  same  element  occurs  outside  Lancashire,  viz.  in  Ches.,  Staffs.,  Shrops., 
and  perhaps  Derby.  2j" 

Lyme  Handley  (Ches.,  N.  of  Macclesfield,  c  10  miles  from  Ashton-under-Lyne)  : 
Lime  DB,  Lyme  1313  IPM.  Church  Lawton  (S.E.  Ches.,  on  the  boundary 
against  Staffs.)  is  "  anciently  called  Lauton  under  lyme"  Ormerod  (ed.  Helsby) 
III.  11.  Audlem  (S.E.  Ches.,  S.W.  of  Crewe,  not  far  from  the  Shropshire 
boundary)  :  Aldelime  DB,  1311  IPM.  First  el.  O.E.  Alda  pers.  n.  or  old  "old." 

In  Liber  Luciani  de  laude  Cestrie  (RS  64),  p.  65  (c.  1195),  the  forest  of  Lyme 
is  said  to  form  the  boundary  of  Cheshire  :  "  Cestrie  provincia,  Lime  nemoris 
limite  lateraliter  clausa."  By  a  charter  of  1259  found  in  Annales  Cestrenses 
(RS  14),  p.  76,  Edward  earl  of  Chester  "  licenciavit  homines  Cestrisire  appro- 
viandi  se  de  Bosco  qui  vocatur  Lima."  Earl  Ranulf  III.,  in  a  charter  of  1215-16 
(Chart.  Chester  Abbey,  p.  105),  exempts  his  barons  from  doing  service  extra 

Newcastle-under-Lyme  (Staffs.) :  now  castello  subtus  Lymam  1173  Ch,  etc. 
Whitmore  (S.W.  of  Newcastle) :  Wytemore  under  Lyme  1243  AP  119.  Burslem 
(near  Newcastle)  :  Barcardeslim  DB,  Burwardeslym  1297  IPM ;  first  el.  O.E. 
Burgweard  pers.  n. 

1  "  Hec  est  inquisicio     .     .     de  tenementis  datis  et  alienatis  infra  limam  in  comitatu 
Lancastrie."     1212  BF  206.    "  In  baronia  de  Penuertham  sunt  feoda  v.  militum  infra  limam 
et  extra."  ib.  210.     "  Commisimus  .  .  .  Ade  de  Yeland  castrum  Roberti  Greslet  .  .  .  et 
totam  terram  ejusdem  Roberti  quam  habuit  infra  Lymam."     1216  PatR. 

2  I  have  to  thank  Professor  Tait  for  pointing  out  to  me  some  of  the  examples  given  here. 

24  THE  LYME 

Betton  in  Hales  (N.  Shi.,  close  to  the  boundary  against  Staffs.) :  Betton  under 
Lime  1161-82,  Betton  suUus  Lime  1256,  1294,  Betton  under  Lyne1 1490,  B.  subtus 
Lyne  1534  Eyton,  Antiquities  of  Shropshire  IX.  1991,  Betton  subtus  Lyme  1316 
FA.  Norton  in  Hales  (close  to  Betton) :  Nortona,  quce  sita  est  juxta  nemus 
quod  Lima  dicitur  1121-6  Cartulary  of  St.  Peter's  Abbey  (Collectanea  Topo- 
graphica  et  Genealogica  I.  26),  Norton  subtus  Lime  1225  Eyton,  op.  tit.  IX.  367. 

In  the  Chartulary  of  Chester  Abbey  is  mentioned,  in  connection  with  Weston 
(upon  Trent)  and  Shardlow,  a  boscus  de  Lima  (p.  169),  boscus  de  Lyme  1228-40 
(p.  179).  Prof.  Tait  takes  this  Lyme  wood  to  have  been  in  Derby  near  the 
Trent,  which  forms  a  county  boundary. 

The  Lyme  is  a  difficult  name.  As  the  word  is  often  used  to  denote  a  county 
boundary  and  places  with  names  in  Lyme  are  mostly  on  or  near  county  boundaries, 
it  is  tempting  to  ascribe  to  the  word  a  meaning  "  boundary."  This  has  also 
been  suggested  by  Sephton  and  others.  Prof.  Tait,  Mediaeval  Manchester, 
p.  180,  apparently  shares  this  view.  But  it  is  difficult  to  find  an  etymology  for 
such  a  word.  We  should  have  to  assume  that  a  word  lyme  "  boundary  "  was  in 
living  use  in  early  M.E.  times.  As  shown  bynames  such  as  Lyme  Handley,  Audi  em, 
Burslem,  which  are  in  DB,  Lyme  must  date  from  O.E.  time.  We  can,  therefore, 
not  derive  it  from  a  Romance  shortened  form  of  Lat.  limes.  O.E.  loan  direct 
from  Lat.  limes  is  hardly  to  be  thought  of.  A  native  Engl.  word  of  the  required 
form  and  meaning  is  unknown  and  has  no  parallels  in  cognate  languages.  In 
Celtic  languages  I  can  find  no  word  that  may  be  the  source.  A  Brit,  form  of 
Lat.  limes  would  hardly  have  lost  the  suffix  (or  really  second  component). 

In  my  opinion  Lyme  was  originally  the  name  of  a  forest.  This  is  sug- 
gested also  by  Taylor,  Introduction  to  Liber  Luciani,  p.  29,  who  thinks 
Lyme  Forest  was  a  continuation  of  Macclesfield  Forest  to  the  S.W.  In  Ormerod's 
Cheshire  III.  538,  on  the  other  hand,  it  is  stated  that  the  forest  of  Macclesfield 
was  anciently  denominated  forest  of  Lyme,  "  from  its  position  on  the  boundary 
of  the  Palatinate."  But  unless  we  assume  that  there  were  two  forests  of  Lyme 
near  each  other  the  forest  must  have  extended  all  the  way  along  the  Cheshire 
border  from  N.E.  Shropshire  into  S.E.  Lancashire,  and  have  embraced  Maccles- 
field forest.  The  forest  of  Lyme,  if  this  is  correct,  must  have  been  very  extensive, 
and  this  may  seem  to  tell  against  the  theory.  But  the  forest  district  would  be 
chiefly  on  the  western  slope  of  the  Pennine  hills,2  which  may  be  supposed  to 
have  been  to  a  great  extent  forest  and  waste  in  early  days.  More  serious  is, 
perhaps,  the  objection  that  we  should  not  expect  to  find  this  large  forest  of  Lyme 
mentioned  only  in  local  charters  and  records.  I  suppose  the  name  Lyme  ceased 
at  an  early  date  to  be  applied,  at  least  in  official  parlance,  to  the  whole  district, 
though  it  lingered  on  as  the  name  of  parts  of  it.3  A  considerable  (perhaps  the 
chief)  part  from  early  mediaeval  times  came  to  be  called  the  Macclesfield 

1  The  form  Lyne,  which  appears  also  in  Ashton-under-Lyne,  seems  to  be  due  to  association 
with  line,  mark  ;   limit,  boundary.     The  latter  sense  is  found  at  least  from  1595  (NED). 

2  If  the  Derbyshire  examples  are  trustworthy,  we  must  assume  that  there  was  a  forest 
of  Lyme  also  in  Derby,  for  the  forest  of  Lyme  under  discussion  here  cannot  have  embraced 
the  part  of  Derby  where  Shardlow  is. 

3  The  forest  of  Lyme  mentioned  in  the  charter  of  1259  may  have  been  a  part  of  the  old 
forest,  or  the  name  Lyme  may  have  continued  to  be  locally  used  of  the  whole  district. 

THE  LYME  25 

The  phrase  under  Lyme  (in  Newcastle-under-Lyme,  etc.)  rather  corroborates 
the  theory  that  Lyme  is  the  name  of  a  forest.  The  prep,  under  (Lat.  sub,  suUus) 
is  very  frequently  combined  with  names  of  forests,  as  in  Ascot-under-Wych- 
wood  (Oxf.),  Heaton-under-Horwich  or  under  the  Forest  (see  p.  44),  Newton 
Underwood  Nhb.  It  seems  to  mean  "  near." 

The  names  Lyme,  Audlem,  Burslem  contain  the  old  name  of  the  forest. 
Places  in  or  on  the  outskirt  of  the  forest  were  called  Lyme.  Audlem  and  Burslem 
were  very  likely  at  first  called  Lyme,  and  the  elements  Aide-,  Burgweardes  were 
added  for  distinction. 

We  come  to  the  phrases  infra,  extra  Limam.  These  can  hardly  always  mean 
simply  "  within,  beyond  the  forest  of  Lyme."  In  Ranulf's  charter  extra  Lymam 
apparently  means  "  outside  the  county  boundary."  I  think  we  have  here  a 
case  of  transferred  meaning,  which  is  fairly  easily  explained  in  the  case  of 
Cheshire.  Lyme  Forest  is  stated  c  1195  to  be  the  (eastern)  boundary  of  Cheshire. 
Extra  Lymam  would  mean  originally  "  beyond  Lyme  Forest."  This  would  be 
tantamount  to  "  beyond  (outside)  the  eastern  border."  By  extension  the 
phrase  might  easily  come  to  mean  "  outside  the  boundary  of  the  Palatinate." 
There  were  circumstances  which  gave  the  eastern  boundary  of  Cheshire  a  special 
significance.  The  earls  of  Chester  had  large  possessions  outside  Cheshire. 
Ranulf  I.  (d.  1129)  was  the  greatest  landowner  in  Lindsey.  Ranulf  II.  (d.  1153) 
had  possessions  in  Lindsey,  Notts.,  Leicester,  Warwick,  and  Stafford  (DNB). 
His  son,  Hugh,  succeeded  to  his  father's  possessions.  The  forest  of  Lyme  thus 
actually  separated  the  Palatinate  from  the  (chief  of  the)  possessions  of  the 
earls  outside  it.  I  suppose  the  phrase  extra  Limam  was  at  first  used  in  reference 
to  the  possessions  of  the  earls  of  Chester  beyond  Lyme  Forest,  not  in  reference  to 
England  generally. 

It  is  more  difficult  to  account  for  the  use  of  the  phrases  extra  (infra)  Limam 
in  the  case  of  the  honour  of  Lancaster,  because  Lyme  Forest  formed  only  a  small 
part  of  the  Lancashire  boundary.  Still,  Lyme  Forest  would,  in  a  way,  separate 
the  Lancashire  part  of  the  honour  from  those  in  Derbyshire,  etc.  But  it  seems  to 
me  more  plausible  to  assume  that  the  phrases  were  applied  to  the  honour  of 
Lancaster  on  the  analogy  of  the  Cheshire  usage.  The  fact  that  the  forest  of 
Lyme  actually  formed  part  of  the  Lancashire  boundary  would  have  facilitated 
this  transference. 

As  Lyme  Forest  formed  an  important  boundary,  a  natural  consequence  is 
that  the  places  with  names  containing  the  el.  Lyme  are  all  on  or  near  a  county 
boundary.  It  is  to  be  noticed,  however,  that  Newcastle-under-Lyme,  Whitmore, 
and  Burslem  are  at  some  distance  at  least  from  the  present  boundary  between 
Ches.  and  Staffs. 

Lyme  is  probably  a  pre-English  name  of  the  forest.  It  may  be  an  old  forest 
name,  or  the  forest  may  have  been  named  from  some  place.1  Possibly  it  belongs 
to  the  Celt,  stem  *lemo,  *limo  "  elm  "  (O.Ir.  lem,  Gaul,  limonum,  Welsh  llwyf,  etc.). 
It  may  be  simply  the  word  for  "  elm  "  used  in  the  sense  "  elm-wood  "  (cf. 
Jones,  p.  221),  or  a  derivative  of  that  word.  If  the  meaning  is  "  elm-wood," 

1  The  name  of  the  stream  (Lyme)  on  which  Newcastle-under-Lyme  stands  is  probably  a 
back-formation.  Yet  it  might  be  an  old  stream-name,  identical  with  Lyme  in  Do.,  and 
might  have  given  name  to  the  forest. 


this  need,  of  course,  not  mean  that  the  forest  consisted  only  of  elm  ;  it  may  imply 
that  elms  were  common  in  it. 

Lyme  in  Do.  (at  Lym  938  GD  372)  is  probably  derived  from  the  river-name 
Lyme  (Lim  774  BCS  224). 


Salford  hvnd'  DB,  hundredum  de  Samford  1200  LPR,  Wapentachium  de 
Sauford  1203,  1204  LPR,  Wapentake  of  Salford  1226  LI,  Salefordesire  1243  LI, 
Saufordschire,  Salfordschyre  1246  LAR,  Salfordisire  1297  LI,  Salfordshire  1327, 
1332  LS ;  cf.  Salford,  p.  32. 

Salford  hundred,  the  S.E.  part  of  the  county,  is  marked  off  by  natural 
boundaries  on  almost  all  sides.  The  S.  boundary  is  formed  by  the  Mersey  and 
the  Tame.  From  Yorkshire  in  the  E.  and  Blackburn  hundr.  in  the  N.  it  is 
separated  by  high  moorlands.  In  the  S.W.  the  large  Chat  Moss  formerly  cut 
Salford  off  from  West  Derby  hundred.  On  the  N.W.  high  moorlands,  belonging 
to  Salford,  separate  the  main  body  of  the  hundred  from  Leyland.  But  N.  of 
Ghat  Moss  Salford  and  West  Derby  hundreds  pass  into  each  other  without  a 
well-defined  natural  boundary. 

The  surface  is  mainly  low  and  level  in  the  S.W.,  but  rises  gradually  to  the 
E.  and  N.,  where  considerable  altitudes  are  reached.  Deep  river  valleys 
intersect  the  rising  ground. 

Names  of  Rivers 

Mersey  :  Mcerse  1002  Thorpe  544,  Mersham  DB,  Mersam  1094  LC,  1130 
LPR,  1140  Ch ;  Morse  1142  Ch,  1224,  1251,  1270  ChR,  etc.,  Merese  1228  C1R, 
Mersee  13  cent.  Wh  C  560,  1293  AP,  1322  LI,  Meresse  1298  LI,  Merseie  14  cent. 
Higden,  Mersea  1387  Trevisa,  Mersey,  Marsey  c  1540  Leland,  Marsee  1577  Saxton, 
Mersey  1577  Harr. 

The  name  is  a  compound  with  O.E.  ea  "  river  "  as  second  el.  The  first  el. 
offers  difficulties.  We  expect  the  name  of  such  an  important  river  (or  at  least 
its  first  el.)  to  be  of  pre-English  origin.  But  the  name  has  a  Germanic  appear- 
ance. It  is  most  plausible,  as  the  form  of  1002  shows  an  ce  in  the  first  syllable, 
to  connect  the  first  el.  with  O.E.  (ge)mcere  "boundary."  O.E.  Mcerse  instead  of 
Mcerese  might  be  compared  with  such  examples  as  bocre  (<  bocere),  deoflic 
(<deofollic)  Luick,  Hist.  Gr.  §  345.  As  regards  a  formation  Mceres- ea,  it  is  true 
there  are  examples  of  apparently  analogous  kind.  Johnston  points  out  Meres- 
brook  (Sheffield)  and  Meresbroc  DB  (Shrops.),  and  Middendorff  mentions  from 
O.E.  charters  mceres  crundel,  mceres  slced.  Anyhow,  it  would  be  remarkable  if 
such  an  old  name  as  Mersey  must  be  should  have  its  first  el.  in  the  genitive  form. 
Possibly  we  may  assume  a  side-form  or  derivative  of  O.E.  (ge)mcere  with  an 
s-suffix,  the  word  being  an  old  s-stem.  This  would  also  account  for  O.E.  Mcerse 
instead  of  Mcerese.  If  so,  we  may  perhaps  compare  such  names  as  The  Mearse 
(farm,  Wore.)  ;  Mersham  (Kent) :  Mersaham1  858  BCS  496  (orig.),  863  BCS 
507  (orig.) ;  Maresfield  (Suss.) :  Mersefelde  1316,  Marsefeld  1322  (Roberts). 

1  Mersa-  might  be  the  gen.  pi.  of  a  word  meaning  "  borderer." 


Tame  ,(a  trib.  of  the  Mersey)  :  Thame  WhC  149,  Tame  1322  LI  (p.  65),  the 
Tame  1577  Harr.  Tame  (Thame)  is  a  common  river-name  ;  cf.,  e.g.,  Tame 
(Warw.,  Staffs.)  :  O.E.  Tame,  Tamer  (Liebermann,  Die  Heiligen  Englands)  ; 
Thame  (Oxf.,  Bucks.)  :  Tame  971  Chr.B  ;  Thame  (Yks.)  :  Tame  Guisb.  C. 
It  is  a  Celtic  name,  identical  with  Taff,  Wales  (two  different)  :  Tarn,  Taf  LL. 
Gore  (or  Rush  or  Chorlton)  Brook  (a  trib.  of  the  Mersey)  :  Gorbroke,  Gord- 
broke  (Gordeneheued)  c  1250  Ch  (17  cent,  transcript),  Gorebrocke  1322  LI.  Gore 
is  O.E.  gor  "  dung,  dirt." 

Cringlebrook  (falls  into  Gore  Brook) :  Kryngelbroke  1322  LI.  Cringlebrook 
is  (or  was)  also  the  name  of  a  place  :  Cringlebrooke  1593  Didsbury  R.  The  name 
means  "  the  winding  brook."  The  brook  makes  innumerable  twists  and  turns,  too 
small  to  be  shown  even  in  the  one-inch  map.  The  first  el.  may  be  compared 
with  cringle-crangle  adj.  "  winding  in  and  out,  twisted  "  (1606  etc.),  cringle  vb. 
"  to  curve,  twist,  wind,"  especially  of  a  brook  (Lakel. ;  EDD).  We  may  assume 
an  O.E.  adj.  *cringol or  *cryngel  (<*krungila-)  "  twisting  "  from  cringan  "  to  die," 
lit.  "  to  contract  spasmodically,  to  twist "  ;  cf.  cringe,  which  preserves  the 
original  meaning. 

Irwell  (the  most  important  trib.  of  the  Mersey ;  runs  diagonally  from  N.E. 
to  S.W.  practically  through  the  whole  hundred ;  it  is  30  miles  long)  :  Urwil 
a  1190,  c  1200  CO,  Vrwill  a  1250  CC,  Irwel  1246  LAR,  13  cent.  WhC  42,  Irrewelk 
1277  LAR,  Irwel  c  1540  Leland.  It  would  seem  most  natural  to  identify  the 
first  el.  of  this  name,  whose  second  el.  is  O.E.  wcella,  wella  "  stream,"  with  that 
of  Ireby,  Irton,  etc.,  i.e.,  with  Ire  pers.  n.  (probably  Scand.)  or  the  gen.  of 
O.N.  Irar  or  O.E.  Iras  "  Irishmen."  But  the  CC  forms  tell  against  this,  and  such 
an  etymology  is  in  itself  improbable.  I  believe  Ir-  is  a  pre-English  name  of  the 
river.  If  so,  we  may  compare  O.E.  Yr  959  BCS  1052,  an  old  form  of  Aire  (Yks.), 
no  doubt  a  Celtic  name.  The  etymology  of  the  name  is  too  difficult  to  be  entered 
into  here. 

The  simple  name  Ire  is  possibly  found  in  Irinford  13  cent.  WhC  796,  Irefford 
ib.  785,  Irifford,  Yrefford  1329  ib.  260f.  (Chadwick,  Rochdale).  The  ford  was 
on  the  Roch,  the  most  important  tributary  of  the  Irwell,  which  may  originally 
have  been  called  Ire. 

Gilda  Brook  (a  trib.  of  the  Irwell)  :  cf.  le  Guldenaleford,  Gildenhaleford 
13  cent.  WhC  878,  880,  de  Gyldenale  1324  LF.  Gilda  is  a  place-name  containing 
as  its  second  el.  O.E.  halh  "  haugh."  The  first  may  be  the  O.E.  adj.  gylden, 
possibly  in  the  sense  "  covered  with  golden  flowers  "  (e.g.,  marigolds).  Cf. 
gyldeburne  843  BCS  442  (orig.)  and  Giltbrook  (Notts.).  Or  possibly  it  may  be 
a  lost  O.E.  pers.  n.  Gylda,  a  derivative  of  Gold-  in  Goldwine,  etc. 
Cornbrook  (joins  the  Irwell  near  Manchester) :  Le  Cornebroke  1322  LI 
(p.  66),  Come  Brooke  c  1540  Leland.  Identical  with  Cornbrook,  Wore,  (coma 
broc  c  957  BCS  1007  ;  cf.  corna  wudu,  corna  lip  ib.).  Corna  is  the  gen.  pi.  of 
O.E.  *corn,  a  form  with  metathesis  of  cron,  cran  "  a  crane  "  ;  cf .  cornuc=cranoc 
B-T  (Suppl.).  Cornbrook  is  also  the  name  of  a  ward  in  Stretford. 
Medlock  (joins  the  Irwell  in  Manchester) :  Medeloke,  Medelake  1322  LI, 
Medlok  c  1540  Leland,  the  Medlocke  1577  Harr.  Probably  O.E.  med  "  meadow  " 
and  lacu  "  stream."  If  so,  the  change  to  -lock  must  be  due  to  association  with 
lock  sb. 


The  Shooter  (a  trib.  of  the  Medlock) :    (aqua  de)  Schiter  1334  VHL  IV%  252  ; 

cf.  Shiter-flat  M  552.     Identical  with  Sciter  (or  Scitere)  river-name,  in  O.E. 

sciteres  stream,  sciteres  flod,  sciteres  clif  (MiddendorS),  apparently  a  derivative 

of  O.E.  scite  "  dirt  "    or  scltan  vb. 

Irk  (joins  the  Irwell  near  Manchester)  :    Irke,  Ircke,  Hirke  1322  LI,  Hirke, 

Hirk  c  1540  Leland,  the  Yrke  1577  Harr.     The  name  is  possibly  a  derivative  of 

the  first  el.  of  Irwell. 

Roch  (joins  the  Irwell  near  Bury) :  Racked.  13  cent.  WhC  757,  Roche  13  cent. 

WhC  619,  796,  Rack  late  12  cent.  Ind  II.,  13  cent.  WhC  773,  etc.,  ye  Roche  1577 

Harr.    Rached.  (if  not  for  Rachedale)  is  probably  a  back-formation  from  Rached- 

ham,  an  early  name  of  Rochdale,  the  most  important  place  on  the  Roch.     Later 

on  arose  a  new  back-formation  Roche  from  Rachedale.    See  Rochdale  p.  54. 

The  change  a  >  o  is  late.     The  name  is  sometimes  written  Roach  (e.g.  by  Waugh) 

and  pronounced  [ro'tf]. 

Naden  (a  trib.  of  the  Roch) :  Naueden  c  1300  WhC  602,  740  etc.,  Nauedenbrok 

13  cent.  ib.  739.    See  Naden  p.  60. 

Spodden  Brook  :   Spotbrok  13  cent.  WhC  734,   778,  Spodden  1577  Saxton, 

Sprotton  water  1577  Harr.     See  Spotland  p.  59. 

Beal  (joins  the  Roch  at  Rochdale) :   Bole  1200-20  CC,  Bele  c  1300  WhC  611, 

the  Beyle  1577  Harr.    Cf.  Belfield,  Beal  Moor  pp.  52,  56.     The  name  is  perhaps 

to  be  identified  with  the  O.E.  river-name  (in)  boele,  (ondlang)  lodes  (Wore.) 

851  BCS  462.    This  is  possibly  a  Celtic  name,  but  the  etymology  is  doubtful. 

Names  of  Hills 

Very  few  hill-names,  apart  from  those  which  have  given  names  to 
places,  are  found  in  early  sources.  Most  hills  are  named  from  adjacent 

Blackstone  Edge  (on  the  Yks.  border) :  The  Uacke  stony  hilks  1577  Harr., 
Blakeston  edge  hill  1577  Saxton.  Edge  means  "  ridge  or  summit  of  a  hill  or 
range  of  hills  ;  a  steep  hill  or  hillside."  Blackstone  is  said  to  refer  to  a  boundary 
stone  between  Yks.  and  Lane. 

Harcles  Hill  (a  prominent  hill  W.  of  the  Irwell  and  Ramsbottom) :  Arkil(is)hou 
a  1236,  Arkell-,  Arkeleshow  c  1236  Whit.  I.  324f.  O.N.  Arnkell  pers.  n.  and 
haugr  "  hill." 

Rivington  Pike  (1,156  ft.)  :  Rovyng  1325  LI,  Rivenpike  c  1540  Leland,  Riuen- 
pike  hill  1577  Saxton,  Rauenpike  1577  Harr.  Johnston  gives  Roinpik  a  1290, 
Rivenpike  a  1552.  Cf.  Rivington  p.  48.  I  imagine  the  name  is  a  derivative  of 
O.E.  hreof  "rough,  rugged,"  O.E.  *hreofing  "rugged  one,"  i.e.,  rugged  hill. 
This  base  would  account  fairly  well  for  the  variation  in  the  vowel  (e,  o,  i). 
Association  with  the  adj.  rough  may  account  for  some  forms  of  Rivington. 
The  name  seems  to  suit  the  hill.  As  regards  the  suffix  cf.  Kluge,  Stammbil- 
dungslehre,  §100.  Leland  gives  the  alternative  name  Faierlokke. 
Scout  Moor  (1,534  ft.,  N.E.  of  Ramsbottom) :  Scoute  1610  Bury  R  (a  place). 
Dial,  scout  (<  O.N.  skuti  "  projecting  cliff  ")  means  "  a  high  rock  or  hill ;  a  pro- 
jecting ridge,  a  precipice." 



This  parish  is  in  the  south-east  corner  of  the  county,  and  is  separated  by  the 
Tame  from  Cheshire  and  Yorkshire.  The  ground  is  fairly  flat  in  the  W.,  the 
altitude  varying  from  c  275  to  c  350  ft.,  but  rises  in  the  E.,  where  an  elevation 
of  over  1,000  ft.  is  reached.  The  par.  contains  only  one  township. 
Ashton-under-Lyne  :  Haistune,  Haystuna  c  1160  Ch,  Eston  1212  LI,  Asheton 
1276  LAR,  Aston  1278  LF,  Asshton  under  Lyme  1305  LF,  Assheton  under  Lyme 
1355  LF,  Asshton  under  Lyne  1319  LF,  Asshton  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.  "  Ashtree 
town."  As  regards  the  addition  under  Lyne  see  p.  23.  Ashton  town  stands 
on  the  Tame. 

Alt  (N.  of  Ashton) :  de  Alt  c  1200  Ch,  de  Halt  1222-6  LI,  de  Alte  (Hakh)  1246 
LAR,  de  Akhe  (Hache)  1276  LAR,  Alte  1322  LI,  Alt  Hey  1422  CS  74.  Alt 
is  on  a  spur  of  hill  reaching  600  ft.  ;  near  it  are  Alt  Hill  and  Alt  Edge.  Under 
the  circumstances  the  name  may  be  derived  from  Celt.  *alto-  "  hill,"  etc.  ;  cf. 
Welsh  allt  "  hill-side,  hill,  cliff,  woodland,"  O.Ir.  alt  "  shore,  cliff."  Allt  is 
common  in  Welsh  place-names. 

Audenshaw  :  Aldenshade,  Aldenesawe  c  1200  Ch,  Aldenshagh  c  1250  ib.  (LPR 
332),  de  Aldewainestath  1246  LAR,  Aldewynshagh  1422  HS  II.  O.E.  Aldwine 
p.n.  and  scaga  "  shaw."  The  early  forms  in  Alden  are  found  in  a  17th  cent, 
transcript  and  are  no  doubt  to  be  disregarded.  Other  MSS.  have  the  variants 
Aldwynshawe,  -shay  (LPR  329,  332). 

Bardsley  :    Bard(e}sley,  de  Berdesley  1422  CS  74.     The  first  el.  is  apparently  a 
pers.  name,  perhaps  O.E.  Beard  ;   cf.  Beardshaw,  Beardwood,  Bardsea  infra. 
Hartshead  (in  the  N.E.) :  Hertesheued  1200  LPR,  Hertesheved  1203  ib.     The  name 
no  doubt  means  "  hart  hill  "  (O.E.  heorot  "  hart  "  and  heafod  "  hill  ").     Harts- 
head  is  a  district  comprising  a  steep  hill  or  ridge  reaching  c  1,000  ft. 
Heyrod  (N.E.  of  Ashton,  on  the  slope  of  a  hill) :   de  Heyerode  1246  LAR,  del 
Heghrode  1422  CS  74,  the  Herode  1603  CW  6.   "  High  clearing  "    (O.E.  rod  p.  16). 
Lees  or  Hey  :  del  Heye  1332  LS  ;   the  Leese  1604  CW  4.    Hey  seems  to  be  O.E. 
hege  "  enclosure,"  while  Lees  appears  to  be  the  plur.  of  O.E.  leah  "  lea." 
Luzzley  :   de  Luseleg,  -legh  1246  LAR,  Loseley  13  cent.  VHL  IV.  341,  Lusley 
1422  CS  74.     In  spite  of  the  early  u-  forms,  I  think  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  hlose 
"  a  pig-sty,"    the  u  being  due  to  the  early  northern  change  of  6  to  a  sound 
written  u. 

Mossley  :  de  Moselegh  1319  LF,  Mossley  1422  CS  74.     "  Moss  lea." 
Shepley  :  de  Shepelegh  1332  LS,  Shepley  1422  CS  74.     "  Sheep  lea." 
Staly bridge  (now  in  Cheshire).     Named  from  Stayley,  an  old  hamlet :  de  Stavelegh 
1389  Bardsley,  Stayley  1422  CS  74.     O.E.  *stcef-leah  ;    stcef  "  staff  "  may  also 
have  meant  "  a  boundary  mark." 

Sunderland  (or  Cinderland) :  Sunderland  1422  CS  74,  Synderlande  1564  DL. 
The  name  represents  O.E.  sundorland,  literally  "  separate  land."  The  exact 
meaning  in  this  case  is  not  clear.  Cf .  the  same  name  in  Bl.  and  Lo. 
Taunton  or  Tongton  :  de  Tongton  1246  LAR,  de  Tounton  1276  LAR,  Taunton 
1422  CS  74,  Tongton  1585  DL.  Taunton  stands  S.  of  the  junction  of  Taunton 
brook  with  the  Medlock  ;  a  long  narrow  tongue  of  land  is  formed  by  the  streams. 
The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  O.E.  tang  "  fork  of  a  river  "  ;  cf.  p.  18. 



The  district  round  Manchester  city.  Most  of  the  thirty  townships  are  now 
wholly  or  partly  urban  or  suburban.  The  surface  is  low  and  level  in  the  S., 
especially  the  S.W.,  but  rises  somewhat  in  the  E.  and  N. 

1.  Haughton  (E.  of  Manchester,  in  a  bend  of  the  Tame  ;   v.) :    Halghton  1307 
LF,  1322  LI,  Halcton  1322  LI.     The  village  stands  fairly  high  over  the  Tame 
and  some  small  "  haughs  "   or  flat  pieces  of  ground  in  the  bends  of  the  river. 
First  el.  O.E.  halh  "  haugh,"   on  which  see  p.  11. 

2.  Denton  (E.  of  Manchester,  W.  of  Haughton) :    Denton  1255,  1278  LAR, 
1282  LF,  etc.    First  el.  O.E.  denu  "  valley."    A  small  brook  rises  close  to  the 
church  and  runs  in  a  slight  valley  S.W.     Denton  Hall  is  close  to  the  brook. 

3.  Reddish  (S.E.  of  Manchester,  on  the  Tame) :    Rediche  1212  RB,  1262  LF, 
1284  LAR,  Redich  1212  LI,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Reddich  1262  LF,  Redyche 
1322  LI,  Reedyche  1325  LCR ;  Radich  1226  LI,  Raddic  1227  LI,  Radiche  1324  LI, 
Radyshe  1550  LF  ;  de  Redissh  1404  CR,  Reddish  1577  Harr.     The  name  probably 
means  "  reed  ditch  "  (O.E.  hreod-dlc),  and  refers  to  the  old  Nico  Ditch  (no  doubt 
a  corruption  of  MyJceldiche  1190-1212  LPR  329),  which  forms  the  N.  boundary 
of  the  township.     Some  early  forms  apparently  point  rather  to  a  first  el.  O.E. 
read  "  red,"    but  this  etymology  seems  less  probable.     The  change  [tf]>[J] 
is  late. 

Hulme  Hall  :  de  Hulme  1343  VHL  IV.  328,  Hulme  1553  DL.  O.Dan,  hulm 
"  holm  "  ;  cf.  p.  13. 

4.  Heaton  Norris  (S.  of  Manchester,  on  the  Mersey) :    Hetton  1196  LF,  Heton 
1212  LI,  1276  LAR,  Heton  Norays  1282  IPM,  Heton  Norreis  1322  LI,  1332  LS. 
"  The  high  town."     Heaton  occupies  a  piece  of  land  which  rises  to  over  200  ft. 
above  sea-level  and  slopes  steeply  S.  and  W.  The  manor  was  held  from  the  12th 
cent,  onwards  by  the  Norreys  family. 

5.  Burnage  (N.W.  of  Heaton  Norris,  v.) :    Bronadge,  Bronage,  Bronnegge  (var. 
Brownegg)  1322  LI  (copy).     Etymology  doubtful.     The  ground  of  the  township 
slopes  slightly  from  S.  to  N. ;  but  it  seems  improbable  that  this  slope  could 
have  been  called  an  edge.    If  the  second  el.  of  the  name  is  edge  (O.E.  ecg),  the 
first  might  be  O.E.  burna  "  brook  "  and  the  name  might  be  due  to  the  position 
of  the  place  near  Cringle  Brook.    As  regards  the  form  -adge,  we  may  compare 
agge  " edge"  in  Layamon  (NED).    If,  as  one  of  the  forms  seems  to  suggest,  the 
first  el.  is  the  adj.  brown,  the  second  is  perhaps  the  word  hedge.  Cf .  Burnedge  p.  52. 

6.  Withington  (S.  of  Manchester) :    Wythinton  1212,  1243  LI,  1332  LS,  etc., 
de  Witheton  1219,  1222  LAR,  Withinton  1255  LAR,  1325  LF,  etc.,  Wythington 
1246  LAR,  Whytinton  1303  FA.     Other  variants  occur.     The  first  el.  is  dial. 
withen  "  willow." 

FaUowfield  :  Fallufeld  1317  M,  FalofeU  1417  CR,  Falowfelde  1530  DL.  The 
name  no  doubt  means  literally  "  fallow  field,"  fallow  being  here  perhaps 
used  in  the  sense  "  uncultivated  "  (cf.  NED).  Falfield,  in  Gloucester,  seems 
to  have  the  same  origin.  A  somewhat  different  explanation  of  the  name  is 
given  by  Gray,  English  Field  Systems,  1915. 

Healdhouses  :  Yheldhouse  1317  M  574,  la  Zeldehouses  1417  CR.  "  Guild 
houses  "  ;  first  el.  O.E.  gild  "  guild." 


Hough  End  Hall :  del  Hogh  1323  LF,  (manor  of)  Hoghe,  Howghe  1543  AD  VI, 
Hughhall  1577  Saxton,  the  Hough,  the  Hough  End  1587  CW  40,  houghes  end,  ye 
Hoousend  1588  Didsbury  R ;  now  [hirz  end]  (Prof.  Tait)  or  [(h)ufend  (h)o-lj. 
The  place  stands  on  Chorlton  Brook,  which  runs  in  a  ravine  called  Houghend 
Clough  (Wythinton  Howe  1322  LI).  Hough  is  O.E.  hoh,  here  used  in  the  sense 
"  a  ravine  "  ;  cf.  heugh  "  a  glen  ;  a  deep  cleft  in  the  rocks  ;  a  grassy  ravine 
without  water  "  (So.,  Nhb.,  Wml.,  etc.,  EDD). 

7.  Levenshulme  (S.E.  of  Manchester,  between  Nico  Ditch  and  Black  Brook) : 
de  Lewyneshulm  1246  LAR,  Levensholme  1322  LI,  Lensom  1587  Didsbury  R ; 
now  [levenzu'm].     "Leofwine's  holm."     Leofwine  is  a  common  O.E.  pers.  n. 

8.  Rusholme  (S.  of  Manchester) :    Russum  WhC  59,  1235  LF,  Ryssham  1316 
M,  Rysum  1320  ib.,  Resshum  1417  CR,  Rysshulme,  Rysholme  1551  LF;  now 
[rufam].     The  name  seems  to  be  O.E.  ryscum  dat.  pi.  of  rise,  rysc  "  rush." 
Through  the  township  runs  Gore  Brook,  also  called  Rushbrook. 

Birch  :  de  Birches  1246  LAR,  de(l)  Byrches  1277,  1284  LAR,  Byrches  1322  LI. 

"  The  birches  "    (O.E.  birce  "  birch  "). 

Platt  :  Plat  1292  PW,  del  Plat  1300  OR,  1312  AP.     The  name  may  be  identical 

with  plat1  "a  piece  of  ground,"   or  perhaps  more  probably  with  dial,  plat,  "a 

foot-bridge  "  ;    cf.  Platt  p.  102.     A  bridge   over  Gore  Brook  is  called  Platt 


Slade  (formerly  MilkwaU  Slade) :  Milkewalslade  1322  LI,  Slade  1600  RS  XII.  248. 

Milkwall  is  presumably  the  name  of  a  stream,  literally  "  milk  well  "    (O.E. 

wcella  "  stream  ").     Slade  "  valley,  glade,"   etc.,  is  O.E.  slced. 

9.  Didsbury  (on  the  Mersey,  S.  of  Withington ;    v.) :    Dedesbiry  1246  LAR, 
Diddisbiry,   Diddesbiry,   Didesbyri  1276  LAR,   Didybiri  1277  ib.,   Dydesbiry, 
Didesbyry  1278  LAR,  Diddesburye,  Dutesbure  1322  LI,  Doddesbury  1577  Harr., 
Duddesburye  1593  DL.     The  first  el.  is  apparently  an  O.E.  pers.  name,  probably 
O.E.  *Dydd  or  *Dyddi,  which  seems  to  be  found  in  Dittisham,  Dev.  (Didis-, 
Dodesham  1286,  1428  FA).    Cf.  O.E.  *Dydda  in  Didley,  Heref.  (Duddeleye  1303 
FA),  Didbrook,  Glo.  (Dyddebroke  1316  FA). 

10.  Chorlton-with-Hardy  (on  the  Mersey,  W.  of  Withington). 

Chorlton  :  de  Cholreton  1243  LI,  1258  LAR,  1314  LF,  Chollerton  1322  LI,  1336 
LF,  1561  DL,  Chorleton  1551  LF,  Colerton  1555  LF ;  here  probably  belong 
de  Cheluerton  1259  LAR,  de  Chelverton  1260  LAR.  It  seems  the  editor  of  VHL 
is  right  in  taking  forms  such  as  Chollerton  to  refer  to  Chorlton-cum-Hardy,  such 
as  Cherleton,  Chorleton  to  Chorlton-upon-Medlock ;  yet  the  two  names  seem  to 
have  been  confused  even  in  early  times.  Thus  in  PR  1260  (LAR  p.  297  ff.) 
Richard  de  Chelverton  (i.e.,  Chorlton  c.  Hardy)  is  called  de  Cherleton,  pp.  297,  299. 
Chorlton  (cum-Hardy)  apparently  has  as  first  el.  an  O.E.  pers.  name  in  Ceol, 
if  the  forms  Chelverton,  Cheluerton  are  trustworthy,  probably  O.E.  Ceolferf),-frip. 
Hardy  (near  the  Mersey) :  Hardey  1555  LF,  1588  Didsbury  R.  The  second  el. 
of  the  name  is  probably  O.E.  eg  "  island,  river-meadow,"  etc.  (p.  10).  Cf.  Eeas, 
the  land  by  the  riverside  in  the  township.  The  first  el.  is  doubtful.  It  might, 
of  course,  be  the  adj.  hard. 

Barlow  (old  manor) :   Barlowe  1254  AP,  1322  LI,  1336  LF,  de  Berlawe,  Barlowe 

1260  LAR.    O.E.  bere  "  barley  "  and  hlaw  "  hill."     The  surface  of  the  township 

1  First  evidenced  in  NED  from  1511,  etc.     Cf.  Adamesplat  1200-38  CC  551. 


is  generally  level  and  low,  but  in  the  S.E.,  where  Barlow  is,  it  rises  to  over  100ft. 
above  sea-level. 

11.  Moss  Side  (N.  of  Withington,  a  late  township) :    Mossyde  1530,  Mosside 
1564  DL,  Moss  Side  1594  CW  53.     The  name  is  self-explaining.     There  was 
formerly  much  moss  land  in  Manchester  parish. 

12.  Chorlton-upon-Medlock   (S.   of  the    Medlock,    in  Manchester) :    Cherleton 
1177  LPR,  1196, 1202  LF,  Ghorelton  1212  LI,  Cherlton  1226  LI,  1278  LF,  Chorleton 
1327,  1332  LS,  etc.     This  Chorlton  obviously  goes  back  to  O.E.  ceorla  tun,  and 
is  identical  with  the  common  name  Charlton.     Chorlton  occurs  also  in  Ches. 
and  Staffs.     It  is  not  apparent  why  villages  were  called  ceorla-tun  "  the  tun  of 
the  ceorls,"   but  similar  names  are  found  elsewhere,  e.g.,  in  Sweden  (Karlaby, 
etc. ;   cf.  Hellquist,  De  svenska  ortnamnen  pa  -  by,  esp.  p.  76  ff.). 

13.  Stretford  (between  the  Mersey  and  the  Irwell) :  Stretford  1212  LI,  1325  LF, 
1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Stratford  1292  PW.     The  village  stands  near  the  ford 
(sometimes  called  Crosford)  by  which  the  Roman  road  from  Chester  to  Man- 
chester passes  the  Mersey.     Stret-  is  O.E.  stret  "  street,  Roman  road." 
Trafford  (old  manor) :    de  Trafford  c  1200  Ch  (orig.),  1212  LI,  etc.,  Trafford 
1226  LI,  1284  ChR,  1325  LF,  etc.,  de  Trafforde  1212  RB.     Trafford  is  a  doublet 
of  Stretford,  the  form  being  due  to  Norman  influence.     Zachrisson,  A.N.  Inn. 
p.  67f.,  gives  some  similar  instances  of  loss  of  S- ;  also  a  for  e  and  the  assimilation 
of  tf  to  ff  may  be  due  to  the  same  cause.     That  Trafford  comes  from  earlier 
Stratford  is  obvious.    Henry  de  Trafford,  often  mentioned  in  sources  from  about 

1200  (as  LI,  RB),  is  called  H.  de  Stratford  in  Stafford  1206  LPR,  H.  de  Stratford 
ib.  1207  ;  cf .  Hugo  de  Straforde  in  Straforde  1212  RB.    The  manor  of  Trafford  was 
carved  out  of  Stretford  township.      As  the  manor-house  was  situated  at  a 
considerable    distance    from    the    village,    its    Normanized    name    came    at 
an  early  period  to  be  dissociated  from  that  of  the  village,   and  therefore 

14.  Salford  (town  ;  before  the  Conquest  a  royal  manor  and  the  head  of  Salford 
hundred) :    Salford  DB,  1177  LPR,  1226  LI,  1332  LS,  etc. ;    Sauford  1169, 

1201  LPR,  etc.     Occasional  forms  are  :  Sainford  1226  LI,  de  Selford  1253,  1255 
LAR,  Shelford  1260  LPR,  Saltford  1257  LI.     "  Willow  ford,"  .O.E.  salh  "  willow  " 
and/or^.     Old  Salford  village  was  on  the  Irwell.     The  name  Salford  in  Beds, 
and  Yks.  has  the  same  origin. 

Ordsall  (old  manor) :  Ordeshala  1177  LPR,  Ordeshal  1201f.  LPR,  Ordeshale, 
Wurdeshal  1226  LI,  Hordessale  1303  FA,  Hordeshale  1330  LI,  Urdesale  1381 
CR  353.  The  first  el.  is  apparently  an  O.E.  pers.  name  Ord,  a  pet  form  of  names 
such  as  Ordric,  etc.,  apparently  found  also  in  Ordsall,  Notts.  (Ordeshale  DB),  and 
perhaps  as  Orde  in  DB  (Wyld).  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  halh  "  haugh."  Ordsall 
is  in  a  bend  of  the  Irwell. 

15.  Broughton  (on  the  Irwell) :    Burton  1177,  1201  ff.  LPR,  Borton  1257  LI, 
Burghton  1323, 1330  LI,  1352  LF,  Burghtoun  1341  IN.     O.E.  Burhtun,  the  source 
of  the  numerous  English  Burtons.     The  origin  of  this  name  is  probably  not 
always  the  same.     In  some  cases  it  may  be  due  to  the  situation  of  a  place  near 
an  old  disused  burh,  or  to  a  burh  still  in  use.     In  other  cases  it  may  represent  an 
O.E.  burhtun,  i.e.,  "  a  tun  with  a  palisade  round  it  "    (Maitland,  Domesday 
Book,  p.  183).     A  great  man's  house  had  a  palisade,  apparently  called  burh. 


In  the  present  case  the  reason  why  the  name  was  given  the  place  is  not  obvious. 
The  form  Broughton  is  due  to  a  late  change. 

Kersal  :  Kereshalam  1142  Ch,  Kershala  c  1175  ib.,  Kereshal  1199  ChR,  Kersall, 
Kersale  c  1200  Ch,  Kershal  1200  LPR,  Kereshole  1212  LI,  Kersale,  de  Kershale 
1246  LAR.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  halh  "  haugh  "  ;  Kersal  is  in  a  bend  of  the 
Irwell.  The  first  el.  is  not  so  certain.  The  early  forms  point  most  probably 
to  a  dissyllabic  word  ;  the  forms  Kershala,  Kersall,  Kersale  are  mostly  found 
in  late  transcripts.  If  so,  it  may  be  identified  with  O.E.  Ccer  pers.  n.,  found  in 
Cceresig,  now  Kersey,  Sufi.  But  O.E.  cerse  "  cress  "  is  not  impossible  ;  cf. 
Kearsley  in  Deane,  p.  43.  A  cell  of  St.  Leonard's  belonging  to  the  priory  of 
Lenton  was  established  here  in  1142,  hence  the  name  of  Kersal  Cell,  a  house 
occupying  the  site  of  the  cell. 

Tetlow  :  Tettelagh  1302  LI,  Tettelowe  1312  LI,  de  Tettlawe  1323  LI,  de  Tettelowe 
1346  FA.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.E.  Tetta  pers.  n.  and  O.E.  hlaw 
"  hill."  O.E.  Tetta  is  found  in  Tedburn,  Dev. :  (on)  tettan  burnan  739  BCS  1331. 
Choo  (a  lost  place,  considered  to  have  been  in  Broughton)  :  Le  Choo  1322  LI, 
The  Choe  1341,  (the)  Choo  1343,  1473  M.  Cf.  Chew  in  Billington,  p.  71. 

16.  Hulme    (bounded   practically   by   the   Medlock,    Irwell,  and   Cornbrook)  : 
Ouerholm  and  Noranholm  1226  LI  (Norholm  1227  ib.),  Overhulm  and  Netherhulm 
1324  LI,  de  Hulm  1246  LAR,  Hulm  1310  LF,  Hulme  1440  LF,  etc.,  Holme  1577 
Saxton  ;  now  [mrm,  hju'm],     O.Dan.  Tiulm  "  island,"  etc.  (cf.  p.  13).     The  situ- 
ation of  the  township  sufficiently  explains  the  name.     Nor(an)holm  1226,  1227 
appears  to  be  a  corruption  for  Netherholm. 

17.  Cheetham  (on  the  W.  bank  of  the  Irk,  N.  of  Manchester) :   Chetam  1212 
BF,  Chetham  1226  LI,  1332  LS,  etc. ;  de  Cheetham  1254  IM,  Cheteham  1312  LF. 
The  first  el.  is,  in  my  opinion,  identical  with  Welsh  coed,  O.Coin.cuit,  Bret,  koat 
11  wood  "    from  Brit.  *ket  <  Prim.  Celt.  *kaito.     The  same  word  is  found,  e.g., 
in  Chute,  Wilts  (Ceit  1178,  Get  1222  ;    cf.  Ekblom)  and  in  Chetwode,  Bucks. 
(Cetwuda  949  BCS  883,  Cetevde  DB).     The  correctness  of  this  etymology  is 
corroborated  by  the  fact  that  the  southern  part  of  Cheetham  is  called  Cheetwood  : 
Chetewode  1489  PatR,  1522  DL,  Chetewood  1597  DL.     The  second  el.  is  probably 
O.E.  ham. 

Strangeways  :  Strangwas  1322  LI,  de  Stranways  1323  LI,  de  Strangways  1326 
LCR,  de  Strangwas  1326  AP,  1356  CR  331,  Strangewayes  1546  LF,  Strangwyshe 
1551  LF,  Strang  wayes  1577  Harr.  Wyld  aptly  suggests  a  compound  of  O.E. 
strang  "  strong,"  changed  by  popular  etymology  to  [streindz],  and  O.E.  (ge)wcesc 
"  washing  up  or  overflow  of  water."  Strangeways  is  in  a  tongue  of  land  between 
the  Irk  and  the  Irwell.  The  abnormal  change  of  the  vowel  and  final  consonant 
of  the  second  el.  may  be  due  to  Norman  influence  ;  but  perhaps  only  the  spelling 
is  Norman,  the  pronunciation  -s  being  due  to  the  spelling.  As  regards  the  vowel, 
cf.  [aij,  waif]  for  ash,  wash  in  Lane,  dialects. 

18.  Manchester  (town) :    Mamucio    (Iter  II.),  Mancunio  (Iter  X.)   Ant.  It. ; 
Mameceaster  923  Chr.  (A),  Manigeceaster  923  Chr.  (G),  Mamecestre  DB,  1183, 
1197  LPR,  1212  LI,  1227  ChR,  etc.,  Mammecestre  1184,  1185,  1194  ff.  LPR, 
Mamchestre  1385,  1441  LF,  Mancestre  1310  LI,  1384  LF,  Manchestre  1330  LI, 
Manchester  1480  LF,  etc. 

The  name  contains  O.E.  ceaster  "  city,"    etc.,  and  the  Brit,  name  of  the 



place.  Of  the  forms  that  have  the  best  MS  authority,  Mamucio  and  Mancunio, 
the  former  is  obviously  the  better,  and  Mamucium  is  adopted  by  Parthey  and 
Finder  in  the  map  of  their  edition  1848.  This  form  really  has  better  MS  authority, 
as  it  is  in  the  two  oldest  texts  we  have  (B  and  L,  both  8th  cent.),  while  Man- 
cunio is  not  in  L  (L  second  hand  has  Mamcunio).  The  English  form  (O.E. 
Mameceaster,  later  Mamechestre,  etc.)  proves  decisively  that  Mancunium  must 
be  wrong,  while  Mamucium  may  be  a  correct  form.1  I  think  it  very  probable 
that  Mamucium  is  the  original  form.  It  may  be  a  derivative  with  the  suffix 
-uk-  found  in  O.W.  morcanhuc  LL  119,  etc.  (from  Morcant  pers.  n.).  The  base 
might  be  the  stem  Mam-  found  in  Gaul.  Mamus  pers.  n.,  Mamacas,  Mamacus 
pi.  names  (Holder).  This  Brit,  form  at  the  time  of  its  adoption  would  be  dis- 
syllabic and  end  in  k,  which  was  lost  before  O.E.  c.  An  exact  parallel  is  offered 
by  O.E.  Dorceceastre  Chr.  (now  Dorchester,  Oxf.),  in  Bede  dorciccaestrce  4,  23, 
dorcic  3,  7. 

Alport  :  Aldeport  1282  IPM  (Aldeparc  in  a  late  transcript  LI),  1322  LI,  Overald- 
port,  Netheraldport  1458  RS  XXX.,  Alparte  parke  c  1540  Leland.  Alport  is  near 
the  site  of  the  old  Roman  fort,  at  some  distance  from  which  mediaeval  Manchester 
grew  up.  The  name  means  "  the  old  port,"  port  being  O.E.  port  "  town," 
esp.  perhaps  "  walled  town  "  or  "  market  town "  (Lat.  portus  ;  NED)  cf . 
Whitaker,  History  of  Manchester  1. 204,  II.  408,  Tait,  Mediaeval  Manchester,  p.  3. 

1  The  Brit,  name  of  Manchester  is  dealt  with  by  Dr.  Bradley  in  EHR  XV.,  p.  495f.,  and, 
with  full  discussion  of  the  MS  forms,  by  Professor  Tait  in  Roman  Fort  at  Manchester 
(1909),  p.  9ff.  Both  reject  Mancunio,  Dr.  Bradley  does  not  consider  it  certain  that  Mamucio 
is  correct  either.  "  The  probability,"  he  says,  "  would  seem  to  be  that  both  forms  are  more 
or  less  altered  from  a  common  archetype."  As  "  the  nc  of  Mancunio  must  represent  an 
original  m,  analogy  would  point  to  the  uc  of  Mamucio  being  a  corruption  of  the  same  letter." 
This  would  give  Mammium,  which  might  be  a  derivative  of  Celt,  mamma  "  mother."  An 
argument  in  favour  of  this  is  that  at  the  time  when  the  Brit,  name  was  adopted  Brit,  inter- 
vocalic m  would  probably  have  been  represented  by  v. 

Dr.  Bradley 's  arguments  are  certainly  well  worth  serious  consideration,  and  Professor 
Tait,  on  account  of  them,  thinks  Mamucium  "  lies  under  some  suspicion."  To  my  mind  the 
chief  reason  for  suspecting  the  form  is  the  preservation  of  Brit.  m.  If  it  can  be  proved  that 
Engl.  m  may  well  represent  Brit,  intervocalic  m,  the  claims  of  Mamucium  to  be  correct  gain 
considerably  in  strength.  Now  Brit,  intervocalic  m  did  not  become  v  until  fairly  late.  In 
O.W.  and  O.Bret,  it  was  a  loose  m  or  nasalised  v,  and  in  Breton  the  preceding  vowel  is  still 
nasalised  (Pedersen  L,  p.  161ff.).  Jones  (p.  163)  thinks  the  change  to  v  took  place  "towards 
the  end  of  the  O.W.  period."  The  O.W.  period  is  generally  held  to  have  come  to  an  end 
c  1100.  That  in  Welsh  a  loose  m  or  nasalised  v  was  spoken  comparatively  late  is  proved  by 
such  spellings  as  O.W.  amal  (Pedersen  I.e.)  or  Tarn  for  Taf,  etc.,  in  LL.  For  this  nasalised 
v  Engl.  m  or  v  could  be  substituted.  An  example  of  late  substitution  of  m  is  Cameleac,  which 
certainly  looks  like  an  attempt  at  rendering  a  spoken  Welsh  form,  in  Chr.  918  for  O.W. 
Cimeilliauc  LL  (later  Gyfeilliog).  It  is  also  an  important  fact  that  the  name  of  the  river 
Tame,  which  joins  the  Mersey  a  few  miles  S.E.  of  Manchester,  preserves  the  m. 

Under  these  circumstances  I  do  not  think  there  is  sufficient  reason  for  rejecting  or  sus- 
pecting Mamucio,  even  though  Mammio  yields  a  very  satisfactory  etymology.  A  corruption 
of  Mamucio  to  Mancunio  seems  well  within  the  bounds  of  probability.  In  my  opinion  it 
would  really  be  a  remarkable  coincidence  if  the  short  name  Mammio  should  have  been 
corrupted  in  both  places  where  it  occurred. 

I  even  feel  some  doubt  if  Mammium  accounts  well  for  the  O.E.  and  early  M.E.  dissyllabic 
form  Mame-.  Brit.  Mammion  must  have  become  monosyllabic  at  a  very  early  date.  It 
is  even  possible  that  Mammion  would  have  had  its  vowel  umlauted  to  e.  The  Brit,  t-  umlaut 
must  have  taken  place  very  early,  as  it  is  found  in  all  the  Brit,  languages  (Pedersen  I. 


Possibly  O.E.  port  also  meant  "  fort  "  (cf.  Portfield  in  Whalley).     A  meaning 

"  old  fort  "   would,  perhaps,  be  still  more  suitable. 

Ancoats  (h.)  :    Einecote  1212  LI,  de  Hanekotes  1243  LI,  de  Ancoates  1240-59  Ch, 

Ancotes,  Ancottes  1322  LI.     Ancoats  is  in  the  extreme  S.E.  of  the  township. 

This  renders  the  meaning  "  lonely  huts  "    (O.E.  ana  and  cot)  probable  ;    cf. 

especially   Onecote,   Staffs.   (Anecote  1199,    1204  Duignan)  ;     Onehouse,   Sufi. 

(Anhus  DB).     The  form  Einecote  seems  to  show  Scand.  influence. 

Ashley  :   Asseleie  1320  M,  1322  LI.  "  Ash  lea." 

Clayden  :   Claidene,  -fielde  1322  LI.  O.E.  c%  "  clay,"   and  denu  "  valley." 

Collyhurst  :   Colyhurst  1322  LI,  1556  LF,  1586  Camden.     There  were  coalmines 

here  (VHL  IV.  229).     The  first  el.  is,  perhaps,  colly  "  dirtied  with  coal  dust  or 

soot ;    grimy  ;    coalblack  "    (16  cent.  NED)  ;    M.E.  colwen  "  to  make  dirty  " 

seems  to  be  a  derivative  of  colig,  which  must  consequently  be  fairly  old.     On 

hurst  see  p.  13.     The  meaning  "  hill  "   seems  probable  here. 

Garrett  [Hall]  :   Garret  hall  1577  Saxton,  Garret  Halle  1577  Harr.    M.E.  garret 

"  a  watch-tower  "  (14  cent.)  from  O.F.  garite  (NED).     The  position  of  the  house 

"  was  originally  one  of  defence  at  the  junction  of  two  streams  "  (VHL  IV.  240). 

19.  Ardwick  (S.E.  of  Manchester  and  the  Medlock)  :    Atheriswyke  1282  IPM, 
Atherdwic  M,  Aderwyk  1282  M,  Ardewike,  Ardwicke  1322  LI,  de  Ardewyk  1324 
LCR,  Ardewyke  1422  HS  II.     The  name  is  difficult  to  judge  of,  as  the  evidence 
is  conflicting.     If  we  may  trust  the  earliest  forms,  the  name  has  been  con- 
siderably worn  down.     The  first  el.  would  seem  to  be  a  pers.  name  in  O.E. 
Mdd-  or  Ead-,  most  probably  JEdelred  or  Eadred,  which  became  M.E.  Atherd, 
later  Ather(iswyke)  and  Ard(wik).    As  regards  the  latter  development  we  may 
compare  Arreton,   Ha.  :     Adrintone  DB,   Atherton  1316  FA,  Arreton  1234-56 
AD  I.  (B  115).    Cf.  further  Atherton  infra.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  wic  "  home- 
stead,"   etc. 

20.  Gorton  (between  Cornbrook  and  Nico  Ditch)  :    Gorton  1282  IPM,  1322  LI, 
de  Gorton  1332  LS,  Goreton  1499  DL.     Gore  Brook  flows  through  the  township. 
The  first  el.  of  Gorton,  like  that  of  Gore  Brook,  is  no  doubt  O.E.  gor  "  mud." 
Cf.  Horton,  in  Wore.  (  :  horh  "  mud,"  Duignan).     The  following  name  suggests 
that  the  township  was  partly  marshy. 

Greenlow  Marsh  :   Grenlawemers  1282  IPM,  Grenelowmarshe  1422  HS  II.     O.E. 
grene  "  green,"    hldw  "  hill,"    mersc  "  marsh." 

21.  Openshaw  (N.  of  Cornbrook,  E.  of  Manchester) :  Opinschawe,  -sawe  1282  IPM, 
Oponshaghe,  Openshagh  1322  LI.     The  name  means  "  open  wood,"  open  being 
used  in  the  sense  "  unenclosed."     Cf.  the  interesting  account  of  a  law-suit  in 
1505-6  LP  I.  25ff.     Opynsha  Mor  is  called  a  "  common  pasture."    See  also  Tait, 
Mediaeval  Manchester,  p.  24. 

22.  Beswick  (on  the  S.  bank  of  the  Medlock) :   Bexwic  1200-23  CC,  de  Bexwycke, 
Bexwyk  1322  LI,  de  Bexwik  1359  LF.     The  first  el.  looks  like  a  pers.  name. 
Searle  infers  O.E.  Beac  from  Beaces  hlawe  955  BCS  917  (late  transcr.).     This 
may  be  the  name  wanted. 

23.  Bradford  (S.  of  the  Medlock  and  E.  of  Manchester)  :    Bradeford  1196,  1358, 
1359  LF,  Bradford  1282  IPM.     "  The  broad  ford." 

24.  Droylsden  (S.  of  the  Medlock,  E.  of  Manchester)  :   de  Drilisden  c  1250  Ch 
(17  cent,  copy),  Drilsden  c    1290  M,  1502  LF,  Drilesden  1506  DL,  Drylesden 


1547  LF.  The  original  form  of  the  name  is  not  sufficiently  clear ;  apparently 
it  was  early  M.E.  Drilesden.  Wyld  suggests  as  the  first  el.  a  pers.  name  DrygeL 
Phonetically  this  suits  the  case,  and  possibly  in  Drigelinghe  DB  (Yks.)  we  have 
a  derivative  of  such  a  name.  A  derivative  Drygel  of  O.E.  dryge  "  dry,"  e.g., 
a  brook  name,  might  also  be  thought  of.  This  might  refer  to  Lumb  Clough, 
W.  of  Droylsden. 

Clayton  (old  manor) :  Cleyton  c  1250  LI,  Clayton  1439,  1441  LF.  O.E.  dceg 
"  clay  "  and  tun.  A  common  E.  place-name,  denoting  a  township  or  homestead 
on  clayey  ground. 

25.  Newton  (between  Moston  Brook  and  the  Medlock)  :  Newton  1322  LI,  1359  M, 
1546  LF.     "  The  new  tun." 

Monsall  :    Monshalgh  1546  LF.     "  Monks'  haugh  "  ? 

Kirkmanshulme  (a  detached  part  originally  perhaps  belonging  to  Gorton)  : 
Kyrdmannesholm  1292  VHL  IV.  271,  Curmesholme,  Kirmonsholme  1322  LI, 
Kirdmansholme  1588,  Kirdmanhome  1590  DL.  Again  the  early  material  is 
unsatisfactory.  I  believe  the  modern  spelling  preserves  the  original  form. 
Kyrdmannes-  1292  may  well  be  miswritten  for  Kyrkmannes- ;  Curmesholme  is 
probably  influenced  by  early  forms  of  Crumpsall.  Kirkman  is  a  northern  word 
for  "  ecclesiastic  "  ;  as  a  surname  le  Kirkemon  is  found  1332  LS  (under  Harwood). 
As  the  place  belonged  to  the  ecclesiastics  of  Manchester,  the  name  is  to  the 
point.  On  holm,  hulm,  see  p.  13. 

26.  Failsworth    (E.  of  Newton,    between   Moston  Brook  and  the  Medlock)  : 
Fayleswrthe  1212  RB,  Faileswrthe  1212  LI,  Felesworde  1226  LI,  Failesworthe  c  1200 
CC,Failesworth,  Thayleswurth  1246  LAR,  Faylesworde  1451,  1461  CO.     The  first 
el.  looks  like  a  pers.  name,  and  Wyld  suggests  O.E.  *Fegel  or  *Fcegel,  related  to 
O.E.  fcegen,  "  joyful,"   etc.    No  such  name  is  otherwise  known  ;   yet  there  are 
some  apparent  O.G.  names  containing  a  stem  Fag.     I  am  not  sure  the  first  el. 
is  a  pers.  name.     As  will  be  shown  infra,  Shuttleworth  appears  to  have  as  first 
member  a  common  noun  derived  from  the  verb  shut  (O.E.  scytels).     Similarly 
Failsworth  might  contain  a  derivative  of  O.E.  fegan  "  to  join,  unite,  fix  "  (cf. 
O.TL.G.fuogan,  M.H.Q.fuegen  "  to  join  together  ").     O.R.fegels  is  not  recorded, 
but  the  suffix  -isla  is  very  common  (cf.  Kluge,  Stammbildungslehre  §  98).    The 
meaning  oifegels  might  be  something  like  that  of  scytels,  i.e.,  "  a  bar  serving  as 
a  lock  "  or  the  like.     On  worth  "  enclosure,"  etc.,  see  p.  20. 

Wrigley  Head  (old  hamlet) :  Wrigeleyhede,  Wriggeleheved  1322  LI.  The  el. 
Wrig-  may  belong  to  the  stem  in  O.E.  wrigian  "  to  strive,"  Engl.  wriggle,  etc., 
but  its  meaning  is  obscure. 

27.  Moston  (N.  of  Moston  Brook,  a  tributary  of  the  Irk ;    v.) :    Moston  1195 
LF,  1235  LAR,  de  Moston  1272  CC,  1284  LAR,  ?  de  Huston  1246  LAR,  1257 
LAR.  "  Moss  tun"    In  the  township  are  White  Moss  and  Theale1  Moor  (:  Theyl- 
more  Waste  1529  DL).    First  el.  O.E.  mos  "  moor,  moss."   The  form  Huston,  if 
belonging  here,  is  remarkable. 

Nuthurst  :   Nuthurst  1322  LI,  1552  LF.     Hurst  presumably  means  "  a  copse." 

28.  Harpurhey  (small  township  N.  of  the  junction  of  the  Irk  and  Moston  Brook) : 
Harpourhey  1320  M,  Harperhey  1509  DL.     Harpurhey  may  derive  its  name  from 

1  Theale  may  be  O.E.  pel  "  plank,"  the  name  referring  to  a  path  across  the  moor  formed 
by  planks. 


the  80  acres  demised  for  life  to  William  Harpour  before  1322  (M  384).  The 
second  el.  is  O.E.  hege  "  hay,  enclosure." 

Gotherswick  (old  h. ;  the  name  is  now  lost)  :  Gothereswicke  1322  LI,  Goderswick, 
Goddyriswike  1473  M,  Groderswyk  1502  DL.  This  seems  to  be  "  Godhere's  wic." 
Godhere  is  a  common  O.E.  pers.  name.  Godric  is  perhaps  also  possible.  The 
change  of  d  to  d  before  er  is  a  common  phenomenon  (Wright,  EJXGr.  §  297). 
The  second  el.  is  O.E.  wic  "  homestead,"  etc. 

29.  Crumpsall  (S.  and  W.  of  the  Irk,  N.  of  Manchester)  :  de  Cormeshal  1235  LAR, 
Curmisale  1282  IPM,  Curmesalle,  Curmeshale,  Curmesale  1322  LI,  Curmeshale 
1444  LF,  Cormesall  1500  LF,  Cromshall  1548  LF.   The  second  el.  of  the  name  is 
O.E.  halh  "  haugh."     The  first  el.  would  seem  to  be  a  pers.  name.     It  may  be 
an  original  nickname  from  O.E.  crum  (cf.  crumb)  "  crooked,"   corresponding  to 
O.N.  Krumr  pers.  n.,  which  is  very  likely  from  a  lost  adjective  meaning  "  crooked." 
O.E.  crum  "  crooked  "    seems  to  be  evidenced  in  Cromhall,  Glo.  (  :  Cromhal, 
Cromale  DB).     This  place  is  in  a  bend  of  a  stream. 

30.  Blackley  (N.  of  Manchester ;    v.)  :    Blakeley  1282  IPM,  Blakeley  1322  LI, 
1547  LF,  1577  Saxton,  Blackeley  1577  Harr.    Pronounced  "  Blakeley  "  (Slater's 
Directory,  1920).     "  The  black  lea,"   O.E.  Ucec  and  leak. 


This  small  parish  is  situated  S.W.  of  Manchester  on  the  Mersey,  being 
bounded  on  the  W.  by  the  Irwell.  It  seems  formerly  to  have  belonged  to  Eccles 
parish.  The  surface  is  low  and  level. 

1.  Flixton  (v.) :    Flixton  1177,  1201  f.  LPR,  1212  LI,  1253  LF,  etc.,  fflixton 
1332  LS,  Flyxton  1262  LAR,  1341  IN,  tic.,  ffluxton  1327  LS,  Fluxion  1506  DL. 
The  isolated  spellings  with  u  are  probably  to  be  disregarded.     The  name  is 
identical  with  Flixton,  Suff.  (Flixtuna  DB),   derived   by  Skeat  from   O.Dan. 
Flik  (Flic,  Fliic  13  cent.,  Nielsen)  &ndtun,  and  Flixton,  Yks.  (Flixtona  1180-1200 
YCh  1221,  Flixton  1254  IPM).     The  same  first  el.  is  seen  in  Flixborough,  Line. 
(Flixeburch  HR,  Flikesburgh  1316  FA).     . 

2.  Urmston  (v.) :    Wermeston  1194  LPR,  Urmeston  1212  LI,  1278,  1284  LAR, 
1341  IN,  etc.,  Wurmeston  1219  LAR,  de  Urmiston  1246  LAR,  Ormeston  1284 
LAR,  Vrmeston  1327,  1332  LS.     The  first  el.  is  O.Dan.  Urm  (Einhard  c  800 ; 
cf.  Noreen,  Aisl.  Gr.  §  227,  1,  a.),  found  also  in  Urmisruth  (see  Nielsen  under 
Urmar).     The  form  Urm,  which  occurs  also  in  O.E.  charters  as  the  name  of  a 
Danish  earl  (BCS  665,  677,  etc.,  A.D.  929-958),  is  distinctly  East  Scandinavian  ; 
the  West  Scandinavian  form  is  regularly  Ormr.    Wermeston,  Wurmeston  seem  to 
show  influence  from  the  native  word  wyrm. 

Hillam  Farm  :  Hylland  1548  VHL  V.  55.  O.E.  hyll-land  "  hill  land  "  ;  the 
modern  -m  is  due  to  assimilation  to  F-  in  (Hillam)  Farm.  The  land  rises 
slightly  in  the  E. 


The  parish  takes  its  name  from  the  church  of  St.  Mary  in  Barton-upon- 
Irwell,  round  which  stands  the  town  of  Eccles  :  Eccles  c  1200  CO,  a  1185,  1235, 
etc.  WhC  36  ff.,  1357  LF,  etc.,  Ecclis  c  1250  CO,  de  Redes  1246  LAR,  de 


Hekkeles  1257  LAR,  de  Eckles  1276  LAR,  de  Eckelles  1278  LAR,  ecils  1590 
Burghley ;  now  [eklz].  The  name  goes  back  to  a  Brit.  Ecles  "  church  "  (cf.  O.W. 
eccluys,  Welsh  eglwys,  O.Corn.  eglos,  O.Ir.  eclis,  etc.)  from  Lat.  ecclesia  (cf .  Pedersen 
I.  p.  198).  This  Celtic  word  is  found  in  several  Lane,  names  :  Eccleshill  (Bl.), 
Eccleston  (Leyl.,  Am.,  De.).  Identical  with  Eccles  in  Lane,  are  Eccles  in 
Kent  and  Norf.  Names  in  Eccles-  are  e.g.  Ecclesfield  (Yks.),  Eccleshall  (Staffs.), 
Eccleshill  (Yks.),  Eccleswall  (Heref.),  Eccleston  (Ches.),  Exhall  (Warw.  :  Eccles- 
hale  710  BCS  127).  There  have  been  different  opinions  as  regards  the  names 
mentioned.  Derivation  from  a  Brit,  form  of  Lat.  ecclesia  is  ably  defended  by 
Moorman,  West  Riding  Place  Names,  p.  vii.  f. 

The  S.  part  of  the  township  is  low,  and  partly  mossy.  The  N.  half  is  occupied 
by  a  long,  broad  ridge  running  from  N.W.  to  S.E.  along  the  Irwell  and  coming  to 
an  end  near  Salford.  The  townships  of  Clifton,  Pendlebury,  Pendleton,  and 
(most  of)  Worsley  are  in  this  part,  Barton-upon-Irwell  being  in  the  S.  part. 
1.  Barton-upon-Irwell  (bounded  on  the  W.  by  the  Glazebrook,  on  the  S.  by 
Flixton  par.,  the  Irwell  and  Mersey ;  v.)  :  Barton  1196  LPR,  1212  LI,  1246 
LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Barton  on  Irrewelle  1277  LAR.  Barton  is  a  common 
place-name,  which  goes  back  to  O.E.  beretun,  bcertun  "  barton,"  i.e.,  literally, 
"  a  corn  farm,"  "  a  settlement  connected  with  barns  for  the  collection  of  corn 
and  other  produce,"  later  "  a  detached  portion  of  a  manor,"  or  "  demesne 
farm  "  (NED).  See  on  this  word  and  the  synonymous  berewlc,  e.g.,  Maitland, 
Domesday  Book,  p.  114,  Vinogradoff,  Growth  of  the  Manor,  p.  224,  and  Engl.  Soc. 
in  the  Xlth  Cent.,  p.  365  f.  Barton-upon-Irwell  may  have  been  a  barton  of 
the  royal  manor  of  Salford. 

The  S.E.  part  (S.  of  the  Irwell)  is  called  Davyhulme. 

Davyhulme  (v.) :  Hulme  1276  LAR,  1322  LI,  de  Hulm  1339  LF,  Dewhulm  1313  VHL 
IV.  372,  Defehulme  1434  CR,  Deffhulme  1528  LF,  Deuelhom  1577  Harr.,  Deuaholme 
1577  Saxton,  deaffe  hulme  1600  RS  XII,  Deviholme  1599  DL  ;  now  [de'vhrm]. 
Davyhulme  stands  S.  of  Bent  Lanes  Brook,  a  trib.  of  the  Irwell.  On  hulm 
"  holm  "  see  p.  13.  The  first  el.  is  doubtful.  I  suspect  it  is  simply  the  adj. 
deaf  in  one  of  its  senses.  Possibly  it  means  "  lonely  "  ;  cf.  deavely  adj.  "  lonely, 
solitary  "  (deauelie  habitations  1611),  found  in  the  dialects  of  Yks.,  Chs.,  etc. 
(EDD),  corresponding  to  O.N.  daufligr  "  lonely."  Or  deaf,  like  O.H.G.  doub, 
M.L.G.  dof  (Forstemann  736)  may  have  meant  "  wet."  Later  the  el.  was 
associated  with  the  personal  name  Davy.  The  original  name  is  still  preserved 
in  Hulme  Bridge  Farm. 

Bromyhurst  (on  the  Irwell) :  Bromhirst,  Bromyhirst  1276  LAR,  de  Bromhurst 
1246  LAR,  Bromyhurst,  -heth  1322  LI.  O.E.  brom  "broom"  or  bromig  adj. 
and  hyrst  "  hurst  "  (cf.  p.  13).  Hurst  cannot  well  in  this  case  mean  "  a  hill." 
Cockney  (in  Bromyhurst)  :  Kokeney  1253  LF.  The  material  is  too  scanty. 
O.E.  Cocca  in  Coccan  burh  (Searle)  and  O.E.  eg  "  island,"  etc.,  may  be  the 

Dumplington  :  Dumplinton  1229,  1253  LF,  de  Dumplinton,  de  Dumplynton 
13  cent.  WhC  47,  145.  I  would  compare  this  name  with  Dimple  (p.  47),  Dimples 
(p.  163),  and  with  the  name  Kerlingdimpil,  Kerlingedimpel  1200-10  FC  II.  229  ff. 
(Forton).  This  dimpel  cannot  be  separated  from  M.E.  dimple  "  a  hollow  in  the 
chin,"  also  "  a  dip  in  the  surface  of  land,"  and  from  O.H.G.  dumphilo  "  a  pool." 

ECCLES   PAR.  39 

There  must  have  been  an  O.E.  *dympel  or  *dympla  "  a  pool  "  or  "  a  hollow." 
Kerlingdimpil  may  well  mean  "  ducking  pool  "  (kerling  is  O.N.  for  "  old 
woman  ").  From  dympel  the  first  el.  of  Dumplington  may  be  a  derivative  : 
O.E.  Dymplingas  "  dwellers  by  the  pool."  Cf.  Lakenheath,  Sufi.,  containing 
O.E.  Lacingas  "  stream-dwellers  "  (Skeat),  also  Winterburninga  gemcere  951 
BCS  892,  etc.  Dumplington  lies  on  a  plain  not  far  from  the  Irwell.  There  is 
no  marked  hollow  near  the  place,  but  the  existence  of  a  pool  in  the  neighbourhood 
is  proved  by  the  name  Wilderspool,  designating  a  place  c  £  m.  from  Dumplington. 
Lostock  [Hall]  :  Lostoke  1322  LI.  The  same  name  is  found  in  Bolton  (Sa.), 
and  as  a  river-name  in  Leyland.  Lostock  Gralam  is  a  parish  in  Ches.  :  Lostoc 
c  1200  CC.  I  take  the  name  to  be  a  compound  of  O.E.  hlose  "  pig-sty  "  (cf. 
p.  12)  and  stoc  "  place."  Cf.  O.E.  hlosstede  966  BCS  1186,  "  place  of  a  pig-sty." 
Whittleswick  (now  Trafford  Park) :  de  Quitliswic,  de  Quicliswic  1251  CC,  de 
Quikleswyk  13  cent.  WhC  67,  Whikelswike,  Wykleswyke  1322  LI,  Whicleswyc 
1577  Harr.,  Whickleswick  1577  Saxton.  Perhaps  Cwichelmes  wlc.  Cwichelm 
is  a  well-known  O.E.  name.  On  the  changes  of  O.E.  cw-  to  M.E.  wh-  and  kl 
>  tl  cf.  p.  22.  O.E.  wlc  means  "  homestead,"  etc.  The  estate  was  acquired 
by  the  Trafiords  in  the  17th  cent. 

The  S.W.  part  was  formerly  called  Chat  Moss  :  Catemosse  1277  LAR,  Chatmos 
1322  LI,  Chatmosse  1577  Saxton.  Probably  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  Ceatta  pers.  n. 
Cadishead  (old  manor,  v.) :  Cadwalesate  1212  LI,  Cadwalsete  1212  RB,  1271  CC, 
Cadewalkssiete  1226  LI,  Cadewallisete  1329  WhC  253,  Cadewalleheved,  Cadewelleghe 
1322  LI,  Cadyswalhede  1538  LR.  Cadishead  stands  near  the  confluence  of 
the  Glazebrook  and  the  Irwell.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  the  O.E. 
pers.  name  C(e)adwalla  ;  this  is  Wyld's  opinion.  Yet  we  rather  expect  O.E. 
Ceadwalla  to  have  become  Chadwalle  in  S.  Lane.  It  is,  therefore,  possible  that 
it  is  itself  a  compound  of  O.E.  Coda  and  wcella  "  well  "  or  "  stream."  The 
lower  part  of  Glazebrook  may  have  been  called  Cadewalle,  or  this  name  may  have 
denoted  a  well.  The  second  el.  may  be  the  word  set,  sat,  "  pasture,"  discussed 
p.  16.  But  perhaps  O.E.  set  "  stall,  fold  "  or  "  pasture  "  (B-T.)  is  a  more 
probable  source.  The  meaning  "  fold  "  or  "  pasture  "  would  be  suitable.  The 
place  was  formerly  in  a  lonely  position  in  the  far  end  of  Chat  Moss. 
Irlam  (v.  on  the  Irwell)  :  Urwilham,  Urwelham,  Uruuelham  c  1190  CC,  Irwelham, 
Yrewelham  1259  LAR,  Irrewilham  1277  LAR,  Irewelham  1292  PW,  Irwilham 
1451  CC.  First  el.  the  river-name  Irwell ;  second  probably  O.E.  ham. 
Woolden,  Great  and  Little  (on  the  bank  of  the  Glazebrook)  :  Vulueden  1299 
VHL  IV.  372,  Woldene  1538  LR.  The  first  el.  seems  to  be  more  probably 
wulfa  g.  pi.  of  O.E.  wulf  "  wolf  "  than  Wulfa  pers.  name.  The  second  is  O.E. 
denu  "  valley."  The  valley  of  the  Glazebrook  is  fairly  deep  where  Gt.  Woolden  is. 

In  the  N.E.  part  (N.  of  the  Irwell),  near  Barton  and  Eccles,  are  : 
Boysnope  (on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Irwell) :  Boylsnape  1277  LAR,  Boylesnape, 
Bolesnape  (haia)  13  cent.  WhC,  Boy-,  Boylesnape  1322  LI,  Bolessnape  1535  DL. 
The  first  el.  is  M.E.  Me  (O.N.  boli,  Bjorkman,  Loanwords,  p.  205)  "  bull  "  ;  cf. 
Bulsnape  Am.,  etc.,  under  snape  p.  17.  Snape  seems  to  mean  "  a  pasture." 
The  spellings  with  oy  represent  a  form  with  oi  <  o  (cf.  Wright,  E.D.Gr.  §  93). 
Monton  (h.  N.W.  of  Eccles,  on  a  tributary  of  the  Irwell)  :  Mawinton,  (in)  ueteri 
Mawinton  c  1200  CC,  Mawenton  1262  LAR,  Maunton  13  cent.  WhC  877,  1323  LI, 


Mawyngton  1292  PW,  Mauinton  1451  CC.  Wyld  derives  the  first  el.  from  the 
pers.  name  Mawa  (Mauua),  found  in  DB.  This  name  is  not  well  evidenced  ; 
Redin  even  suspects  a  mis-spelling  for  Manna.  However,  Mawo  is  well  authen- 
ticated on  the  Continent,  and  O.E.  Mawa  may  well  be  a  corresponding  name. 
We  may  derive  Monton  from  O.E.  Mawinga  tun,  or  possibly  Mawan  tun. 
Newhall  (near  Winton) :  Neuham  13  cent.  WhC  879,  de  Newham  1276  LAR, 
Newehume  1322  LI,  Newham  1614  CW  42.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  Jiamm  "  meadow," 
etc.,  or  possibly  O.E.  ham.  It  is  difficult  to  explain  why  -ham  was  supplanted 
by  -hall 

The  Slack  (in  Monton) :  del  Slake  1323  LI.    Cf .  [le]  W estslak  13  cent.  WhC  878. 
M.E.  slack  (from  O.N.  slakki)  "  a  small,  shallow  dell  or  valley,"   etc. 
Winton  (h. ;    on  Worsley  Brook) :    Wythinton  1322  LI,  Wythynton,  -heye  1284 
WhC  911,  Wythington  13  cent.  WhC,  Wynton  1535  DL.     Identical  with  Withing- 
ton,  p.  30  :    "  willow  town." 

2.  Worsley  (N.  of  Eccles  town).  The  name  shows  much  variation  :  I.  a.  Wyrke- 
dele  1212  LI,  de  Wirkedley  1219  LF,  Wirkidele,  Wirkedel,  de  Wirkithileg  (Wyrki- 
thekye,  Wyrkithele,  Wurkedeleg,  Werkidel)  1246  LAR,  de  Workedlegh  13  cent. 
WhC  55,  de  Worketley  1254  LI,  de  Workedele  1282  LI,  Wrkedeleye  1299  LF, 
Workedleye  1292  PW,  Wrkedelee  c  1225  CC  ;  I.  b.  Wurkythesle  1246  LAR,  de 
Workedeslegh  1259  LAR,  Workedesle,  Wrketesle,  Worcotesleye  1278  LAR  ;  II.  a. 
de  Workeley  1299  AP ;  II.  b.  Werkesleia  1196  LPR,  de  Wyrkesl  1246  LAR, 
Workesleye  1300  LF,  Workeslegh  1332  LS,  etc.  Other  occasional  variants  are 
given  by  Wyld  and  in  VHL  IV.  376.  The  types  la.  and  b.  clearly  best  preserve 
the  original  form  (or  forms). 

Worsley  v.  stands  at  the  foot  of  the  ridge  mentioned  ;  the  situation  of  the 
place  throws  no  light  on  the  etymology.  This  is  a  very  difficult  name.  It  seems 
to  have  as  its  second  member  O.E.  leah.  The  first  might  be  compared  with 
that  of  Worksworth,  Derbys.  (Werchesuuorde  DB),  Worksop,  Notts. 
(Werchessope  DB),  Worsborough,  Yks.  (Wircesbury  DB),  which  seems  to  be  a 
pers.  n.,  perhaps  contained  in  weorces  mere  972  BCS  1282,  but  the  second  syllable 
of  the  early  forms  is  not  easy  to  account  for.  As  the  name  Eccles  is  British,  and 
Pendlebury,  Pendleton  contain  a  British  word,  it  is  plausible  to  assume  a  Celtic 
origin  also  for  Worsley,  all  the  more  as  there  are  two  similar  names,  Dinckley 
and  Winckley  in  Bl,  which  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  explain  as  English  names. 
All  three  have  a  middle  el.  -ket-,  -kith-,  -ked-,  which  may  be  identified  with  Brit. 
cet  '*  wood  "  (cf.  Cheetham).  They  might  be  compared  with  Lichfield,  from 
O.E.  Lyccidfelth,  Liccidfeld  (Bede),  whose  first  el.  has  been  identified  with  Brit. 
Letocetum.  It  may  seem  a  remarkable  coincidence  for  three  Brit,  names  in 
cet  to  have  been  combined  with  E.  leah,  but  very  likely  the  original  meaning  of 
this  word  was  "  glade,  an  open  place  in  a  forest."  But  if  the  suggestion  made  be 
correct,  the  first  el.  of  the  Brit,  name  must  remain  doubtful.  Holder  s.v.  ceto- 
and  Stokes  p.  76  mention  Bret.  Worcoet,  but  this  name  is  not  given  by  Loth. 
Even  if  it  occurs,  it  is  not  easy  to  identify  the  supposed  Brit,  name  in  Worsley 
with  it. 

Booths  Hall  :    Bothes  man.  1500  DL,  The  Bouthe  c  1540  Leland,  Soothes  hall 
1577  Saxton.     "  The  booths,"   cf.  p.  8. 
Ellenbrook  (chapel  on  Ellenbrook,  the  W.  boundary  of  Worsley) :    Elynbroke 


(chapel)  1544,  Ellynbrowghe  1552  LP,  Ellingborowe  1558  DL,  Ellyngbrugh  1577 
Saxton.  The  original  name  was,  perhaps,  Ellernbrook,  the  first  el.  being  O.E. 
elren  adj.  from  air  "  alder  "  ;  the  r  may  have  been  lost  through  dissimilation. 
The  form  -burgh  is  no  doubt  due  to  association  with  burgh,  borough. 
Hazelhurst  :  de  Haselhirst  1325  LCR,  de  Haselhurst  1332  LS.  "  Hazel  copse." 
The  place  is  on  the  slope  of  a  hill. 

Little  Houghton  :  Halughton  1253  LF,  Halghton,  parua  Halghton  1310  WhC 
924,  Hawghton  1557  LF.  The  place  was  in  Swinton  ;  the  name  has  now  dis- 
appeared. First  el.  O.E.  halh  "  haugh." 

Malkins  Wood  (W.  of  Worsley) :  Mokenes  1278  LAR,  13  cent.  WhC  887,  Mokenys 
1276  WhC  922.  Possibly  a  compound  of  O.E.  *Moca  pers.  n.  (cf.  Mocca  and 
Muca,  Mucca)  and  O.E.  hces,  literally  "  oak  or  beech  wood  "  (cf.  Heysham). 
For  the  sound-development  cf.  Crossens  p.  126. 

Stanystreet  :  Stanistrete  (vill)  1246  LAR,  (terra  de)  le  Stanystrete  13  cent.  WhC 
887.     "  The  paved  road."     There  are  traces  of  a  Roman  road  in  Worsley. 
Swinton  (the  E.  part  of  Worsley,  on  the  ridge  mentioned  p.  38) :   Suinton  1258 
LAR,  Swynton  1276,  1278  LAR,  1293  WhC,  etc.,  Svinton  1278  LAR.    Swinton 
is  a  common  place-name.     It  no  doubt  means  "  farm  where  pigs  are  fed." 
Walkden  :    de  Walkeden  1325  LCR,  de  Walkedene  1408  Bardsley,   Walkeden 
1514  LF.     The  first  el.  is  perhaps  identical  with  that  of  Walkley,  Yks.  (Walkeley 
1270,  etc.,  Goodall).     It  may  be  a  pers.  name,  as  suggested  for  Walkley  by 
Goodall,   who   compares  Walkingham,   Walkington  in  Yks.     Searle  has  one 
possible  example  of  W ealaca  in  wealacan  die  854  BCS  475.     It  seems  improbable 
that  the  name  contains  a  word  derived  from  O.E.  walcan  "  to  full." 
Wardley  (near  Swinton) :    de  Wordeley  c  1300  WhC  44,  Wordelegh  1292  PW, 
Wordeleywall  1310  WhC,  Werdley  1577  Saxton.     This  seems  to  be  O.E.  worp 
"  enclosure,"  etc.,  and  leah,  with  change  of  ft  >  d  before  I  as  in  Headley  (Wore.)  : 
in  hcedleage  849  BCS  455,  Hedleye  1275  (Duignan). 

3.  Pendleton  (N.W.  of  Salford,  of  which  it  is  now  a  suburb) :  Penelton  1200, 
1201  LPR,  Pendelton  1201,  1202  LPR,  Pennelton  1212  LI,  Penilton  1243  LI, 
1246  LAR,  Penhulton  13  cent.  WhC  52,  Penhilton  1332  LS,  Pelton  Hey  1590  DL. 
The  first  el.  of  the  name  must  be  a  name  Penhyll,  identical  with  Pendle,  Bl. 
The  township  is  at  the  end  of  and  partly  on  the  ridge  of  land  mentioned  p.  38, 
the  highest  point  in  Pendleton  being  230ft.  I  suppose  this  ridge  was  once  called 
Penhyll.  I  take  pen  to  be  identical  with  Welsh  pen  "  head,  end,  top,"  O.Bret. 
pen  "  head,"  etc.,  found  in  names  such  as  Penmynydd  "  top  of  the  mountain," 
Penrhiw  (  :  rhiw  "  hill  "),  Pendinas  (a  hill  near  Aberystwyth  ;  dinas  "  town  "). 
Very  likely  the  old  British  name  was  a  combination  of  penn  with  some  other 
word.  Anyhow,  the  Anglian  invaders  took  over  the  name  as  Penn  and  added 
the  O.E.  hyll  just  as  in  the  case  of  Pendle  Bl.  Possibly  there  are  traces  of  the 
name  Penn  too  ;  see  under  Pendlebury. 

(Little)  Bolton  (old  manor)  :  Bothelton  1212  LI,  c  1210  CC,  Boulton  1201  LPR, 
Bolton  1341  IN.  O.E.  bopl  "dwelling,"  etc.,  and  tun.  Bolton  is  a  very 
common  place-name  in  the  N.  of  England  ;  there  are  several  in  Lancashire. 
Cf.  p.  8. 

Brindle  Heath  :  Le  Brendlache,  Brendelache  1324  LI.  The  second  el.  is  letch 
(earlier  lech,  lach)  "  a  stream  flowing  through  boggy  land  ;  a  muddy  ditch  or 


hole ;  a  bog  "  (NED),  cf.  dial,  lache  "  a  swamp,  a  quagmire,"  etc.  (EDD). 
Brend-  is  very  likely  M.E.  brend  "  burnt,"  here  "  of  a  tawny  or  brownish  colour." 
Hope  (formerly  in  Swinton)  :  le  Hope  (close),  hayas  del  Hope  13  cent.  WhC  917f., 
Hope  (manor)  1324  LI.  O.E.  hop  (see  p.  13),  here  most  probably  in  the  sense 
"  a  valley." 

Weaste.  The  name  is  a  form  of  waste,  which  in  dialects  means  "  uncultivated 
land,  common." 

4.  Pendlebury  (N.  of  Pendleton,  town) :    a.  Penelbiri,  Pinnelberia  1202  LPR, 
Penlebire  1206  ib.,  Penlibere  1207  ib.,  Pennilbure  1212  LI,  de  Pennelbiry  (Penel- 
byry,  Pennel-,  Penelbiry)   1246  LAR,  de  Penhilbyry  (Pennylles-,    Pennylbyry) 
1284  LAR,  Penhulbury  13  cent.  WhC  52,  1332  LS,  Penulbury  1311,  1423  LF, 
Pennilbiry  1313  LF,  b.  Penesbire  1206  LPR,  Pennebire  1208  LPR,  1226  LI, 
Penisburia  1212  RB,  Pennesbyry  1278  LAR.     Pendlebury  stands  on  the  N.E. 
slope  of  the  ridge  mentioned  ;  nearly  300ft.  elevation  is  reached  in  the  township. 
Type  a.  has  obviously  as  first  el.  the  Penhyll  suggested  under  Pendleton  as  the 
old  name  of  the  ridge.     Type  b.  is  most  probably  only  a  phonetic  and  graphic 
variant  of  type  a.    But  as  it  is  found  early,  and  only  in  early  sources,  it  is  just 
possible  it  contains  the  uncompounded  name  Penn,  on  which  see  under  Pendleton. 
The  second  el.  is  O.E.  burh  ;  perhaps  there  was  once  a  fort  on  the  ridge. 
Agecroft  [Hall]  :  Achecroft  1394  TI,  Agecroft  c  1540  Leland,  Edgecroft  1577  Harr., 
Aggecroft  16  cent.  DL.     Agecroft  Hall  stands  on  the  slope  of  the  ridge  not  far 
from  the  Irwell.     The  material  is  unsatisfactory.     The  first  el.  of  the  name  is 
perhaps  edge  "  brink  "   or  Ecga  pers.  n.     For  the  form  Age-  cf.  Burnage  p.  30. 
Shoresworth  (old  manor,  situated  on  the  Irwell  S.  of  Pendleton ;    the  name 
is  now  lost) :    Snoreswurda  (!)  1177  LPR,  Schoresworde  1226  LI,  Schoresworth 
1241  LF,  de  Soriswrth  1243  LI,  de  Schorwurth  1242,  1244  LAR,  de  Schereswurth 
1246  LAR,  de  Schoresworth,  -wrth  1278  LAR.   The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  the  word 
shore,  here  used  in  the  sense  "  bank  "  (of  a  river),  a  sense  first  evidenced  in  Lane, 
texts  (Allit.  Poems,  etc.).    Chadeswrthe  1212  RB,  1212  LI  is  usually  identified 
with  Shoresworth.     If  that  is  correct,  it  is  perhaps  an  earlier  name  with  O.E. 
Ceadd(a)  as  first  el.     On  worth  see  p.  20. 

5.  Clifton  (N.  of  Pendlebury  and  Worsley,  v.)  :    Clifton  1184  LPR,  1212  LI, 
1332  LS ;  Clyfton  1185  LPR,  1307  LF.     Clifton  stands  on  the  slope  of  the  ridge 
mentioned  p.  38  ;  cliff  (O.E.  clif)  in  this  case  means  "  a  declivity,  a  slope." 


This  parish  takes  its  name  from  Deane  in  Rumworth,  where  the  church  is  : 
Capella  de  Saynte  mariden  13  cent.  WhC  60,  capellam  de  Saynte  Maridene  1329 
WhC  256,  Dene  1292  PW.  The  church  is  dedicated  to  St.  Mary.  It  stands 
on  the  edge  of  a  narrow  valley,  Deane  Church  Clough,  near  the  town  of  Bolton  ; 
hence  the  name  (O.E.  denu  "  valley  ").  The  parish  is  situated  W.  of  the  Irwell 
and  W.  and  S.  of  Bolton-le-Moors.  The  ground  varies  considerably.  In  the 
S.  part  is  a  ridge  reaching  c  500ft.  The  northernmost  part  is  on  the  slope  of  a 
moorland  district,  whose  highest  point  (Winter  Hill  in  Bolton  par.)  rises  to 
1,498ft.  In  the  middle  is  a  fairly  broad  valley  occupied  by  Lostock  township  in 
Bolton  par. 

DEANE  PAR.  43 

1.  Kearsley  (S.E.  of  Bolton,  on  the  Irwell ;   v.) :   Cherselawe  1187  LPR,  Cherse- 
lawa  1188  LPR,  Kersleie  c  1220  CC,  Keresley  1501  LF.     I  suppose  the  name 
means  "  cress  lea  "    (O.E.  ccerse,  cerse  "  cress  "   and  leak).     The  early  forms  in 
-lawe,  -lawa,  if  they  belong  here,  are  probably  corrupt. 

2.  Farnworth  (S.  of  Bolton,  on  the  Irwell ;    town)  :    Farnewurd  1185  LPR, 
Ferneworthe  c  1220  CC,  Farinworth  1253  LF,  Farneworth  1278  LAR,  1326  LF, 
etc.     O.E.  fearn  "  fern  "   and  worp  "  enclosure,"   etc. 

Blindsill  :  de  Blyndeshull  1278  LAR.  Possibly  the  first  el.  is  a  pers.  name 
derived  from  blind  adj.  Cf.  Blindbothel,  Cumb. 

Prestall  (near  the  Irwell ;  the  name  is  preserved  in  Presto  Lane)  :  de  Presthall 
1278  LAR,  de  Prestal  1324  LCR,  Prestall  1514  LF.  Probably  "  the  priest's 
hall  or  farm." 

3.  Over,  Middle,  and  Little  Hulton  (three  townships  S.  of  Bolton) :  Hilton  1200  if. 
LPR,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Hiltone  1212  RB,  Hylton  1219,  1256  LF,  Hulton  1212  LI, 
1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Hilton,  Over-,  Netherhilton  1521  LF,  Medyll  Hilton  1552  LP. 
O.E.  hyll  "  hill  "  and  tun.     The  district  of  Hulton  is  on  the  slope  of  a  ridge  ; 
in  Over  Hulton  an  elevation  of  c  500ft.  is  reached. 

Wharton  or  Warton  Hall  (in  Li.  Hilton).  An  early  form  is  Wauerton  (VHL  V. 
30).  Better  material  is  wanted.  Cf.  Wavertree  (De). 

Wicheves,  later  Peel  Hall  (in  Li.  Hulton) :  del  Withevse  1323  LI,  Wicheves 
VHL  V.  30,  Le  Whiche  Eves  1546  LF.  The  first  el.  is  a  name  the  Wiche,  denoting 
a  piece  of  land  in  Hulton,  and  found  also  in  Wichard,  Wichsike  c  1210  LF  I. 
p.  216  ;  cf.  Wichshaw,  Wich  Brook  13  cent.  VHL  V.  30.  As  eaves  often  means 
"  edge  of  a  wood,"  it  is  probable  that  Wich  denoted  a  wood  (cf.  also  Wichshaw) 
and  that  the  name  is  O.E.  wice  "  witchelm,"  or  rather  the  plural  of  that. 
Wicheves  is,  then,  "  the  edge  of  the  elm- wood."  Peel  is,  of  course,  peel  "  a 
palisade,  a  palisaded  enclosure  ;  a  small  castle." 

4.  Westhoughton  (S.W.  of  Bolton ;   v.) :   Hakton  c  1210,  etc.  CC,  1258  LAR, 
Halcghton  1246  LAR,  Halicton  1258  LAR,    Halghton  1332  LS,  Westhakton  c 
1240  CC,   Westhalton  1303  FA,  Westhalghton  1327  LS,  etc.,  Westhowftun  1864 
Staton.     O.E.  halh  "  haugh  "  and  tun.     The  village  stands  near  Pennington 
Brook.     Westhoughton  is  W.  of  Little  Hough  ton. 

Borsden  or  Borsdane  (on  Borsden  Brook) :  Ballesdenebroc  c  1215  CC,  lee  Balesden 
1451  CC,  Basdane  1537  CC.  Cf .  Ballesleie,  Ballislege  13  cent.  CC  (Westhoughton), 
Ballesley  1560  DL.  The  first  el.  is  probably  O.E.  Bcell  pers.  n.  in  bcelles  wcege  946 
BCS  814,  and  found  also  in  Balsham,  Cambs.  (Bellesham  974,  Balsham  1286 
FA;  cf.  Skeat). 

Brinsop  (in  the  N.W.) :  Brunsop  c  1250  CC,  lee  Brinsope  1451  CC,  Brynsop  1577 
Saxton.  The  same  name  is  found  in  Bold  De.  (Brunsop  14  cent.,  de  Brinsope 
1372  VHL  III.  408),  and  Heref.  ( :  Bruneshop  1291  TE,  etc.).  Though  it  is 
remarkable  that  hop  should  be  combined  so  often  with  the  same  name,  I  suppose 
the  first  el.  is  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Bryne,  found  also  e.g.  in  Brinsley,  Notts.  Hope 
is  O.E.  hop,  here  used  in  the  sense  "  a  small  valley  opening  out  from  the  main 
dale."  The  place  stands  in  a  small  valley  on  the  upper  Borsden  Brook. 
Snydale  (N.E.  of  Westhoughton) :  ?  Slinehal  1212  BF,  de  Snythehill  (Snithull) 
1278  LAR,  Snythill  1486  RS  XXX.  The  early  forms  are  too  conflicting  to 
allow  of  a  definite  etymology.  Snydale  Hall  stands  close  to  Snydale  Hill, 


which  reaches  475  ft.  ;  so  the  second  el.  is  probably  O.E.  hyll  "  hill."  The  first 
el.  may  be  O.E.  suite  "  snipe  "  ;  cf.  Snydale,  Yks.  (Snitehala  DB). 
WarcockhiU  (N.  of  Westhoughton)  :  le  Werkokhull  c  1280  CO,  le  Werkochul 
c  1250  CO.  Warcock-  is  M.E.  wer-cok  ?  "  pheasant  "  (Stratmann-Bradley). 
The  same  name  is  found  in  Rochdale  (Wercokhill  1324  LI)  ;  cf.  Warcockelowe 
(Darwen)  VHL  VI.  272.  On  wercock,  see  Anglia-Beiblatt  XXIX.  197.  M.E. 
wercok  is  related  to  O.E.  worhana  (glossed  phasianus)— Du.  woerhaan  "  caper- 

Wingates  (h.  N.  of  Westhoughton) :  Windyatis  1272  CO,  lee  Wyndzates  1451  ib. 
Cf.  to  wind  geate  961  BCS  1066.  I  suppose  the  name  means  something  like 
"  swing-gate." 

5.  Rumworth  (S.W.  of  Bolton) :    Rumwrth  1205,  1288  LF,  -worth  1278  LAR, 
1303  FA,  1327  LS,  Rumhworth  1243  LI,  Romworth  1332  LS,  Romesworth  1341  IN. 
The  township  occupies  the  N.  slope  of  the  ridge  on  the  S.  slope  of  which  is 
Hulton.     The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  doubtless  O.E.  rum  adj.  ;  the  sense  may  be 
"  roomy,  spacious  "    or  "  open,  unencumbered,   cleared."     On  worth  "  enclo- 
sure," etc.,  see  p.  20. 

6.  Heaton  or  Heaton-under-Horwich  (W.  of  Bolton) :   Heton  1227,  1256  LF, 
1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc. ;  Heton  under  the  Forest  1322  LI,  Heton  under  Horewich 
1 332  LF,  Heton  subtus  Horewych  1 346  FA.  "  The  high  tun  "  ( 0 .E .  Heaturi) .  Heaton 
lies  on  the  slope  of  a  hill ;   an  elevation  of  1,000ft.  is  reached  in  the  township. 
The  addition  "  under-Horwich  "    means  "in  or  near  the  forest  of  H."  ;    cf. 

7.  Horwich  (in  the  N.W.  corner  of  the  parish ;   town) :    (forest  of)  Horewych, 
-e  1254  IM,  Horewiche  (forest)  1282  IPM,  Horewich  1322  LI,  1332  LF,  -eley  1322 
LI,  Horewyche  1331  Ind,  Horwyge  1539  DL,  Horridge  1641  Blackrod  R  ;    now 
[oridz],  Hargreaves,  p.  110.     Horwich  was  the  forest  of  the  lords  of  Manchester 
(VHL  V.  7).     The  name  probably  goes  back  to  O.E.  (cet)  hdran  wican  "  the  grey 
witchelms  "    (O.E.  hdr  "  grey  "    and  wice  "  witchelm  ") ;    cf.  Harewych  1277 
VHL  V.  6.     Or  possibly  the  second  el.  is  a  derivative  of  wice  meaning  "  elm- 
wood  "  ;   cf.  Wicheves  p.  43. 

Ridley  (Wood) :  Ridelegebroc  1218-40  CO,  Ridlegesich  1227  LF  IV.,  Rydeley  1322 
LI.  Searle  gives  a  pers.  name  Rida  (in  Ridanfald),  which  may  be  the  first  el. ; 
or  it  may  be  rydd  p.  pple  of  ryddan  "  to  clear  "  (cf.  ridding  p.  16).  Note,  how- 
ever, the  name  High  Rid  Farm  in  Horwich,  which  seems  to  point  to  an  un- 
recorded noun  rid  with  some  topographical  meaning. 

Wilders  Moor  (moorland  in  the  N.),  Wilderswood  (near  Horwich) :  Wilderhirst 
1322  LI.  Wilder  is  O.E.  wilder  "  wild  beast,  deer." 

8.  Halliwell  (N.W.  of  and  partly  a  suburb  of  Bolton) :   Haliwalle  c  1200,  etc. 
CO,  Haliwell  1246  LAR,  Haliwall  1292  PW,  Haliwelle  1332  LS.     Halliwell 
stands  near  a  brook,  called  Haliwellebroc  c  1200  CO.     The  name  means  "  the 
holy  well."    A  holy  well  in  Halliwell  is  in  the  old  Ordnance  map  (Prof.  Tait). 
Smithills  (the  N.  part ;    Smithills  Moor  reaches  1,475ft.)  :  Smythel,  Smythell 
(Snitell)  1322  LI,  Smythehill  1505  LF,  Smethehill,  Smethehylls  1506  DL.     The 
first  el.  is  apparently  O.E.  smepe  "  smooth." 

Egburden  :  Egbedene,  Egburdene  1322  LI,  Egburden  1517  DL.  First  el.  perhaps 
O.E.  Ecgbeorht  or  Ecgburh  pers.  n. 



This  parish  occupies  the  N.W.  part  of  the  hundred.  The  N.  part  to  a  great 
extent  consists  of  moorland.  In  the  S.  part,  in  the  valleys  of  the  Croal  and 
the  Tongue,  the  surface  is  lower.  There  are  two  detached  parts,  Blackrod  and 
Lostock,  separated  from  the  body  of  the  parish  by  parts  of  Deane  par. 

1.  Lostock  (W.  of  Bolton  town,  in  the  valley  of  the  Croal)  :  Lostok  1205,  1288 
LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Lostoc  1212  LI,  c  1220  CO,  etc.,  Lostoke  1451  CO.    Cf.  the 
same  name  p.  39. 

Chew  Moor  :  Chow  More  16  cent.  VHL  V.  295.    Cf.  Chew  p.  71. 

2.  Blackrod  (W.  of  Lostock  and  Bolton  ;    v.  and  church)  :    Blakerode  1201  fi. 
LPR,  1212  LI,  1278  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Blacrode  1226  LI,  Blakerod  1278  LAR, 
Blakrode  1414  LF.     "  Black  clearing  " ;  on  O.E.  rod  "  clearing,"  see  p.  16.     The 
vil.  is  on  a  hill  of  over  500ft.   On  the  slope  of  the  hill  is  Chauntry  Brow  (h.) ;  Brow 
is  brow  "  a  slope,  an  acclivity."  Blackrod  ch.  was  originally  a  chapel  (or  chantry). 
Arley  (on  the  Douglas)  :    Erelegh  1283  VHL  V.  302,  de  Erlegh  1332  LS,  Erley 
1394  TI.     The  name  is  apparently  identical  with  Arley,  Warw.  (Arlei  DB), 
Earley,  Berks.  ( :  Erlei  DB,  Erie  1316  FA).     Skeat  suggests  for  Earley  (Berks.) 
a  first  el.  Earn-,  but  it  is  improbable  that  n  should  have  been  lost  so  early  in 
all  these  names.     Also  the  common  occurrence  of  the  combination  of  Ere-  with 
-ley  is  noteworthy.     Ere-  may  be  a  derivative  (with  a  suffix  -mi)  of  O.E.  erian 
"  to  plough  "  ;   cf.  M.E.  yere  time  "  time  of  ploughing,"   O.E.  eteland  "  pasture 
land  "  ( :  ettan),  ciepestow  "  market-place  "  ( iclepan), 

Huyton  or  Highton.  It  is  not  quite  clear  if  the  Huyton  family  in  Blackrod  is 
a  local  one  or  a  branch  of  that  of  Huyton  in  De.  The  name  is  exemplified  in 
VHL  V.  301  from  1497.  Huyton  stands  on  the  Douglas,  which  suits  derivation 
of  the  name  from  O.E.  hyp-tun  (hyp  "  landing-place"). 

3.  Bolton,  Great  and  Little  (townships  with  Bolton-le-Moors  town)  :    Boelton 
1185  LPR,  Bothelton  1212  LI  (Li.  Bolton),  Botelton  1257  LI,  Magna  Boulton 
1285  LAR,  Boulton  1288  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Bolton  on  the  Mores  1331  LF,  Great 
Boulton  on  the  Moors  1332  LF,  Bolton  in  the  More  1577  Harr.,  [Boutn]  Hargreaves. 
O.E.  Bopltun ;  cf.  p.  8. 

4.  Tonge-with-Haulgh  (between  Bolton  and  Bradshaw  Brook). 

Tonge  (v.) :  Tange  1212  LI,  Twannge  1212  RB,  Tonge  1226  LI,  1323  LI,  long, 
Toung  1285  LAR,  de  Thonge  1332  LS.  It  is  not  always  easy  to  keep  the  forms 
of  Tonge  in  Bolton  and  Tonge  in  Prestwich  apart.  Tonge  is  in  a  tongue  of  land 
between  the  Bradshaw  and  Tonge  brooks.  The  name  is  the  word  twang  "  fork 
of  a  river,"  discussed  p.  18. 

Haulgh  (between  the  Croal  and  the  Tonge)  :  del  Halgh  1332  LF,  1417  CR, 
Halgh  1421  TI,  Haughe,  Tonge  Halgh  1556  DL.  O.E.  halh  "  haugh." 

5.  Little  Lever,  Darcy  Lever  (townships  S.E.  of  Bolton,  E.  of  the  Croal  and  the 
Irwell).     Great  Lever  is  a  detached  township  of  Middleton  par.  situated  W.  of 
the  Croal.     The  three  obviously  once  formed  a  whole.1     It  is  difficult  to  dis- 
tinguish the  early  forms  of  the  names,  which  are  therefore  dealt  with  together 
here  :  Parva  Lefre  1212  BF,  Little  Lethre  1221  LI  (1. 130),  Leoure  1227  LF,  Lever, 
Leure  1246  LAR,  Little  Levere  1331  LF,  Parva  Lever  1341  IN ;    Magna  Leure 

1  Great  Lever  was  in  Bolton  par.  as  late  as  1627  ;  cf.  Deane  E,  p.  16. 


1285  LAR,  Great  Leure  1326  LF,  Leuermore,  Leuerlesse  1577  Harr.,  Darcye  Lever 
1590  Bolton  R.  The  name  may  be  the  plur.  of  O.E.  Icefer  (leber)  f.  glossed 
"  scirpea,  gladiolus,"  Mn.E.  levers,  lavers  "  Iris  Pseudacorus."  The  supposition 
is  necessary  that  O.E.  Icefer  had  a  long  vowel  (Icefer,  lefer)  ;  Mn.E.  levers  bears 
out  this  assumption.  This  derivation  would  suit  the  situation  of  the  townships  ; 
no  doubt  flags  and  other  water-plants  grew  on  the  banks  of  the  Irwell  and  Croal. 
Or  Lever  may  be  an  old  river-name  ;  in  that  case  perhaps  originally  that  of  the 
Croal.  Of.  O.E.  Icefer  (Icefre)  name  of  a  river  in  Wilts.  949  BCS  879,  and  Lear- 
mouth,  Nhb.  (Levermuth  1346  FA),  Leber  Alsace  (Forstemann).  The  river-name 
may  be  British  or  a  derivative  of  O.E.  Icefer  "  flag." 

Burnden  (in  Gr.  Lever,  on  the  Croal)  :  de  Bornden  (Burnderi)  1285  LAR,  Burne- 
deyn  1547  DL.  O.E.  burna  "  brook  "  and  denu  "  valley." 
Hacking  or  Hacken  (in  Li.  Lever,  in  a  bend  of  the  Croal) :  de  la  Hackyng  1278 
LF,  Hackinge  1591  Bolton  R.  Possibly  the  estate  was  named  from  a  branch 
of  the  family  resident  at  Hacking  in  Billington  (BL).  The  etymology  will  be 
discussed  p.  71. 

6.  Breightmet  (E.  of  the  Tonge  and  Bolton)  :    de  Brihtsmete  (Brithemet)  1246 
LAR,  Brigdtmed  1257  LAR,  Brihtmede  1257  LF,  Brightmete  1312  LI,  Breghtmete, 
-mede  13231  LI.  "  Bright  (i.e.,  beautiful)  meadow,"   O.E.  beorht  "  bright  "   and 
meed,  med  "  meadow."     On  -t  for  final  -d  see  p.  21. 

Oakenbottom  (on  Bradshaw  Brook) :  ?  de  Akinbothun  1246  LAR,  Okynbothu 
in  Breghtmeyt  1486  RS  XXX.  Second  el.  O.E.  *bopm  "  bottom,  valley." 

7.  Harwood  (N.E.  of  Bolton.  E.  of  Bradshaw  Brook) :    Harewode  1212  LI, 
1241,  1292  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Harwude  1227  LF,  Harwode  1327  LS.     The  same 
name  is  found  in  Bl.  and  in  Devon ;    cf.  Harewood,  Yks.  (Harawuda  10  cent., 
Hareuuode  DB ;   cf .  Moorman),  Horwood,  Bucks.     The  most  probable  meaning 
is  "  grey  (or  old)  wood,"  O.E.  hdr  "  grey  ;  old  "  and  wudu.     But  in  some  cases 
the  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  hara  "  hare." 

8.  Bradshaw  (N.E.  of  Bolton,  N.  of  Harwood ;   v.) :   de  Bradeshawe,  -shagh[e] 
1246  LAR,  Bradeshagh  1312,  1324  LF,  de  Bradeshagh  1332  LS,  Bradsha  (stream) 
1577  Harr.     "  Broad_(*.e.,  extensive)  wood  "  ;    O.E.  brad  "  broad  "    is  used 
with  such  words  as  see,  rice,  etc. 

9.  Quarlton  (N.E.  of  Bolton,   N.  of  Bradshaw,  h.) :    de  Querendon  1246  LAR, 
Querdon  1304  ChR,  Quordone  1309  LF,  de  Quernedon,  de  Querndoun  1332  LS, 
Quarnton,  Quarton  1587  Bolton  R.     Quarlton  is  on  the  slope  of  a  considerable 
hill.     The   name  was   obviously  originally  a  hill-name  ;    second  el.  O.E.  dun 
"  hill."     The  first    is    O.E.    cweorn.     The    name    may  mean  "  windmill    (or 
water- mill)  hill  " ;  cweorn,  to  judge  by  such  names  as  cwyrnburna,  cweornwella 
(Middendorff),  must  at  least  have  been  used  of  water-mills.     Sephton  suggests 
the  meaning  "  a  hill  producing  mill-stones."     O.E.  cweorn  is  not  evidenced  in 
the  sense  "  mill-stone,"   but  O.N.  kvern  is.     The  same  name  is  found  in  Leic. 
(Quordon:    Querndon   1402  FA,   etc.),  Bucks.  (Quarrendon:    Querndone  1286 
FA),  Derby  (Quarndon  :    Querndon  1275,  Walker).     Cf.  also  Whernside,  Yks. 
(  :  Querneside  c  1200  AP),  and  see  Quernmore,  Lo.     The  second  alternative  is, 
to  some  extent,  supported  by  the  name  W hernstonescliff  (Rivington,  Sa.)  VHL  V. 
291,   which  means  "  millstone  cliff."     Mines  of  mill-stones  are  mentioned  in 
Horwich  (Sa.)  1322  LI  (II.  p.  59).f 


Wickenlow  (in  the  N.) :  de  Quicken(s)lawe  1246  LAR,  de  Quykenlowe  1284  LAR, 
Quykenlawe  1324  LI.  The  first  el.  is  probably  M.E.  quiken  (a  1387)  "  the 
mountain  ash  ;  the  service  tree  ;  the  juniper."  The  word  is  still  used  in  Lane, 
in  the  sense  "  mountain  ash."  Second  el.  O.E.  hldw  "  hill."  Wickenlow  Hill 
reaches  800ft. 

10.  Edgeworth  (N.  of  Bolton  between  Bradshaw  and  Quarlton  brooks,  v.)  : 
Eggewrthe  1212  LI,  Egewrthe  1212  RB,  Eggeworth  1276  LAR,  1327,  1332  LS, 
Egworth  1505  LF.     Edgeworth  is  at  the  foot  of  Edgeworth  Moor,  where  an 
elevation  of  1,250ft.  is  reached.     The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  O.E.  ecg 
"  edge,"   here  used  in  the  sense  "  ridge  of  a  hill ;   a  steep  hill  or  hillside  "   (cf. 
EDD).     In  the  neighbouring  Entwisle  township  are  Edge,  Edgefold,  Edgefoot. 
Another  possibility  is  O.E.  Eccjan  worp.     On  worp  see  p.  20. 

11.  Entwisle  (N.  of  Bolton,  W.'  of  Edgeworth,  h.)  :  Hennetwisel  1212  LI,  En(n)e- 
tivysel,  de  Hennetwysel,  Ennutwesille,  Emmetwesille  1276  IM,  de  Entletwisil  1297 
LI,  de  Entwissell  1311  LI,  Entwysel  1341  IN.    The  S.  part  of  Entwisle  is  a  tongue 
of  land  between  Edgeworth  Brook  and  a  tributary  brook.     The  second  el.  of 
the  name  is  O.E.  twisla  "  fork  of  a  river,"   the  first  being  probably  O.E.  Enna 
pers.  n. 

Wayoh  Fold  (h.  on  a  spur  of  hill  near  Edgeworth  brook)  :  Wao  1546,  1551  LF, 
Weoh  1650  Bolton  R.  The  second  el.  may  be  O.E.  hoh  "  spur  of  hill,"  the 
first  being  possibly  O.E.  weg  "  way." 

Wheatshaw  Croft  :  de  Weteshagh  1246  LAR  (71),  (R.)  Of-the-wetschawe  1285 
LAR.  "Wetshaw." 

12.  Turton  (W.  of  Bradshaw  brook,  N.  of  Bolton) :   Turton  1212  LI,  1246  LAR, 
1332  LS..  etc.,  Torton,  Turtun  1246  LAR,  Thurton  1257  ChR,  1303  FA,  Torton, 
Terton  1282  LI,  Tureton  1577  Harr.     The  township  embraces  wide  moorlands, 
Turton  Heights  (1,100ft.)  and  Turton  Moor  (1,280ft.).     The  first  el.  of  the  name 
is  a  pers.  n.pur,por,  orpuri,  Thori  (Scand.  names,  cf.  Bjorkman),  identical  with 
that  of  Thurton,  Norf.  (Thurton  HR,  etc.).     On  T-  for  Th-  see  p.  22. 
Birtenshaw  or  Birkenshaw  (h.) :    de  Byrkeneshawe  (Byrkenhaw)  1277   LAR, 
de  Byrcheneshaghe  (Birchensagh)  1278  ib.,   de  Birchynesagh  1292  LF.     O.E. 
bircen  "  of  birch  "  and  scaga  "  shaw."     As  regards  t  for  k  cf.  p.  22. 

Dimple  (on  a  small  brook  ;  h.) :  Cf.  p.  38. 

Egerton  or  Walmesley  (v.) :   Walmesley  becke  1577  Harr.    According  to  VHL  V. 

278f.  probably  named  from  previous  owners. 

13.  Longworth  (N.W.  of  Bolton,  W.  of  Turton)  :    Langeworthe  c  1210  CC,  de 
Langewurth  (Lungewurth)  1246  LAR,  de  Longeworthe  1254  LI,  Lungewrthe  1276 
LAR,  Longeworth  1309  LF.     O.E.  lang  "  long  "   and  worp.     The  forms  with  u 
reflect  a  sound-change  o  >  u  before  ng,  common  in  Lane,  dialects. 

14.  Sharpies  (a  long,  narrow  strip  stretching  W.  of  Tonge  Brook  from  Bolton 
to  the  Leyland  boundary)  :    Charples  1212  LI,  Scharples  1246  LAR,  Sharpes, 
de  Sharpies  1259  LAR,  de  Scharplis  c  1250  CC,  de  Scarples  1254  LI,  de  Scharples 
1261  LI,  de  Sharpies  1332  LS.     The  ground  slopes  from  some  1,275ft.  in  the 
N.  or  Higher  End  to  some  350  in  the  S.     Sharpies  Hall  is  in  the  S.  part,  near 
Barley  Brook.     There  is  no  village  Sharpies.     The  name  seems  to  be  connected 
with  sharp  adj.,  perhaps  in  the  sense  "  rough,  rugged  "  (used  of  a  road  by  Alfred, 
cf.  sharp  places  Wiclif),  or  possibly  "  steep,"  a  sense  assumed  by  Middendorfl 


for  compounds  such  as  (on)  scearpannesse  956  BCS  964  (Sharpness,  Glo.),  etc. 
Sharpenhoe,  Beds.  (Sharpenho  1286  FA),  may  contain  this  word.  Sharpies  is 
either  an  old  compound  (e.g.,  with  O.E.  Ices  "  meadow,"  or  leas,  pi.  of  leak), 
or  a  derivative  of  O.E.  scearp,  analogous  to  hwltel  "  cloak  "  (  :  hwit),  stlepel 
"steeple"  (  :  steap),  pyrel  "hole"  (  :  purh).  O.E.  *scerpel,  *scearpol  "peak" 
or  "  rough  place  "  might  have  existed. 

Hordera  (upper  Sharpies) :  Great,  Little  Hordern  1322  LI.  O.E.  hordern  "  store- 
house." The  same  name  is  Hardhorn,  Am.  (q.v.)  and  Hordron,  Yks.  (Horderon 
1323,  etc.). 

Ravden  (or  Raveden)  Clough  (divides  Halliwell  from  Sharpies)  :  Rapeden 
(stream),  Rapeden  Hey  1429  VHL  V.  262,  Rapheden  Hey  1560  ib.  The  name 
exhibits  an  interesting  change  of  p  to  b  >  v  ;  cf.  Pavenham,  Beds,  (earlier 
Pabenham,  Skeat).  The  etymology  is  obscure.  It  may  be  the  first  el.  is  O.N. 
hrapi  "  small  shrubs  on  fells,"  Norw.  rape  the  same,  especially  "  dwarf  birch." 
But  Rape-  may  also  be  the  name  of  the  brook  ;  perhaps  it  may  be  derived  from 
O.N.  hrapa  "  to  rush  along,"  from  which  M.E.  rape  "  to  rush  "  seems  to  have 
been  borrowed.  Rape  adj.  (c  1400,  etc.)  seems  to  be  a  new  formation  from 
rapely  adv.  (<  O.N.  hrapaliga).  Another  Scand.  name  in  the  district  is  Folescalis 
1246  LAR,  whose  second  el.  is  O.N.  skali  "hut."  First  el.  perhaps  O.N.  foli 
"  foal." 

15.  Rivington  (on  the  N.  and  W.  slopes  of  Rivington  Moor,  on  the  border  of 
Leyland  hundred  ;    v.)  :    Rowinton,  Rawinton,  Revington  1202  LF,  Ruhwinton 
1212  LI,  Riuiton  1226  LI,  Rouington  1227  LF  (IV.),  de  Rouin[g]ton,  Rowington, 
Ruynton,  Ruwinton,  de  Rowinton  1246  LAR,  Rowynton  1278  LAR,  Rovinton 
1323  LT,  Rovyngton  1324  LI,  1448  LF,  Reuuiton  1325  LCR,  Rouynton  1327  LS, 
Roynton  1332  LS,  Reuynton  1338  HS  XIJ.  225,  Riven  or  Riventon'c  1540  Leland. 
The  village  stands  at  the  foot  of  Rivington  Moor.     The  first  el.  is  the  old  name  of 
that  hill.     See  p.  28.     The  old  form  Roynton  still  occurs  in  Roynton  Cottage. 
Gamelsley:  de  Gameleslegh  1332  LS.    Gamel  pers.  n.  is  probably  O.N.  GamalL 

16.  Anglezark  (in  the  N.W.  corner  of  Bolton  par.,  N.  of  Rivington) :    Ande- 
levesarewe   1202   LF,   Anlauesargh   1224   LF,   Anlawesaregh,  Anlawesarwe   (de 
Annelesherg)  1246  LAR,  Anlaseharghe  1285  LAR,  Anlasargh  1341  IN.     "  Anlaf's 
ergh  (argh)  or  shieling  "  ;  see  p.  10.     O.E.  Anlafis  derived  from  O.N.  Oldfr,  etc. 
(<  *AnulaibaR).     The  greater  part  of  the  township  is  occupied  by  Anglezark 
Moor,  which  reaches  1 ,000ft.     There  is  no  village. 

Bullough  :  de  Bolhal  1307  LI,  de  Bolehalgh  1325  LCR,  de  Bulhalgh  1332  LS, 
Bulloghes  More  1551  DL.  Parson's  Bullough  is  on  the  Yarrow.  The  first  el. 
is  probably  O.E.  Bula  pers.  n. ;  the  second  is  O.E.  halh  "  haugh." 


E.  of  Bolton,  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Irwell. 

Radcliffe  (town) :  Radeclive  DB,  1200ff.  LPR,  1202  LF,  etc.,  Radecliva  1194 
LPR,  Radecliue  1226  LI,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  Radedyue  1246  LAR,  Radcliffe 
1500  LF,  Ratcliffe  1577  Harr. ;  Redeclifc  1200  Ch  (orig.).  "  The  red  cliff."  The  place 
is  said  to  take  its  name  from  a  cliff  of  red  sandstone  on  the  side  of  the  Irwell 
(VHL  V.  56). 



This  parish  consists  of  two  distinct  parts.  Prestwich  proper  is  a  district 
N.  of  Manchester,  separated  from  Eccles  by  the  Irwell.  The  greater  part  of  the 
E.  portion  (the  district  round  Oldham)  is  partly  independent,  and  is  called 
Oldham  chapelry. 


The  surface  is  undulating.     Altitudes  of  c  350ft.  are  reached. 

1.  Pilkington  (in  the  W.,  on  the  Irwell  and  the  Roch)  :  Pulkinton  1202f.  LPR, 
1202  LF,  Pilkenton  1204  LPR,  1277  LAR,  etc.,  Pilketon  1206  LPR,  pilkiton 
c  1200  Ch,  Pilkinton  1212  LI,  1226  LI,  1277  LAR,  de  Pilkington  1246  LAR, 
Pynkelton  1277  LAR,  Pylkington  ib.,  de  Pilkington  1299  AP,  Pilkynton  1312  LF, 
1332  LS,  Pilkyngton  1311  IPM,  Pilketon  c  1540  Leland.     Pilkington  Hall  stands 
S.  of  the  Irwell,  on  level  ground.     The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  a  patronymic 
in  -ing,  formed  from  an  O.E.  Pileca  or  Piloc,  a  derivative  of  Pil-  in  Pilheard, 
etc.  (cf.  Pilsworth,  p.  54),  and  perhaps  found  in  Pilton  (Nhp.) :   Pilketon  1346, 
Pylketon    1428    FA.     The  early  form  Pulkinton,  which  apparently  points  to 
O.E.  Pyl-,  may  have  been  misread  for  Pilkinton  ;  moreover,  between  p  and  I  an  i 
may  have  become  rounded  occasionally.     Cf.  Fulking  1229  C1R  for  Filkins, 
Oxf.,  a  derivative  of  O.E.  Filica  (Alexander). 

Prestolee  (on  the  Irwell)  :    Prestawe  alias  Prestall  Lee  1618  DL.    Named  after 

Prestall  in  Farn worth  on  the  other  side  of  the  Irwell  (p.  43). 

Rhodes  :   del  Rodes  1332  LS.     "  The  clearings."     O.E.  rod,  p.  16. 

Unsworth  (the  E.  part ;    v.) :    Hundeswrth  1291  ChR,  1292  PW,  Undesworth 

1322  LI,  1522  DL.  Cf.  Hunsley,  Yks.  (:  Hundesleie  1109-28  YCh  966),  Hunsworth, 

Yks.  (  :  Hundesworth  1285,  etc.,  Goodall),  Houndsfield,  Wore.   (  :  Hundesfelde 

DB).     The  first  el.  can  hardly  be  anything  else  than  O.E.  hund  "  hound,"  most 

probably  used  as  a  pers.  n.     O.E.  Hund  is  not  unequivocally  evidenced  ;    a 

possible  example  is  Hundes  hlcew  (Searle).     The  loss  of  H-  is  regular  in  Lane. 


Whitefield  :   Whitefeld  1292  PW.    No  doubt  "  the  white  field." 

2.  Prestwich  (N.  of  Manchester,  on  the  Irwell;   v.) :   Prestwich  1194  LPR,  1226 
LI,  1327  LS,  Prestwych  1212  LI,  Prestwike  1212  RB,  de  Prestwych,  -wyche, 
-wik  1246  LAR,  Prestewyk  1277,  1278  LAR,  Prestewych  1313  LF,  -wich  1332  LS, 
Prestiche  c  1500  DL,  Prest(w]idge  1598  Middleton  R.     O.E.  preostwlc  "  priest's 
dwelling,   rectory,"    or  "  village  where  there  was  a  priest."     Cf.   Prestwick 
Nhb.  and  Ayrshire. 

Rooden  Lane  (h. ;   on  a  slight  hill)  :    Roden  1340  M,  Rodoun  1341  VHL  V.  79. 
Possibly  "  rood  hill,"   O.E.  rod-dun ;  cf.  Lane.  Ant.  Soc.  XXXVI.  91  ff. 

3.  Great  Heaton,  or  Over  Heaton,  or  H.  Reddish,  Little  Heaton,  or  H.-in-Fallow- 
field  (townships  N.  of  Manchester,  on  the  Irk).     Formerly  one  township,  some- 
times called  Heaton-upon-Fallowfield  :    Heton  c  1200  CC,  1212  LI,  1292  PW, 
1292  LF,  etc.,  Hetone  1212  RB  ;   Little  Heton  1235  LF,  Heiton  1226  LI,  Baton 
1246  LAR,  Heton  near  Faufeld  1327  LI,  Heton  super  Faufeld  1404  TI,  Heaton  hill 
1577  Harr.,   Yetton  1872  Staton.     O.E.  heatun  "  the  high  town."     Heaton  is 
mostly  on  fairly  high  ground.     Heaton  House  stands  in  a  commanding  situation. 


Fallowfield  (said  to  be  the  old  name  of  the  district  occupied  by  the  Heatons, 
VHL  V.  80)  :  deffaghfelde  1325  LCR,  (Heaton  supra)  Faghfild  1523  DL.  The 
first  el.  isfaw  adj.  (O.E.  fag)  "  coloured,  variegated,"  used  especially  of  fields. 
Cf.  c  1440  Gaw.  and  Galaron :  Ferly  fayr  wes  the  feild,  flekerit  and  faw  (NED). 
The  Heaton  district  is  not  really  a  plain  ;  perhaps  Fallowfield  was  originally  a 
part  of  the  district,  e.g.,  the  land  S.W.  of  Heaton  House. 

4.  Alkrington  (E.  of  Heaton,  S.  of  Middleton  town) :  Alkinton  1212  LI,  Alkeryng- 
ton  1313  LF,  Akrington  1322  LI,  Ocrington  1608  Middleton  R.     Like  Alkerton, 
Oxf.   and  Glo.   (Alcrintone  DB)   obviously  O.E.   Alhheringa  tun,  Alhheringas 
being  a  patronymic  derived  from  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Alhhere  (Ealhhere).     The 
same  change  of  h  >  k  is  seen  in  Alconbury,  Hunts,  and  Alkmonton,  Derby, 
containing  O.E.  Ealhmund. 

5.  Tonge  (N.  of  Alkrington,  in  a  tongue  of  land  between  the  Irk  and  Wince 
Brook,  now  a  suburb  of  Middleton)  :   de  Thoong  1246  LAR,  Tong  in  Prestwhich 
1506  DL.     See  Tonge,  p.  45. 


This  part  is  hilly,  especially  in  the  E.,  where  elevations  of  over  1,200ft.  are 

6.  Chadderton  :   Chaderton  c  1200  WhC  48,  1224,  1270,  1276  LAR,  1303  FA, 
1332  LS,  etc.,  Kaderton  c  1250  CC,de  Chathirtonl2S2  IPM,  Chaterton  1224  Pat  R, 
1292  PW,  Chadreden  1311  LI,  Chadirton,  Chathirton  1322f.  LI,  Chadreton  1327 
LS.     It  might  seem  most  plausible  to  derive  the  first  el.  from  a  pers.  name  con- 
nected with  O.E.  Ceadda.     But  the  name  Hanging  Chadder  in  Thornham  cannot 
be  so  explained,  and  it  is  reasonable  to  identify  the  first  el.  of  Chadderton  with 
that  name.     Chadder  may  be  a  Brit,  name  identical  with  Welsh  coder  "  a  hill 
fort "  (=Ir.  cathir),  from  earlier  *cater  (cognate  with  L.  caterva).     This  etymology 
perhaps  accounts  for  the  variation  between  t  and  d  in  early  forms.     The  same  el. 
may  enter  into  Catterton,  Yks.  (Cadretune  DB,  Cadartuna  c  1140-8  YCh  539). 
Chadderton  township  is  hilly  ;    elevations  of  500ft.  are  reached  at  Chadderton 
Heights  and  elsewhere. 

Coldshaw  :  Canleschagh  c  1200  WhC  48,  Colesha  1577  VHL  V.  121.    Etymology 

doubtful.     The  first  el.  looks  like  O.E.  cawol  "  cole."     If  so,  it  refers  to  wild  cole. 

Foxdenton  Farm  (in  the  S.):    Denton[a]  1222-68  CC,  Denton  1224  ChR,  1224 

LAR,  Foxdenton  1282  IPM,  1322  LI.     "  The  tun  in  the  dean  "  (O.E.  denu). 

F.  stands  on  a  brook. 

Ogden  :   de  OJceden  1332  LS.     O.E.  dc-denu  "  oak  valley." 

Scowcroft  (in  the  N.W.) :    ?  de  Schalecroft  1246  LAR,  de  Scolecrofle  1332  LS, 

de  Scokroft  1412  FC.     Scole-  is  O.N.  skdli  "  hut  "  ;   cf.  p.  16. 

7.  Oldham  (with  Oldham  town)  :  de  Aldholm  1222-6  LI,  de  Aldhulm  1227  LAR, 
Aldholm  (vill)  1246  LAR,  Oldelum  1276  LAR,  Oldum  1327  LS,  1347  LF,  Oldom 
1332  LS,  1537  LF,  etc.,  Owdam  1546  LF,  Oldhm  1577  Saxton,  Owdham  Waugh. 
"  The  old  holm  "    rather  than  "  holm  of  Alda."     On  holm,  hulm,  see   p.    13. 
The  early  loss  of  I  before  m  is  due  to  dissimilation.     Oldham  is  in  the  old  district 
of  Kaskenmoor  (see  infra) ;   it  was  no  doubt  originally  a  "  holm  "   or  piece  of 
dry  land  in  mossland. 


Kaskenmoor  (comprised  practically  the  present  Oldham  and  Crompton  town- 
ships) :  Kaskinemor  1210f.  LPR,  Kaskenemore  1212  LI,  Caskenemore  1212  RB, 
Haskesmores  1222-26  LI.  Kasken-  I  take  to  be  an  adj.  derived  from  O.E. 
cassuc,  cassoc  "  hassock-grass,  rushes,  sedge  or  coarse  grass  "  (B-T),  practically 
identical  in  meaning  with  O.E.  hassuc,  found  in  hcessucmor,  hassukes  more 
(Middendorff).  But  it  may  also  be  the  pers.  n.  Caschin  DB,  Kaskin  (gen.  -«') 
1180-1200  YCh  1576,  1579. 

Oldham  was  anciently  divided  into  Werneth,  Glodwick,  and 

Werneth  (S.W.  part ;  the  old  manor  is  in  the  S.W.  of  Oldham  town)  :  de  Wornyth 
c  1200  WhC,  Vernet  1222-6  LI,  Wernit'  TN,  Wyrnith  1323  LI,  Wernyth  1352  LF. 
This  is  no  doubt  a  Brit,  name,  identical  with  Gaul.  Vernetum  (>  Vernet,  Vernois> 
etc.,  cf.  Holder,  who  gives  91  examples),  O.Bret.  (Pen)uuernet  (Loth  173), 
derived  from  *verno-  "  alder  "  (O.Bret,  uuern  "  aulnes,  marais  ").  The  same 
name  is  no  doubt  Werneth,  Ches.  (Warnet  DB).  For  final  -th,  cf.  Penketh, 

Copster  Hill  :  the  Coppedhyrst  1422  HS  LXXIV.,  Copthirst  1507  TI.  First  eL 
copped  adj.  "  peaked."  Hurst  no  doubt  means  "  hill."  There  is  a  small  hill 
close  to  the  place. 

Hathershaw  :  Hasellenshagh  1427,  Haslinshaw  1558  VHL  V.  95,  Haihersay 
(Hardshawe)  More  1554  DL,  Hasteshawe  1633  DL.  "  Hazel  copse."  The  sound 
development  is  remarkable. 

Horsedge:  Overhorssage  1559  DL,  Horsedge  1600  RS  XII.  Really  an  earlier  name 
of  Oldham  Edge,  a  ridge  (800ft.)  stretching  into  Oldham  town.  "  Horse 
ridge";  edge  is  used  in  the  sense  "  a  sharp  ridge,"  etc.  The  ridge  may  have 
been  used  as  a  pasture  for  horses. 

Glodwick  (the  S.E.  part)  :  Glodic  1190-8  HS  LXVII.  211,  Glothic  1212  LI, 
de  Glothiche  1246  LAR,  Glodyke,  Glothik  1323  LI,  Glotheyk  1307,  1347  LF,  Glothyk 
1347  LR  ;  Glodyght  1474  VHL  V.  93,  Glodethe,  Glodyth  1540  DL,  Glodight  1587 
DL,  Glodith,  Glodighte  1591  DL,  Glodwicke  1633  DL;  now  [glodik].  Glodwick 
is  in  a  fairly  high  situation ;  at  Glodwick  Lows  an  elevation  of  725ft.  is 
reached.  There  are  old  quarries  in  the  district.  The  place  is  near  a  Roman 

The  variation  in  the  early  forms  is  most  curious,  and  is  perhaps  best  explained 
if  we  may  assume  that  the  name  is  not  English.  There  is  a  Welsh  place-name 
which  at  least  looks  rather  like  Glodwick,  viz.,  Gloddaeth  (Carnarvon)  :  Glodeyth 
1353  Rec.C.  This  name,  I  suppose,  consists  of  Welsh  clawdd  "  ditch  ;  fence, 
hedge  "  (early  Bret,  cloed,  clod,  cloz,  Ir.  clad)  with  lenition  after  certain  preposi- 
tions, and  aeth  "  furze."  Glodd-  would  exactly  correspond  to  Engl.  Gloth- ; 
as  regards  Glod-  we  may  compare  the  material  adduced  under  Haydock,  De. 
Welsh  aeth  goes  back  to  earlier  (*akto-).  This  would  hardly  have  given  E.  -ight 
or  -ic,  but  there  may  have  been  a  derivative  with  ^-mutation  :  cf .  the  examples 
given  under  Ightenhill,  Bl.  The  most  difficult  task  is  to  explain  the  interchange 
of  -ic  (-ik)  and  (later)  -ight,  etc.,  in  the  forms  of  Glodwick.  Glodight  may  be 
fairly  easily  derived  from  a  Brit,  name  similar  to  Welsh  Gloddaeth,  but  Glodik, 
Glothic  are  hard  to  account  for.  Sound-substitution  may  have  taken  place. 
Perhaps  two  forms,  due  to  different  substitution,  have  come  down  from  early 


times.  In  favour  of  Brit,  origin  it  may  be  pointed  out  that  Werneth  near 
Glodwick  seems  to  have  a  Brit.  name. 

However,  the  forms  in  -ight,  etc.,  are  late,  and  may  perhaps  be  disregarded. 
If  so,  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  the  name  is  a  hybrid,  O.E.  die  "  ditch  "  having 
been  added  to  a  Brit,  name  identical  with  Welsh  clawdd  "  ditch,"  etc.  The  name 
might  refer  to  a  fosse  by  the  Roman  road.  The  O.E.  base  *Glod-dic  might 
explain  the  interchange  of  d  and  th  in  the  early  forms. 

Sholver  (the  N.  part) :  Solhher  1202  LF,  Shollerg,  Sholleregh,  Shollere,  Chalwer 
(de  Shollere,  Sholuer,  Shollers,  Shalwer,  Sholwer,  Choller)'  1246  LAR,  Sholver 
1278  LF,  Sholgher  1291  ChR,  de  Swlher  13  cent.  WhC  164,  Scholmer,  Sholler 
1323  LI,  de  Sholghre  1332  LS.  The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  clearly  ergh  (argh) 
"  a  shieling  "  (O.K.  erg  <  O.Ir.  airge,  p.  10).  The  first  el.  is  difficult.  It  may  be 
O.E.  sceolh  adj.  "  oblique,"  possibly  used  as  a  pers.  name.  As  O.E.  Sceolh  is 
not  evidenced,  whereas  O.N.  Skialgr  is  common,  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose 
that  Sholver  is  a  refashioning  of  a  Scand.  name.  The  development  of  the 
guttural  is  remarkable  ;  apparently  3  >  w  >  v.  The  place  stands  c  850  ft. 
above  sea-level  on  a  hill-slope. 

Beal  Moor  :   Bellemor,  Belemore  1323  LI.    First  el.  Beal,  the  river-name. 
Polden  or  Paulden  :    ?  de  Paldene  1305  Lacy  C,  1324  LI.     First  el.  probably 
O.E.  pal  "  pole." 

8.  Crompton  (N.  of  Oldham,  on  the  Beal) :    Crumpton  1246  LAR,  Crompton 
1246  LAR,  1292  LF,  1327  LS,  etc.,  Cromton  c  1210  CC,  1332  LS.     I  suppose 
Crompton  was  named  from  the  sharp  bend  formed  by  the  Beal  at  the  N.  end  of 
the  township.     It  is  true  High  Crompton  h.  is  c  1m.  S.  of  the  bend,  but  the 
original  vil.  may  have  been  further  N.     We  may,  then,  compare  Croome,  Wore. 
(  :  Cromban,  Cromman  969,  Crumbe  DB)  according  to  Duignan  named  from  a 
bend  of  the  Severn  ;  an  O.E.  *crumbe  "  bend  "  (derived  from  crumb  "  crooked  ") 
may  be  assumed  for  both  names.     Or  the  Beal  may  have  had  the  name  Crumbe 
in  part  of  its  course,  owing  to  the  bend  alluded  to. 

Birshaw  :    Burshou,   Burshagh  1323  LI,   Birchouer  1430  LI  I.  65.     Perhaps 

"  birch  shaw,"  but  the  early  forms  are  not  conclusive. 

Burnedge  (on  the  slope  of  a  hill  and  near  Sudden  Brook)  :    Brynege  1609  CW 

202.     Earlier  forms  are  needed.     Cf.  Burnage,  p.  30. 

Cowlishaw  :  Colleshawe,  Cowleshawe  1558  DL.    First  el.  perhaps  as  in  Collyhurst 

p.  35. 

Gartside  or  Garside  (on  the  slope  of  a  hill) :    Garteside  13  cent.  WhC  163  ff., 

de  Garteside  1285  LAR,  de  Gartesside  1332  LS,  de  Garthside  Whit.  II.  448.     Garth 

"  enclosure,"   etc.  (O.N.  gardr)  and  O.E.  side  in  the  sense  "  hill-side  "   seem  to 

be  the  elements  of  the  name. 

Shaw    (town)  :    Shaghe  1555  Ind  II,  Shay  chap.  1577    Saxton,  Shaie,  Saye 

1580  DL,  Shawe  1600  RS  XII.    O.E.  scaga  "  shaw."    For  the  form  Shay  cf. 

p.  21. 

9.  Eoyton  (N.  of  Oldham,  town) :    Ritton  1226  LI,  Ryton  1260,  1369  LF,  1323 
LI,  Riton  1269  LAR,  Ruyton  1327,  1332  LS,  Royton  1577  Harr.     O.E.  ryge-tun 
"  rye  town."     Royton  is  in  the  Irk  valley. 

Royley  :   de  Rylegh  1325  LCR,  1332  LS  (Ashton).     "  Rye  lea." 
Thorpe  (h.) :    Thorp  1260  LF.     O.Scand.  porp  "  homestead  ;   village." 



This  parish  consists  of  several  distinct  parts.  The  chief  part,  with  the  church, 
is  due  W.  of  Oldham.  A  little  to  the  N.  are  Ash  worth  and  Birtle-with-Bamford. 
Further  W.,  beyond  Radcliffe,  is  Ainsworth,  and  still  further  off  is  Great  Lever 
(see  p.  45). 

1.  Ainsworth  (c  6m.    N.W.  of  Middleton  church,  midway  between  Bury  and 
Bolton,  v.) :   Haineswrthe  c  1200  CC  733,  de  Aynesworth  1285  LAR,  de  Haynes- 
worth  1284  LAR,  Aynesworth  1292  PW,  de  Aynesworth  1332  LS.     The  first  el. 
seems  to  be  a  pet  form  of  names  such  as  dEgenbeald,  -here,  -wulf.     On  worth  see 
p.  20.     Ainsworth  stands  on  high  ground,  over  500ft.  above  sea-level. 
Cockey  Moor  (the  B.  part) :    Cokkaye  Chapel  (Moor)  1545  DL,  Cockley  chap. 
1577  Saxtou,  Cockly  iuxta  Bury  1586  Camden,  Cokhey  1613  Bury  R.     Cockey 
Moor  must  be  an  old  name  of  the  district,  as  the  chapel,  which  is  in  the  centre 
of  the  township,  is  said  to  be  here.     Probably  O.E.  cocc  "  cock,  wild  bird  " 
(or  possibly  Cocca  pers.  n.)  and  hege  "  enclosure,"   etc. 

2.  Middleton  (N.  of  the  Irk,  town) :  Middelton  1194  LPR,  1278  LF,  1332  LS,  etc., 
Midelton  1212  LI,  1317  LF,  etc.,  Middilton  1327  LS.     "  The  middle  tun," 
O.E.  middel  adj.  and  tun. 

Langley  :  de  Longele  1246  LAR,  de  Langde  ib.,  de  Longelegh  1332  LS.  Self- 

3.  Thornham   (N.E.   of  Middleton) :     Thornham,    Tornham  1246  LAR,   O.E. 
porn   "  thornbush "    and   ham   (or   hamm    "  enclosure ").     Sometimes   called 
Thornton  ;    see  VHL  V.  173. 

Hanging  Chadder  :  Hingrandchadir  1347  LF  (II.  97),  de  Henyandechadre  1324 
LCR,  1332  LS.  Hanging  means  "  steep,"  cf.  Hanging  Heaton,  Yks.  (  :  Hingande 
Heton  1266,  etc.,  Goodall),  Hengandehill  Percy  C  154,  le  Hengendebank  13  cent. 
WhC  42.  On  Chadder  see  p.  50.  The  place  is  at  an  altitude  of  700ft.  Chadder- 
ton  and  Hanging  Chadder,  though  in  different  parishes,  are  not  far  apart. 
Hanging  Chadder  is  now  in  Royton,  a  township  adjoining  Chadderton. 
Stakehill  :  Stakehull  1246  LAR,  Stdkil  1291  Ind  II,  de  Stakil  1322  LI,  de 
Stakehill  1332  LS,  Stakehil  1342  LF  (II.  97).  Stakehill  is  on  a  hill.  The  first 
el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  O.E.  staca  "  a  stake,"  perhaps  used  of  a  boundary 

4.  Hopwood  (N.  of  Middleton) :  de  Hopwode  1278  LAR,  de  Hopewode  1285  LAR, 
de  Hoppewode  1299  LI,  Hoppewoode  1322  LI.     Cf.  Hopwood,  Wore.  :  Hopwuda 
848,  934  (Duignan).     Hopwood  Hall  stands  in  a  little  wooded  valley  (Hopwood 
Clough),  through  which  runs  a  brook.     The  name  means  "  the  wood  in  the 
valley,"   O.E.  hop  (cf.  p.  13)  and  wudu. 

Gooden  :  de  Gulden,  -e  1282  LF,  de  Gulden  1324  LCR.  The  first  el.  is,  in  my 
opinion,  gool  "  a  small  stream,  a  ditch  ;  a  sluice  "  (1552,  etc.,  NED),  probably 
identical  with  gole  a  1400  Morte  Arthure  3725.  This  word  is  found  in  dialects 
meaning  "  whirlpool,  ditch  "  etc.,  and  a  side-form  gull  means  "  fissure,  chasm  ; 
a  watercourse,"  etc.  (EDD).  The  word  is  usually  derived  from  O.F.  goule,  gole 
"  throat."  In  my  opinion  it  is  native  and  belongs  to  Swed.  got  "  pond,"  Norw. 
(di'dl)gyl  "chasm,  ravine,"  M.H.G.  guile  "pool"  (<  *gulja-),  M.L.G.  gole  "marsh" 
(cf.  Noreen,  Svenska  etymologier  p.  35  f.),  L.G.,  E.  Fris.  gole,  gdl  "  hole,  pool," 


M.Du.    guile    "  palus,    volutabrum,    vorago,    gurges "    (Doornkaat  Koolman). 

Also    the  Continental  words  mentioned  have  been  derived  from  a  Romance 

source  (Lat.  gula),  but  this  seems  very  improbable  in  view  of  their  senses  and 

the  fact  that  they  occur  in  place-names  (cf.  Gulia  river-name,  etc.,F6rstemann). 

Gool  seems  to  occur  as  a  place-name  in  Goole,  Yks.  (Gowle  1553,  Goodall)  and 

Goole,   Line. 

Siddal  (apparently  on  Whittle  Brook)  :    Sydall  1548  LF,  Sided  1611  CW  111. 

O.B.  sU  "  wide  "   and  halh  "  haugh." 

Stanicliffe  :   de  Staniclive  13  cent.  VHL  V.  173,  Stanidiffe  1611  Middleton  R. 


5.  Pilsworth  (S.E.  of  Bury)  :   Pylesworth  1243,  Pilliswrthe  c  1270  VHL  V.  169, 
de  Pillesworth  c  1370  OR  348,  de  Pyllysworthe  1548  Bardsley,  Pillsworth  1590 
CW  14.     The  first  el.  seems  to  be  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  Pil,  apparently  a  pet  form  of 
Pilheard,  etc.  ;    cf.  Pilkington. 

6.  Birtle-with-Bamford  (N.  of  Middleton,  N.E.  of  Bury). 

Birtle  (h.)  :  de  BirJcel  1246  LAR,  de  Birkil  1324  LCR,  BirJeehill  1347  LF  (II.  97), 

Birtle  1609  Middleton  R.     "  Birch  hill  "  ;    first  el.  O.E.  birce.      The   absence 

of  palatalization  may  be  due  to  influence  from  O.E.  beorc  "  birch."     Birtle 

stands  on  a  hill  of  925ft. 

Bamford  :    Baunford  1282  LF,  de  Bamford  1322  LI,  de  Baunford  1324  LCR. 

First  el.   no   doubt    O.E.    beam   "  tree,   beam  "  ;    cf.  O.E.  beamford  882  BCS 

550.     There  may  have  been  a  beam  to  assist  wayfarers  in  crossing  the  ford  or 

to  mark  its  place  ;    cf.  stapolford,  wuduford  (Middendorff).     Bamford  Hall  is 

near  the  Roch. 

Gristlehurst  (on  a  hill  in  a  sharp  bend  of  the  Roch) :    Gristelyhyrst  1336  VHL 

V.  175,  Gristelhurst  1407  TI,  de  Gristleyhurst  1408  DD,  Gristylhurst  1549  LP 

III.  55,  Grystlehurst  1562  DL,  Grisehirst  1577  Harr.,  Gryselhurst  1577  Saxton. 

Possibly  the  first  el.  is  a  derivative  of  O.E.  gristle  "  gristle  "  in  some  transferred 


Kershaw  Bridge  (on  Cheesden  Brook)  :    de  Kirkeshagh  1324  LCR,  1332  LS. 

"  Church  shaw." 

Sillinghurst  (near  Birtle) :    ?  de  Salinghurst  1246  LAR,  Sillinhurste  1589  DL, 

Sillinhurst  1611  Bury  R.     Etymology  obscure. 

Smethurst  :  de  Smethehirst  1324  LCR."   "  Smooth  hurst."  i.e.,  no  doubt,  "  hill." 

7.  Ashworth  (N.  of  Birtle-w.-Bamford)  :   Assewrthe  1236  LF,  de  Esworde  c  1200 
CC,  Asheworth  1347  LF  (II.  97),  Ash'orth  Waugh.     O.E.  cesc  "  ash  "  and  worp 
"  enclosure/'    etc. 


Recedham  DB,  Rachetham  a  1193  Whit.  II.  412,  Rachitham  12  cent.  Ind  II, 
Rachedham  a  1193,  etc.,  WhC,  1292  PW,  Rechedham  1195-1211  Ind  II,  Roche- 
dam  1296  Lacy  C,  Racheham  13  cent.  WhC;  RachedaV  1190-8  HS  LXVII.  210, 
Rachedale  1242  LI,  1322  LI,  etc.,  Raehedal  1246  LAR,  1341  IN,  Rechedale 
1276  AP,  Rochedale  1246  LAR,  1292  PW,  Rachdall  1598  Middleton  R  ;  [rat/da, 
rat/it]  Ellis  V.  322,  Ratchda  1865  Staton. 

The  name  is  used  of  the  parish,  lordship,  and  town  of  Rochdale.  Its  etymo- 
logy is  closely  bound  up  with  that  of  the  river-name  Roch.  Rochdale  is  no  doubt 


"  the  valley  of  the  Roch  "  ;  the  river  flows  through  the  parish,  and  on  it  stands 
Rochdale  town.  If  the  early  form  of  the  river-name  was  Racked,  Rachedham 
may  be  explained  as  "  the  Mm  on  the  Rached."  In  this  case  Racked  would 
probably  have  to  be  explained  as  a  Celtic  name.  I  am  inclined  to  believe, 
however,  that  Rachedham  is  an  altogether  English  name.  Rached-  (DB  Reced-) 
corresponds  exactly  to  O.E.  rceced,  a  side-form  of  reced  "  house,  hall,  palace  " 
(<C  *rakid-).  The  word  is  used  in  O.E.  only  in  poetry,  but  must,  of  course,  once 
have  been  an  everyday  word.  *Rcecedham  I  explain  as  "  the  village  by  (or  with) 
the  hall."  When  O.E.  rceced  went  out  of  use  Rached-  was  supposed  to  be  the 
name  of  the  river  on  which  the  place  stands,  and  the  river-name  Rached  arose. 
The  valley  of  the  Roch  now  began  to  be  called  Rached-dale  (whence  Rackedale), 
Rachedham  being  used  particularly  of  the  village  and  church.  Finally  Rachedale 
supplanted  Rachedham  altogether,  and  a  new  back-formation  Roche  "  the  Roch  " 
took  the  place  of  Rached. 

Rochdale  parish  forms  the  N.E.  part  of  Salford  hundred.  Except  in  the 
valley  of  the  Roch  the  surface  is  hilly,  especially  in  the  N.  and  E.,  where  there 
are  large  moorland  districts.  There  are  numerous  rivers  and  streams,  in  the 
deep  valleys  of  which  villages  and  homesteads  are  situated. 
1.  Castleton  (the  S.W.  part,  on  the  Roch  ;  v.  ;  Rochdale  town  is  here)  :  Castelton 
1246  LAR,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Castleton  1311  LI ;  Villa  Castelli  de  Rachekam 
13  cent.  WhC  599.  Said  to  be  named  from  a  castle  on  the  Roch  near  the  church  ; 
Castleton  vil.  stands  a  good  way  further  south.  The  name  means  literally 
"  castle  town."  E.  castle  (<  O.F.  castel)  is  evidenced  from  c  1075.  It  does  not 
seem  probable  that  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  castel  "  village  "  (<  Lat.  castellum).  The 
name  Castleton  is  also  found  in  Derbyshire. 

Balderstone  (S.  of  Rochdale,  on  a  small  tributary  of  the  Roch) :   de  Baldreston 
1323  LCR,  Balderston  1556  LF.     First  el.  O.E.  Baldhere  pers.  n. 
Brimrod  :    Bromyrode  13  cent.  WhC  607  ff.,  Brymerood  1582  DL.  f "  Broomy 
clearing."     Cf.  Brimmicroft,  p.  132. 

Buersill  :  Berdeshull  1292  PW,  de  Berdeshille  1296  Lacy  C,  de  Berdeshull  1305  ib., 
1361  LF,  de  Birdishill  (Birdeshille)  1324  LCR,  de  Birdeshull  1332  LS,  Burdssell 
More  1543  LF,  Netherburdsell  1554  LF.  Here  perhaps  belong  :  de  Burdeshull 
1218  LAR,  de  Brideshull  1228  ib.  Buersill  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  hill  (600ft.). 
The  variation  in  the  early  forms  renders  the  name  difficult  to  explain.  Perhaps 
the  first  el.  is  O.E.  Brid,  pers.  n.  ;  cf.  Birtwisle  in  Bl. 

Hartley  :  de  Hertelegh  1323  LCR,  de  Hertilegh  1324  ib.  First  el.  O.E.  heorot 
"  hart." 

Marland  (old  manor)  :  Merlande  c  1200  Ind  I,  Merland  13  cent.  WhC  590,  de 
Merlond  1323  LI.     This  is  probably  O.E.  Mereland  from  mere  "  mere  "  ;   there 
is  a  small  lake  near  Marland.     Cf.  Mereside  Farm  N.  of  Marland.     But  the  name 
may  also  contain  O.E.  gemcere  "  boundary."    Marland  is  on  the  border  of  Bury. 
Newbold  :   de  Neubolt  c  1200  WhC  596,  Newbold  c  1300  WhC  161,  de  Neubold 
1322  LI,  de  Neubald  1324  LCR.     On  O.E.  bold  "  dwelling,"   etc.,  see  p.  8. 
Sudden  (S.W.  of  Rochdale) :   Sothden  13  cent.  WhC  606,  Sudden  13  cent.  WhC 
597.     Sudden  stands  near  Sudden   Brook,   called  aqua  de  Sothden,  Suthden 
13  cent.  WhC  602,  607.    "  South  dene." 
2.  Butterworth  (E.  of  Rochdale,  adjoining  Yorkshire)  :    Buterwrth  1235  LF, 


Butter-,  Buterwurth  1246  LAR,  Butterworth  1278,  1285  LAR,  1332  LS,  Boter- 

worth  1310  LF,  Boterworth  1439,  1441  LF.     "  Butter  worth  "   (O.E.  butere  and 

worp  "  homestead,"  etc.),  i.e.,  "  the  dairy  farm."     Butterworth  is  also  found 

in  W.  Yorks. ;  cf.  Butterwick,  Chiswick  (<  O.E.  cesewlc),  etc. 

Belfield  :   de  Belefeld  1310  LF,  1311  WhC  629,  1324  LCR.     The  place  is  near 

the  Beal ;  the  name  means  "  the  field  by  the  Beal." 

Clegg  :  Clegg  c  1200  Whit.  II.  413,  de  Cleg  1285  LAR,  de  Clege  (Kleg)  1246  LAR, 

de  Clegge  1369  LF,  Clegge  1577  Harr.,  1577  Saxton.     Clegg  Hall  stands  at  the 

foot  of  Owl  Hill  (575ft.) ;   Clegg  Moor  reaches  1,400ft.     The  word  cleg  is  found 

also   in    Waterfalclegges    1246    LAR.     Cf.    Cleggcliffe,    Yks.    (  :  Clegclyve   1275 

Groodall).     There  is  an  O.N.  word  kleggi  "  haystack,"   which  may  have  meant 

also  "  a  hill,  hillock,"  and  be  the  source  of  the  name.      Cleggswood  (Cleggiswod 

1549  LP  III.  58)  is  near  Clegg.     Cleggswood  Hill  reaches  650ft. 

Haugh  (on  the  Beal) :   de  le  Hakht  Whit.  II.  448,  the  Halghe  1549  LP  III.  55. 

O.E.  halh  "  haugh." 

Hollingworth  :    Holyenworth  1278  LF,   Hollinworth  1582  DL.     O.E.   hole(g)n 

"  holly  "    and  worp  "  enclosure,"    etc. 

Milnrow  (on  the  Beal ;    v.) :    Mylnerowe  1554  DL,  Mylneraw  1577  Saxton. 

"  Mill  row  "  ;  row  (raw]  means  "  a  row  of  houses,  a  street."     An  earlier  name  is 

Milnehouses  13  cent.  WhC,  Milnehus  1292  PW. 

Ogden  :  de  Akeden  1246  LAR,  de  Aggeden  ib.,  de  Okedene  1324  LCR.    Probably 

"  Oak  valley." 

Roughbank  :   Roughbank  1596  CW  38.     "  Rough  hill."    Cf.  bank,  p.  7. 

Scholefleld,  or  Schofield  :   de  Scholfele  1212  LI,  de  Scolefeld  1374  LF,  Scolfeld 

1582  DL.     O.N.  skdli  "  hut  "  &nd  field. 

Turnagh  or  Turner  :  de  Turnhagh  1274  WhC  606,  de  Turnehagh,   de   Tornhagh 

13  cent.  WhC  158,  665,  de  Turnaghe  1299  LF,  de  Turnagh  1332  LS.     The  second 

el.  is  O.E.  haga  "  enclosure."     The  first  el.  is  found  in  a  number  of  Lane,  names, 

e.g.,  Turnebuttes  (Stainall,  Am.)  CC  123,  Turnebuthsike  (Hutton,  Le.)  ib.  394, 

Turnecroft  (Wrightington,  Le.)  ib.  503,  Turneholm  (Caton,  Lo.)  ib.  868.     All 

these  cannot  well  contain  O.E.  pyrne  "  thorn  bush  "   with  t  instead  of  th.     The 

only  known  Engl.  word  that  it  seems  possible  to  think  of  is  turn  sb.  in  the  sense 

"  bend,  curve  of  a  road,"    etc.     But  this  does  not  seem  quite  satisfactory. 

If  Turn-  goes  back  to  Trun-  it  may  be  the  adj.  *trun  "round"  suggested  under 

Trunnah,  Am.     Turnagh  is  no  doubt  identical  with  Turnough  on  the  6-inch 

map  ;    this  stands  near  Turnough  Hill  (650ft.). 

3.  Hundersfield  (N.  of  Castleton  and  Butterworth  ;   Honresfeld  is  a  small  place 

E.  of  Littleborough) :    Hunnordesfeld  1202  LF,  Hunewrthefeld  1235  LF,  Hone- 

worthesfeld,   Hunwurthefield,  de  Hunneswurthefeld,   Humfridesfeld    1246    LAR, 

de  Hundredefeld  13  cent,  WhC  732,  Hunnresfeld  1311  LI,  Hunresfeld  1332  LS, 

Honeresfeld    1361  LF,  HunersfeU  1369  Ind  II,  Hundersfeld   1509   LF.     "  The 

(town-)field  of  Hunworth."     Hun  worth  is  a  lost  place-name  compounded  of 

O.E.  Huna  pers.  n.  and  worp  "  enclosure,"   etc.     The  form  Humfridesfeld  1246 

is  apparently  due  to  association  with  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Hunfrith.     This  old 

township  was  divided  into  four  townships  : 

(a)  Wardleworth  (the  S.W.  part,  N.  of  Rochdale) :    Wordelword  c  1200  WhC, 

de  Werleworth  1246  LAR,  Wordeword  13  cent.  WhC.     Wardleworth  is  situated 


near  Wuerdle.     The  name  seems  to  mean  "  the  '  worth  '    by  or  belonging  to 


Buckley  :  de  Bukele  1246  LAR,  1323  LCR,  de  Bukkelegh  1332  LS.     O.E.  bucca 

"  buck  "   (less  probably  Bucca  pers.  n.)  and  leak. 

Foxholes  :  del  foxholes  1325  LCR.     "  Foxes'  burrows." 

(b)  Wuerdle  and  Wardle  (N.  of  Wardleworth). 

Wuerdle  (N.E.  of  Rochdale)  :  de  Werdull  c  1180  WhC  728,  Wordehull,  parua 
Wordehull,  Werdel  13  cent.  WhC  156,  625,  Wordehull  1292  PW,  de  Wordehull 
1285  LAR,  de  Wordhille  1296  Lacy  C,  de  Wordhull  1299  LF,  1332  LS,  de  Word(e)- 
hill  (Wirdehill,  Werdhill)  1324f.  LCR;  now  [wu'dl].  Wuerdle  stands  near 
Birch  Hill  (793ft.).  Perhaps  the  first  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  weorod  "  troop, 
host,"  M.E.  weord,  werd,  word,  wird.  Close  to  Wuerdle  is  Wardle,  which 
obviously  means  "  lookout  hill."  Wuerdle  may  have  been  the  hill  where  the 
host  was  stationed  or  assembled. 

Wardle  (N.  of  Rochdale  ;  v.) :  de  Wardhul  a  1193  Whit.  II.  412,  Wardhil  1190-8 
HS  LXVII.  210,  de  Wardhill  1218,  1221  LAR,  de  Warthull  1246  LAR,  parua 
Wardhull  13  cent.  WhC  783,  Wardhull  1329  ib.  262  ;  now  [wa'dl,  wcrdl].  The 
name  means  "  ward-hill,  lookout  hill,"  and  referred  originally  to  Brown  Wardle 
Hill1  (1,300ft.)  to  the  N.W.  (  :  Brown  Wardle  1580  DL). 

Dearnley  :  de  Dernylegh  1324  LCR,  Derneyley  1581  DL.  "  The  hidden,  solitary 
lea."  O.E.  derne,  M.E.  dern  "  hidden,"  etc. 

Hades  :  hades  1600  RS  XII ;  now  [e'dz].  No  doubt  O.E.  heafdu  "  heads," 
i.e.,  "hills."  Hades  is  on  the  slope  of  Middle  Hill  (1,300ft.),  while  Higher 
and  Lower  Hades  are  on  Hades  Hill  (1,400ft.). 

Hamer  :  Earner  1572, 1597  CW  80,  Haimer  1631  RS  XII.  The  name  is  identical 
with  O.N.  hamarr  "  steep  rock,  cliff,"  O.H.G.  hamar  in  place-names  (Forstemann). 
There  is  no  reason  to  doubt  that  O.E.  hamor  had  also  the  sense  "  a  rock,  cliff." 
Hamer  stands  N.E.  of  Rochdale,  near  a  hill.  Cf.  Hamer  Hill  in  Whitworth 

Howarth  or  Haworth  (Great  and  Little) :  de  Haword,  de  Howord  c  1200  Whit. 
II.  412f.,  de  Hawurth  1246  LAR,  Haword  13  cent.  WhC  156f.,  de  Houworth, 
de  Ha(u}worth  1324  ff.  LCR.  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  here  belong  :  Hawerld- 
word  ?  c  1200  WhC  125,  Halwerdewerd,  -word  13  cent.  ib.  155.  In  that  case  the 
name  must  have  been  considerably  shortened  by  haplology.  The  first  el.  would 
seem  to  be  a  pers.  n.,  e.g.,  O.E.  Hcehward  996  CD  695,  or  the  O.N.  pers.  n. 
Hallvardr  (Halwcerth  c  1023  Searle).  If  we  have  to  start  from  the  early  forms 
Ha-,  Howord,  the  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  hoh,  and  aw  may  be  due  to  the  change 
ou  >  au  p.  21.  On  worth  see  p.  20. 

(c)  Blatchinworth  and  Calderbrook2  (E.  of  Wuerdle  and  Wardle). 
Blatchinworth  :    Blackenworthe  1276  LAR.     The  material  hardly  allows  of  a 
definite  etymology.     The  first  el.  would  seem  to  be  O.E.  Blcecca  pers.  n.  ;    cf. 
Blatchington,    Suss.    (  :  Bechingetone   DB,    etc.),    Bletchley,    Bucks.    (Blechele 

1  Wardle  vil.  is  at  some  distance  from  Brown  Wardle,  but  in  Yates's  map  1786  the  present 
Wardle  is  called  Little  Wardle,  while  Wardle  is  considerably  further  N.,  near  Brown  Wardle. 
The  latter  place  is  High  Wardle  O.M.  1846-51. 

2  Of  Calderbrook,  name  of  a  vil.  on  the  Roch,  no  early  forms  have  been  found.     A  place 
S.W.  of  it,  not  far  from  the  Roch,  is  called  Caldermoor.  ' 


1316  FA),  etc.  But  preservation  of  the  -n  of  the  ending  -an  in  n-stems  is  rare 
in  Lancashire,  and  Blceccinga  worp  seems  improbable.  Perhaps  Blatchen- 
represents  some  O.E.  common  noun  derived  from  blcec  "black,"  or  an  O.E. 
*Ucecen  "  bleaching  "  derived  from  Ucecan  vb.  Of.  Blachinefeld  1342  SO. 
Lightollers  :  de  Lightholevers  1246  LAR,  de  Lightolres  13  cent.  WhC,  1322  LI, 
de  Ligh(t)alleres  1323  LCR,  de  Lighteholrs,  Leghtolrs,  Lightolrs  1325  LCR.  "Light 
alders  "  (O.E.  air  "  alder  ").  On  the  form  oiler  see  p.  21.  As  regards  Light- 
holevers cf.  Wycoller,  Bl. 

Littleborough  (v. ;  on  the  Roch) :  Littlebrough  1577  Harr.,  Lyttlebrugh  1577 
Saxton.  Second  el.  apparently  O.E.  burh,  but  its  meaning  is  obscure.  A  chapel 
was  built  here  in  the  15th  century.f 

Shore  :  del  (dil)  Shore  1324  LCR,  1332  LS,  1374  LF.  Shore  stands  N.W.  of  Little- 
borough  on  the  slope  of  the  steep  spur  of  hill  called  East  Hill  at  c  700ft.  elevation. 
The  name  is  clearly  identical  with  dial,  shore  "  a  steep  rock  "  Sc.  (EDD),  which 
is  related  to  O.E.  scorian  "  to  project  "  (of  stones  from  a  cliff).  The  same 
meaning  is  no  doubt  to  be  attributed  to  other  Shores,  as  Shore  Head  (960ft.) 
E.  of  Whitworth  (le  Schore  WhC  688),  Shore  near  Cornholme  (Yks.).  Cf.  Schor 
WhC  777  in  the  boundary  of  Whalley  par.,  Sheremore  1580  DL. 
Sladen  (by  Lydgate  Clough) :  de  Slaneden  (!)  1246  LAR,  de  Slaueden  13  cent. 
WhC  665,  1332  LS,  de  Slauedene  1324  LCR.  Cf.  Slaley,  Nhb.  :  Slaveleye  Percy 
C  284  ;  also  Slauilache  (Abram)  CC  665.  I  suppose  the  first  el.  is  a  lost  O.E. 
word  meaning  "  mud  "  or  the  like  and  connected  with  slaver  "  saliva,"  slaver 
vb.,  O.N.  slafra  "  to  slaver,"  E.  slab  "  muddy  place,  puddle,"  Icel.  slevja  sb. 
"  slaver,"  etc.  The  stem  is  *slab- ;  cf.  Dan.  dial,  slaf  "  mud." 
Stansfield  (near  Calderbrook)  :  de  Stanesfeld  1246  LAR.  de  Stanisfeld  1311  LI. 
Possibly  "  stone  field,"  though  the  regular  genitive  -s  is  against  such  an 

Windy  Bank  :  de  Wyndibonk  c  1300  WhC  692,  del  WyndybonJc,  del  Wyndibonck 
1324f.  LCR.  The  place  stands  near  Littleborough  on  the  slope  of  a  hill  (750ft.). 
Bank  means  "  hill." 

(d)  Todmorden  and  Walsden  (the  N.  part,  now  in  Yks.). 

Todmorden  (town) :  Tottemerden,  de  Totmardene  1246  LAR,  Todmarden  c  1300 
WhC  625,  Todmereden  1298  (Goodall),  Todmerden  1546  LF.  The  town  stands 
in  the  valley  of  the  Calder  on  the  old  boundary  between  Yks.  and  Lane.  W.  of 
Todmorden  is  Todmorden  Moor  (1,302ft.).  The  etymology  of  the  name  is 
difficult.  The  first  el.  appears  to  be  O.E.  'lotta  pers.  n.  (cf.  Tottington).  The 
second  may  be  O.E.  mor  with  weakening  of  the  vowel ;  if  so,  the  name  means 
"  the  valley  by  Tottan  mor."  Or  the  second  el.  is  O.E.  gemaire  "  boundary." 
This  would  give  the  meaning  "  Totta's  boundary  valley." 
Walsden  (v.  S.  of  Todmorden,  in  a  valley) :  Walseden  1235  LF.  The  first  el. 
is  apparently  a  pers.  name;  Wyld  suggests  O.E.  *Walsa  or  Wcels,  and  compares 
the  place-names  Walsingham  and  Wcelslegh  1065  CD.  This  is  perhaps  correct. 
Yet  the  first  el.  may  be  Wales,  gen.  of  Walh ;  cf.  Walshall,  Staffs.,  Walsham,  Suss. 
Bernshaw  Tower  (on  a  hill)  :  Besyngshawe  1556  LF.  First  el.  Besing  pers.  n. 
as  in  Besingby,  Yks.  ;  Besing'  de  HudesweW  is  mentioned  YFF  67  (1202). 
Gawksholme  (S.  of  Todmorden) :  Gawkeholme  1521  DL.  First  el.  the  O.N.  pers. 
n.  Gaukr. 


Inchfield  :  Inchefeld  1521  DL,  Inchefeld  1551  LF.  Inchfield  Moor  reaches 
nearly  1,500ft.  Very  likely  the  first  el.  was  originally  Hinge-  (O.E.  heng-};  cf. 
Hinchliffe,  Yks.  :  Hynchedyff  1379  (Goodall)  <  O.E.  hengeclif-,  and  Hengeland 
(Tatham,  Lo.)  CO  935.  The  [dz]  would  become  [tf]  before/.  If  this  is  right,  the 
name  means  "  sloping  field." 

Scaitcliffe  :  Scatecliffe  1575,  Scatdiff  1596  DL.  "  Slate  cliff."  Slate  often 
appears  as  sclate,  sklate  in  early  sources  (<C  O.P.  esclate)  and  I  was  lost  owing  to 
dissimilation.  Cf.  p.  90. 

4.  Spotland  (the  W.  part ;  on  both  sides  of  the  river  Spodden)  :  Spotlond  c  1 180 
WhC  728,  Spotland  1285  LAR,  1341  IN, -etc.,  Spotieland  1311  LI,  Spotlond  1327, 
1332  LS,  1369,  1391  LF.  The  name  is  only  used  of  the  district,  but  probably 
to  begin  with  denoted  some  special  place. 

Spotland  township  is  hilly,  the  highest  land  being  in  the  east  and  west. 
The  S.  part  on  the  Roch  is  comparatively  level.  The  name  must  be  compared 
with  the  river  name  Spodden,  earlier  Spotbrok.  The  most  probable  explanation 
is  perhaps  that  Spot-  represents  the  old  name  of  the  river  ;  such  a  river-name 
might  belong  to  spout  sb.,  vb.  See  Torp-Fick,  p.  513.  Spottesdala  (W.  Yks.)  c  1320 
FC  II,  may  contain  the  same  river  name.  It  is  also  possible,  however,  that 
Spot-  is  identical  with  spot  sb.  "  a  small  space  or  extent  of  ground  "  ;  cf.  O.E. 
splott,  O.N.  spotti  "  piece,  particle,"  Norw.  spott  "  piece  of  land."  If  so,  we 
may  compare  Spott,  the  name  of  a  vil.  in  Haddingtonshire.  Perhaps  a  place 
in  Spotland  was  originally  called  Spot,  and  the  other  names  were  derived  from 

Bagslate  Moor  (in  the  S.W.) :    Bagslade  13  cent.  WhC  667.     The  second  el. 
is  O.E.  slced  "  valley."     The  first  may  be  O.E.  Bacga  pers.  n. 
Brandwood  (the  N.W.  part)  :  Brendewod  c  1200  WhC  154,  Brendewode  1324  LI. 
"  The  burnt  wood  "   (M.E.  brend  "  burnt  "). 

Broadhalgh  (in  Chadwick)  :   Brodehalgh  13  cent.  WhC  772f.,  le  Brodhalgh  c  1300 
WhC  622.     "  The  broad  haugh."     The  place  is  near  the  Roch. 
Brotherod  (on  the  Spodden)  :   Broderod(e)  13  cent.  WhC  678,  752.     "  The  broad 
clearing  "   (O.E.  rod  p.  16). 

Chadwick  (the  S.  part,  W.  of  Rochdale)  :  Chaddewyk  c  1180  WhC  728,  Chadewik 
1246  LAR,  Chadewyk  13  cent.  WhC  796,  Litelchadeswyk  1277  WhC  788.  O.E. 
Ceadda  pers.  n.  and  wic  "  dwelling,"  etc.  The  church  of  Rochdale  was  dedicated 
to  St.  Chad  ;  the  name  of  the  saint  may  enter  into  Chadwick. 
Cheesden  (in  the  S.W.) :  Chesden  Water  1543  DL,  Chesden  1546  LF,  Cheseden 
1549  LP  III.  ;  Cheisdenlomme  ib.  is  now  Cheesden  Lumb.  On  the  probable 
first  el.  of  Cheesden  see  Chesham,  p.  61. 

Coptrod  (N.W.  of  Rochdale)  :    Coppedrod,  Copperode  13  cent.  WhC  752,  764. 
"  The  peaked  clearing."     Cf.  Coppedhurst  WhC  736  (in  Spotland). 
Cowclough  (in  Whitworth)  :    Colledogh  13  cent.  WhC  643.     The  place  stands 
near  a  brook.     Perhaps  the  first  el.  is  a  name  of  that  brook.     Cf.  Cole  (river 
Wore.)  :    (on)  Colle  972  BCS  1282  ;    also  aqua  de  Colle  (Cole]  1247,  1257  FC 
(Wml.).     O.E.  col  "  coal,"   and  Cola  pers.  n.  may  also  be  thought  of. 
Cowm  (in  the  deep  valley  of  Cowm  Brook)  :   magnam  Cumbam,  paruum  Cumbe 
13  cent.  WhC  643,  675,  le  Mikekoumbebrok,  Litekumbe  c  1300  ib.  698,  691.    All 
these  examples  refer  to  brooks.     The  source  is  O.E.  cumb  "  valley." 


Dunnishbooth  (on  the  Spodden)  :    Donyngbothe  c  1180  WhC  728,  Donnynges- 

botherodes  13  cent.  ib.  763.     O.E.  Dunning  pers.  n.,  and  M.E.  bothe  "  booth  " 

(<  O.Dan,  both). 

EUenrod  (N.W.  of  Rochdale) :    de  Ailwarderod  1329  WhC  261,   Elwodrowde 

1549  LP  III.  59.     "  The  clearing  of  Mgelweard  or  JEfelweard  (Ailward)."     The 

-n-  was  introduced  at  a  late  period,  perhaps  owing  to  some  popular  etymology. 

Facit  (N.  of  Whitworth,  E.  of  Spodden  Brook)  :  ffagheside  13  cent.  WhC  654, 

664  ;    now  [re'sit].     O.E.  fag  (M.E.  faw,  etc.)   "  coloured,  variegated  "   (cf. 

Fallowfield,  p.  50)  and  side  "  side  "  :    "  the  bright  (?  '  flowery  '  )  slope."     The 

name  is  identical  with  Fawcett,  Wml.  (  :  Faxide  1247,  Fawside  1374  ;  differently 

explained  by  Sedgefield).     There  is  also  a  Fawside  in  Kincardineshire. 

Falinge  (N.W.  of  Rochdale) :  ffaleng  13  cent.  WhC  638,  le  Faleng,  ffalenges 

(villa)  c  1300  WhC  256,  794  ;  de  Falynge  1323  LCR.     O.ft.f edging  "  fallow  land." 

See  p.  10. 

Harsenden  :    Harstanden  13  cent.  WhC  664,  aq.  de  Haristanden  1284  ib.  166, 

Harestancroft  1275  ib.  648,  Harstandencroft  13  cent.  ib.  663.     "  Grey  stone  (or, 

boundary  stone)  valley."     O.E.  hdr  "  grey  "   and  stdn.    "  Hoar  stones  "   are 

often  mentioned  as  boundary  marks  in  O.E.  charters  (cf.  NED  s.v.  hoar-stone). 

Healey  (district  E.  of  Spodden  Brook) :  Hayleg  1260  LF,  villa  de  Helay,  Heleye, 

Heleya,  Heleyden  13  cent.  WhC,  de  Heghlegh  1332  LS.     Healey  is  on  the  slope 

of  a  hill  of  1,042ft.     I  suppose  the  name  means  "  the  high  lea  "  ;   Hayleg  1260 

seems  to  be  mis  written. 

Masseycroft  (S.  of  Whitworth) :   Maxicroft,  Maxicroftschore  13  cent.  WhC  661, 

688  (stated  to  be  in  Whitworth).     The  name  probably  means  "  manured  croft," 

the  first  el.  being  derived  from  O.E.  me(o)x  "  dung."     As  regards  a,  cf.  Scottish 

sax  f.  six  (O.E.  seox). 

Naden  (in  the  W.) :  de  Naueden[e]  1323f.  LCR,  de  Neuedene  1325  ib.     Higher  and 

Lower  Naden  are  situated  above  Naden  Brook  at  an  elevation  of  c  800ft.  on 

the  slope  of  Knoll  Hill  (1,375ft.).     The  name  was  no  doubt  at  first  used  of  the 

valley  and  the  brook,  and  was  given  in  reference  to  the  high  hill  near  it.     Cf. 

Norw.  Naava,  the  name  of  a  river  (from  Nof,  gen.  Nafar),  derived  from  nof 

"  projecting  peak  "    (Rygh,  Elvenavne).     Very  likely  O.E.  nafu  "  nave  "    was 

used  in  a  topographical  sense  too  (cf.  Middendorff)  and  may  be  the  first  el.  of 


Oakenrod  (in  Chadwick) :  Akenrode  13  cent.  WhC  607,  del  OJcenrode  1324  LCR. 

"  Oak  clearing  "   (O.E.  rod,  p.  16). 

Prickshaw  (Whitworth) :  Prikkeschagh  1292  WhC  689,  Prikkeschaghsiche  13  cent. 

ib.  663.   Cf.  O.E.  pricporn  956  BCS  945.   The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  prick  sb.  (O.E. 

prica)  "  prickle,  thorn,"   but  the  exact  meaning  is  not  apparent.     Prickhedge 

(1601ff.)  means  "  a  thorn  hedge."     Cf.  Prickley,  Wore.  :    Prieleye,  Prielea  (for 

Pric-  ?)  1275  (Duignan),  Prickwillow  (vil.  near  Ely). 

Redfern  (near  the  Spodden) :  le  Redefern  13  cent.  WhC  667.     Self-explaining. 

Rockliffe  :  de  Roclif  1296  Lacy  C,  Roclyf  1324  LI.     Probably  "  roe  cliff  "  (O.E. 

rd  "  roe  "   and  clif). 

Tonacliffe  (Healey) :    de  Tunwal(e)dif  1246  LAR,  1412  FC  367,   Tunewalldif, 

Tunwaldif  13  cent.  WhC  654,  658.     The  name  means  "  the  town  brook  (or  well) 

cliff."     The  tun  referred  to  may  be  Healey,  close  to  which  the  place  is. 

BURY  PAR.  61 

Tong  End  (in  a  tongue  of  land  between  Spodden  and  Tong  End  Brooks)  :  Tonge, 
Tong  13  cent.  WhC  643,  653,  Tongend  1489  Ind  II.  O.E.  tang  "  fork  of  a  river," 
p.  18. 

Trough  (Gate)  :  le  Trogh,  Troghbrok  WhC  697f.  O.E.  trog  "  trough,"  here  in 
the  sense  "  valley." 

Whitworth  (on  Spodden  Brook,  N.  of  Healey)  :  Whiteword  13  cent.  WhC  637, 
643,  1322  LI,  Whiteworth  13  cent.  WhC  668,  de  Wytewurth(e)  1246  LAR.  "  The 
white  worj?  "  or  "  the  wor]?  of  Hwita  "  ;  Hwita  is  a  common  O.E.  pers.  n. 
Wolstenholme  (in  the  W.) :  de  Wolstonholme  c  1180  Whit.  II.  412,  de  Wlstanhwlm 
a  1193  Whit.  II.  412,  Wlstanesholme  1278  LF,  de  Wolstaneshulm  c  1200  WhC  597, 
Wolstanesholm  1326  AP,  de  Wolstonholm  1332  LS.  "  The  holm  of  Wulfstdn" 
Wolstenholme  stands  near  the  Naden  and  Royds  Brooks. 


This  parish  may  be  described  as  the  district  of  the  Upper  Irwell  valley  ; 
yet  also  part  of  the  lower  Roch  valley  belongs  to  it.  The  northernmost  parts  are 
in  Blackburn  hundred,  but  are  dealt  with  here  as  they  belong  geographically 
and  ecclesiastically  to  Salford. 

In  the  S.  the  surface  is  level,  especially  in  the  tongue  of  land  between  the  Roch 
and  the  Irwell.  The  ground  rises  to  the  north,  the  highest  elevations  being  on 
the  E.  and  W.  borders,  where  large  moorland  districts  are  found.  The  villages 
and  homesteads  are  chiefly  in  the  valleys  of  the  Irwell  and  its  tributaries. 

1.  Bury  (town,  in  the  tongue  of  land  between  the  Irwell  and  the  Roch)  :    Biri 
1194  LPR  ;   Bury  c  1190  Ch,  1243  LI,  1256  LF,  1332  LS,  etc. ;   Buri  1212  LI, 
Eire  1228  C1R,  Sure,  Byry,  de  Biry  1246  LAR,  Byry  1296  Lacy  C,  Berye  1551 
CCR,  Birrie  Hamett  1591  Bury  R.      O.E.  burh  (dat.  byrig)  "  fortified  place  ; 
fortified  town,  city."     The  situation  of  the  town  is  suited  for  a  fortification. 
Chesham  (N.E.    of  Bury,   on   Gipsy   Brook) :     Chesum    1429    LF,    Cheasom, 
Cheesam  1610  CW  80.     The  early  forms  are  not  old  enough  to  tell  us  whether 
this  is  an  old  dative  in  -um  or  a  compound  with  O.E.  hamm  (or  possibly  ham). 
Anyhow,  the  element  dies-  is  obviously  identical  with  that  of  Cheesden  (p.  59) 
and  probably  a  lost  O.E.  sb.  identical  with  M.H.G  kis  "  gravel"  perhaps  preserved 
in  O.E  Cisburne  816  BCS  356  (Wore.),  and  Chishill  (Kent),  and  found  in  the 
derivatives  O.E.  ceosol  "  gravel  "  and  cisen  adj.  in  Chisnall,  Le.  (p.  129).     If 
Chesham  is  an  old  dat.  pi.,  the  vowel  e  is  most  easily  explained  (O.E.  ceosum). 
Cf.  Swed.  Kisa,  the  gen.  pi.  of  a  related  word. 

Haslam  (Haslam  Brow,  S.E.  of  Bury) :  de  Haselum  1235,  1256  LF,  de  Haslum 
(Hesellum)  1246  LAR.  O.E.  hceslum  "  (at)  the  hazels." 

Redvales  (in  the  S.,  in  the  flat  land  between  the  Roch  and  the  Irwell)  :  Redives- 
hale  1185  LPR,  Redinall  1246  LAR,  de  Redyval  1296  LF,  Ridevalls  1542  CW 
xxviii.  O.E.  *Redgifu  pers.  n.  (fern.)  and  halh  "  haugh." 

2.  Heap  (E.  of  Bury,  on  the  Roch) :  de  Hep  1226  (Bardsley),  Hepe  1278  VHL  V. 
136,  the  Heipp  brige  1551  CCR.     There  is  no  longer  any  village  or  estate  of  the 
name.     The  original  Heap  may  have  been  at  Heap  Bridge,  a  place  on  the  Roch. 
I  suppose  Heap  is  O.E.  heap  "  heap,  pile,"   in  the  sense  "  a  hill."     If  so,  the 
hill  E.  of  Heap  Bridge  may  be  supposed  to  have  given  name  to  the  place.    O.E. 


heap  "  a  hill  "  I  take  to  be  the  origin  of  Shap,  Wml.  (Hep  1231, 1293  Sedgefield) ; 

cf.  Studier  tillegnade  Esaias  Tegner  den  13  Jan.  1918,  p.  437  ff.     Cf.  also  Hapton 


Heywood  (town)  :    Hewude,  de  Heghwode  1246  LAR,  dil  Hewod   1323  LCR, 

de  Hayewode  (Hewode)  1324f.  LCR,  del  Hewode  1330  LF,  Yewood  1865  Staton. 

Here  perhaps  belong  de  Haywod  1246  LAR,  de  Hawod  1285  LAR.    The  first  el., 

as  suggested  by  Wyld,  may  be  O.E.  hege  "enclosure."     But  some  forms  point 

rather  to  O.E.  hea-wudu  "high  wood." 

Lomax  (now  lost  name  of  the  district  S.  of  the  Roch,  where  Charlestown  and 

Heady  Hill  are)  :    de  Lumhalghs  1324  LCR,  Loumals  1546  LF,  lomax  1592 

Bury  R.     Second  el.  the  plur.  of  O.E.  halh  "  haugh,"   which  suits  the  situation 

of  the  place.     The  first  el.  may  be  identical  with  Lumb  infra,  or  the  pers.  n. 

apparently  found  in  Lumley,  Durh.  (Mawer). 

Whittle  :  de  Quitul  1292  VHL  V.  138,  Whittle  1612  Middleton  R.  "  White  hill." 

3.  Elton  (W.  of  Bury  and  the  Irwell)  :   Elleton  1246  LAR,  de  Holton  (Helton)  ib., 
de  Elton  1277,  1278  LAR.    O.E.  Elian  tun  ;   cf.  Eltonhead,  p.  108.     Ella  was  a 
common  O.E.  name. 

Brandlesome  (between  the  Irwell  and  Kirklees  Brook)  :  de  Brandolfholm  1285 
LAR,  Brandilsholme  More  1515  CCR,  Brandlesome  1556  LF,  Brandlesham 
1577  Harr.  "  Brandulf's  holme."  Brandulf  pers.  n.  occurs  in  D.B.  ;  it  is 
probably  a  Scand.  name  (O.N.  Brondulfr),  as  Brand  is  hardly  with  certainty 
evidenced  as  an  O.E.  name-element.  Holm  is  O.N.  holmr  "  island,"  etc. 
Summerseat  (near  the  Irwell) :  Sumersett  1556  CCR,  Somerseat  1618  CW  158. 
The  name  seems  to  have  as  second  el.  set,  sat,  "  a  shieling  "  (cf.  p.  16),  or  O.E. 
set,  "  fold."  The  first  el.  is  O.E.  sumor  or  O.N.  sumarr,  "  summer."  Sommerscet 
is  a  common  place-name  in  N.  Norway  (NGr  XVII.  56). 

Woodhill  (in  a  bend  of  the  Irwell) :  Wyddell  1563  CW  xv,  Wodditt  1564  CCR, 
widdell  1598  Bury  R.  "  Wide  haugh  "  (O.E.  wld  adj.  and  halh). 

4.  Walmersley-with-Shuttleworth  (E.  of  the  Irwell,  N.  of  Bury). 
Walmersley  (the  S.  part;  v.)  :   Walmeresley  1262  LAR,  de  Walmereslegh  1318  LI, 
de  Walm'eslegh  1332  LS,  Womersley  1552  LF,  Wamessley  Hamell  1555  LF.  I  sup- 
pose the  first  el.  is  O.E.  Waldmer,  a  name  possibly  evidenced  in  O.E.  (cf.  Wald- 
meres  scorn  824  BCS  381),  or  Walhmer.  A  compound  of  O.E.  wcella  "well;  brook," 
and  'mere  "  mere  "  is  also  possible. 

Cobhouse  (N.E.  of  Walmersley)  :  de  Cobalres  1359  LF.  Second  el.  clearly  the 
plur.  of  O.E.  air  "  alder."  Cob-  may  be  a  pers.  name  (O.E.  Cobba)  or  cob  sb.  in 
one  of  its  senses. 

Lumb  or  Lumn  Mill  (near  Walmersley)  :  ?  lumcar  1591  Bury  R.  The  name  is 
identical  with  Lumb  (Tottington),  Lumb,  Yks.  (Lorn  1307,  1308,  Lum  1370, 
Goodall)  ;  cf.  the  Cowlomme  1549  LP  III.  53,  Lomme,  Crawelomme  1564  CCR, 
Lomax  supra.  Bardsley  correctly  identifies  the  name  with  dial,  lum,  "  a 
woody  valley,  a  deep  pool."  Cf.  lumb  "  a  well  for  the  collection  of  water  in  a 
mine  ;  a  deep  pool  in  the  bed  of  a  river  "  (18  cent.)  NED  ;  lum  "  a  deep  pool  in 
the  bed  of  a  river  "  NCy,  Lakel.,  Yks.,  etc.  (EDD).  The  etymology  of  the  word 
is  obscure.  Lumb  is  situated  close  to  two  small  tarns  and  Pigsley  Brook. 
Pigsden,  Pigsley  (on  Pigsley  Brook).  Cf.  Pedeksdene  Kuerden  MS,  Pigkisdene 
1360  VHL  V.  142,  Petekesdene  ib.  174  Pedkesdene  1287  ib.  177.  The  first  el.  appears 

BURY  PAR.  63 

to  be  a  pers.  n.  identical  with  that  found  in  Pickwell  (Dev.)  :  Pedicheswelle 
DB,  perhaps  a  diminutive  in  -uc  of  O.E.  Piuda  (cf.  Redin). 
Shipperbottom  :  de  Schyppewelle-,  Schyppewallebothem  1  285  LAR,  de  Shipwalle- 
bothum  1323  LI,  Shippalbothum  1489  PatR,  O.E.  scepwcella  '  stream  (or  well) 
where  sheep  are  washed,"  and  O.E.  *bopm,  M.E.  bothem  "valley,  dell."  Ship- 
goes  back  to  the  rare  O.E.  form  scip  for  seep,  sceap  "  sheep."  The  place  is  in  a 
small  valley. 

Shuttleworth  (the  N.  part,  v.)  :  Sutteksworth  1227  LF,  Shyotlesworth  1241  LF, 
Shitleswurth,  de  Shytleswurth  1246  LAR,  Shuttelesworthe  1296  Lacy  G,  Schuttles- 
wurthe  1305  ib.,  Shotles worth  1311  LI,  Shuttlesworth  1324  LI.  The  same  name 
occurs  in  Bedford  (De),  Hapton  (Bl),  and  in  Yks.;  the  latter  appears  as  Schutles- 
wrtha,  Sutleswrtha  1209.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  derived  by  Wyld  and  Goodall 
from  an  O.E.  Scyttel  or  Scytel,1  pers.  n.  But  it  would  be  a  curious  coincidence  for 
this  rare  name  to  appear  at  least  four  times  combined  with  O.E.  worp.  In  my 
opinion  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  scyt(t)els  "  bar,  bolt."  If  O.E.  worp  meant  "  en- 
closure," this  seems  to  give  a  good  sense  ;  perhaps  the  name  means  "  barred 
enclosure."  But  scyttels  may  have  had  some  special  sense  not  preserved  in  the 
sources.  It  may  have  been  used  e.g.  of  a  gate  of  some  sort.  In  dialects  shuttle 
(<  O.E.  scytel,  a  side-form  of  scyttels)  means  "  a  horizontal  bar  of  a  gate  or 
hurdle  "  ;  also  "  a  flood-gate."  Norw.  skutil,  Swed.  skyttel  denote  a  pole  that 
may  be  pulled  backwards  and  forwards  across  an  opening  in  a  fence.  Swed. 
skyttlegap  means  an  opening  in  a  fence  that  may  be  shut  by  means  of  loose  poles 

5.  Tottington  (Higher  End  and  Lower  End,  townships) :  Totinton  1212  LI, 
1235  ChR,  Totington  1233  LF,  1278  LAR,  1327  LS,  etc.,  Todington  1242  LI, 
Totingdon  1251  ChR,  Totyngton  1274  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Tottyngton  1285  LAR, 
Totynton  1330  LF.  O.E.  Totinga  tun.  Totingas  is  a  patronymic  formed  from 
the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Tola. 

Affeside  :  Affetside  1504,  Affetsid  1509,  Affaythsyde  1523,  Affedsyd  common  1531, 
Avesyde  1556  OCR,  Affetyside  1542  DL,  Offyside  1771  Whitaker,  Manchester, 
Aviside  Waugh.  Affeside  stands  on  a  hill  (896ft.)  over  which  runs  a  Roman 
road  (Watling-street).  The  forms  are  too  late  to  allow  of  an  etymology. 
Croichlow  Fold  (S.W.  of  Holcombe  Brook,  near  a  hill)  :  de  Cruchelowe  1324  LCR, 
Crychelow  1525,  Crychelaw  1529,  Croichelay  1563  OCR.  The  first  el.  looks  like 
the  Brit,  word  found  in  Welsh  crug  "  a  hill "  ;  cf .  Creech,  Som.  (S.  of  the  Quantock 
Hills  ;  Crucian  apud  nos  Crycbeorh  680  BCS  62,  Crice  DB),  Creech  Do.  (Cric, 
Criz  DB),  Penkridge,  Staffs.  (Pennocrucium  Ant.  It.,  Pancriz  DB). 
Hawkshaw  (h.) :  Howkeshagh  1509,  Hawkesey  1527,  Hawckeshey  1530  CCR.  O.E. 
hafoc  "  hawk,"  and  scaga  "  shaw." 

Holcombe,  Holcombe  Brook  (h.) :  Holecumbam  a  1236  Whit.  I.  324,  Holcumbhevet 
c  1236  ib.  325,  de  Holcoumbe  1296  Lacy  C,  de  Holecombe  1305  ib.     O.E.  hol(h) 
"  hollow  "    and  cumb  "  valley."     The  name  refers  to  the  deep  valley  of  Hol- 
combe Brook. 
Nuttall  (h.)  :    de  Noteho  1256  LF,  de  Notehogh  1318  LI,  1332  LI,  de  Notehugh 

1  From  Scyt(t)el  the  first  el.  of  Shitlington,  Nhb.,  Yks.,  Shillington,  Beds.,  may  be  derived, 
and  Scytlescester,  an  earlv  form  of  Cheaters,  Nh?;.,  may  contain  the  name  ficytel  itself 


1323  LCR,  the  Nutto  1545  OCR.    O.E.  hnutu  "  nut  "    and  hoh  "  spur  of  land," 

etc.     Nuttall  stands  at  a  slight  spur  of  hill  near  the  Irwell. 

Ramsbottom  (town) :    de  Romesbothum  1324  LCR,  Romsbothum  1509,  Ramys- 

bothom  1540  CCR.   O.E.  ram  sb.  "  ram  "  or  Ram  pers.  n.  and  M.E.  bothem  "valley." 

Cf.  Ramsgreave  (Bl.),  Ramsden  (Ess.),  Romsley  (Wore.).     Ramsbottom  stands 

in  the  valley  of  the  Irwell. 

Tittleshaw  (near  Holcombe  Brook)  :     Tyteleshou  a  1236,   Tuttelleshou  c  1236 

Whit.  I.  324f.,  Tetilsey  More  1523,  Tetlesaw  1544  CCR.     O.E.  *Tytel  pers.  n., 

a  side-form  of  Tyttla  (found  in  Bede),  and  O.N.  haugr  "  hill."     The  place  is  close 

to  a  hill.    In  the  earliest  instances  the  name  denotes  a  hill. 

In  Tottington  Higher  End  are  : 

Alden  (valley,  brook,  the  boundary  against  Musbury)  :  Aldenehevet  a  1234 
Whit.  I.  324,  Alvedene  1296  Lacy  C,  Aldene  1305  ib.,  1324  LI.  The  first  el.  may 
be  O.E.  Mlfa  pers.  n.,  or  perhaps  more  likely  the  gen.  pi.  of  O.E.  celf  "  fairy, 
elf."  The  second  is  O.E.  denu  "valley." 

BaUaden  (on  Balladen  Brook,  E.  of  the  Irwell)  :  Baleden  1522,  Balyden  1525, 
Balidene  1562  CCR,  Ballydeyne  1549  LP  III.  56.  First  el.  M.E.  balgh  "  smooth, 
rounded,"  p.  7.  Second  O.E.  denu. 

Buckden  (h.) :  de  Bukedene  1324  LCR.     O.E.  bucca  "  buck  "  and  denu. 
Chatterton  :    Chatterton  1523,  Chatterton  Hey  1547  CCR,  Chatterton  16  cent. 
WhC  1226.     The  place  stands  E.  of  the  Irwell  on  a  steep  projecting  ridge.     The 
name  is  apparently  identical  in  origin  with  Chadderton,  p.  50. 
Dearden  Moor  (E.  of  the  Irwell)  :   de  Derdene  1325  LCR,  Dureden  1509  CCR. 
O.E.  deor  "  deer  "  and  denu.     Dearden  Brook  runs  past  Edenfield. 
Edenfield  (v.) :    Aytounfeld  1324  LI,  de  Aytounfeld  1443,  Aytenfeld  1509  CCR, 
Atonfeld  1519  LP  I.  86,  Aytenfielde  1577  Harr,  etenfelde  1591,  edenfeld  1615 
Bury  R  ;  now  [rdnfrld].     Edenfield  stands  near  the  Irwell  on  fairly  high  ground. 
Eden  Wood  is  to  the  S.  of  it.     Eden-  is  probably  O.E.  Eg-tun,  eg  in  this  case 
meaning  "  river-meadow  "   or  the  like.     The  place  so  called  may  have  been  on 
the  Irwell.     Cf.  Hundersfield. 

Horncliffe  (E.  of  the  Irwell) :  de  Horneclifl323  LCR,  de  Hornclyve  c  1360  CR  344, 
Horne-y  Horneyclyff  1540  CCR.     First  el.  probably  horn  "  a  pointed  or  tapering 
projection  "  or  the  like.     Horncliffe  stands  at  a  steep  spur  of  Dearden  Moor. 
Lumb  (on  the  Irwell)  :  Lumbank  1528,  the  Lumebonke,  Lumbankeheid  1547  CCR, 
Lumme  Carre  medowe  1563  ib.     Cf.  the  same  name  p.  62. 

New  Hall  :  Newhalle  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  Newhall  1577  Harr.  Hall  may  mean 
"  farm-house,  cottage  "  (cf.  EDD). 

Shillingbottom  :  Shillingbothim  1296  Lacy  C,  -botham  1305  ib.  The  first  el.  may 
be  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Stilling ;  but  more  likely  it  is  the  name  of  a  brook  derived 
from  shill  adj.  (O.E.  scyl)  "  sonorous,  resonant,  shrill."  Second  el.  M.E.  bothem 

Stubbins  (h.) :  Stubbyns  Halle  1559  CCR  ;  cf.  Stubbyng  1563  ib.  M.E.  stubbing, 
"j.the  action  of  clearing  land  of  stubs,  etc."  (1445,  etc.,  NED).  Here  the 
meaning  is  concrete  :  "  cleared  land." 

6.  Musbury  (in  the  N.W.  part  of  the  parish  ;  in  Blackburn  hundred)  :  Musbiry 
(park)  1311  LI,  -buri,  -beri  1324  LI,  Park  of  Musebury  1325  LCR.  "  Mouse 
burrow,"  O.E.  mus  and  *burh  "burrow."  Cf.  Coneybury,  Wore.,  "rabbit 


warren  "  (Duignan).    The  township  chiefly  consists  of  hills  (Musbury  Heights). 

It  was  formerly  a  park. 

Musden,  Musden  Head  :    Musedene  1296  Lacy  C,  Musdene  1305  ib.,  1324  LI. 

"  Mouse  valley."     Musden  Head  is  "  the  head  of  the  Musden  (or  Musbury 

Brook)  valley." 

Ogden  (valley  in  the  N.  ;  Ogden  Brook)  :   Uggedene  1296  Lacy  C,  Ugdene  1305  ib., 

Uggeden  1324  LI,  (aqua  de)  Uggeden  WhC  333,  Ugden  1509,  Okedenfott,  Ogdenfott 

1531  OCR  ;   Typpet  of  Ogden  (Ugden)  1577,  Typpet  of  Ugden  Hill  1580  DL.     The 

first  el.  is  no  doubt  a  pers.  n.;    cf.   Uggelowe  (hill)  WhC  334,   Uggecotelawe 

(Whitworth)  13  cent,  WhC  654,  also  Ugley  (Ess.)  :   Oggele  1303,  Uggele  1428  FA. 

We  may  assume  an  O.E.  *Ucga,  corresponding  to  O.N.  Uggi.    The  meaning  of 

Typpet  (now  Trippet)  is  obscure. 

7.  Cowpe,  Lench,  Newhall  Hey,  Hall  Carr  (E.  of  the  Irwell;  in  Blackburn  hundred). 

The  district  occupies  the  N.  slope  of  a  high  hill. 

Cowpe  :  Cuhope,  Cuhopheued  c  1200  WhC  154,  Couhop  1324  LI.    Cowpe  stands 

on  a  stream  (called  Couhopebrok  WhC  334)  in  a  valley,  which  is  a  typical  "  hope," 

i.e.,  "  a  smaller  opening  branching  out  from  the  main  dale,  and  running  up 

to  the  mountain  ranges."     The  name  means  "  cow  valley  "   (O.E.  cu  and  hop). 

Lench  :    the  Lenche  1526,  Overlynche  1507,  Ouerlinche  1527,  Overlenche  1532 

CCR.     Lench  in  dialects  means   "  a  shelf  of  rock,"    etc.   ( Derby sh.)  ;    linch 

1,  "  rising  ground  " ;  2,  "  a  ledge ;  a  hamlet  on  the  side  of  a  hill  "  (the  second  sense 

found  in  Lane.  dial.).   Lench,  linch  are  obviously  connected  with  O.E.  hlinc  "  ridge, 

slope,  hill "  ;  there  must  have  been  an  O.E.  hlenc  with  much  the  same  meaning. 

Newhall  Hey  :    Newhalley  1464  Whit.  I.  359,  Newhal(l)hey  1507,  1514  CCR. 

Cf.  New  Hall,  p.  64. 

Hall  Carr  (near  Newhall  Hey) :    Hallecarre  1507  CCR.    Carr  is  O.N.  kiarr, 

"  marsh,  bog." 


Blachebvrn  hvnd'  DB,  (de)  Blakeburne  Wapentachio  1188  LPR,  Blakeburnesire 
1243  LI,  Blakeburneschyre  1246  LAR,  Blakeburneshire  1258  IPM,  Blackburnshir 
1332  LS. 

A  district  N.  of  Salford  hundred  and  mostly  S.  of  the  Ribble,  with  a  small 
portion  N.  of  that  river.  This  latter  part,  till  some  time  after  the  Conquest, 
belonged  to  Amounderness  hundred,  and  Alston-with-Hothersall  township, 
though  in  Ribchester  par.,  does  so  still.  This  part  is  best  dealt  with  in  connec- 
tion with  Amounderness. 

Names  of  Rivers 

Kibble  (falls  into  the  Irish  Sea)  :  Rippel  c  710  Eddi,1  Ribbel  c  930  YCh  (?  genuine), 
1002  Thorpe,  1229, 1251  ChR,  etc.,  Ripam  DB,  Ribem  1094  LC  794,  Ribam  1130 
LPR,  Ribble  c  1130  Sim.  Durh.,  Ribliam  1140  Ch,  Riblam  1142  Ch,  Ribbil(l) 
1189-94  Ch,  c  1230  CC,  1252  LI,  Rybel  1246  LAR,  Ribel  1251,  1270  ChR,  Rebel 
1400  FC  201,  the  Rybell  1577  Harr.  Cf.  Ribchester  p.  144.  The  Ribble  is  an 

1  MSS  from  11  and  12  cent. 



important  river ,    its  name  is  probably  British.    Etymology  obscure.    If,  as 

some  think,  Ptolemy's  Belisama  should  be  identified  with  the  Ribble,  the  name 

may  contain  the  first  part  (Bel-)  of  this  word. 

Darwen  (joins  the  Ribble  near  Preston) :    Derewente  1227  LF,  Darwent  c  1540 

Leland.     Cf.  Over  and  Lower  Darwen,  p.  75.     The  name  is   identical    with 

Derwent  in  Derby,  Gumb.,  Yks.,  Nhb.    It  appears  as  Derventione  Ant.  It., 

Not.  D.,  Rav.  (Holder),  Deruuentionis  (  Bede  (Deorwenlan,  etc.,  in  the 

O.E.  translation),  Deruuentionem  Bede,  etc.     The  name  is  a  derivative  of  Celt. 


Blackwater  (a  trib.  of  the  Darwen) :  Blak.  12  cent.  WhC  lOlf.    Cf.  Blackburn, 

p.  74.    "  The  black  brook." 

Calder  (falls  into  the  Ribble  near  Whalley) :   Caldre  a  1193  Whit.  II.  388,  1246 

LAR,  WhC  333,  Est  Caldre  WhC  334,  Calder  c  1200  Whit.  II.  189,  Kelder  1296 

Lacy  C,  the  Calder,  the  Chalder  1577  Harr.     This  river  is  sometimes  called  the 

two-forked  Calder.     It  has  two  head-streams,  which  join  at  Burnley.    The 

Northern  one  of  these  is  generally  called  Pendle  Water,  the  name  Calder  being 

applied  to  the  Southern  one.     There  is  another  Calder  in  Blackburn,  which  rises 

near  the  other  Calder,  but  flows  S.  and  E.  to  the  Aire  in  Yks. :   Kelder  1202, 

Keldre  1296,  Calder  1308  (Goodall).    This  is  a  common  river  name.    Cf.  Calder 

in  Am.  infra,  Cumb.,  Scotland.    Caldour  near  Kelso  is  said  to  appear  as  Caledofre 

in  an  early  doc.  (McClure,  p.  144).     The  name  is  British,  and  its  second  el.  is 

generally  assumed  to  be  Celtic  *dubron  (Welsh  dwfr,  etc.)  "  water."    It  may  be 

identical  with  the  Welsh  river  names  Cletwr,  Clettwr ;  cf .  Kaletur  Maur',  Kaletur 

Bochan,  etc.,  1241  AP  (in  Shr.  or  Heref .)  "  the  great  and  little  Caletur,"  the 

first  el.  of  which  seems  to  be  Welsh  caled  "  hard,  severe,"  here  perhaps  "  rapid  " 

or  the  like. 

Bushburn  (falls  into  the  Calder) :   Busceburn(e)  13  cent.  WhC  953f.,  Busseburne 

ib.  1027.    First  el.  obscure. 

Hyndburn  (an  affluent  of  the  Calder) :  Hindeburne  a  1193  Whit.  II.  388,  Hinde- 

burn  a  1194  Kirkstall  C,  Hyndburn  1200-8  DD,  Hyndeburn  WhC  334,  Henburne 

broofo  1577  Harr.    Probably  Hynd-  is  O.E.  hind  "  female  of  the  doe."    Cf. 

Hindburn  in  Lo. 

Pendle  Water  :  Penhull  water  1516  CCR,  The  Piddle,  Pidle  brooke  1577  Harr. 

See  Calder  supra. 

Colne  Water  (joins  Pendle  Water).    See  Colne,  p.  87. 

Wanless  Water  :   Wandles  Wayter  1540  CCR.    Earlier  forms  are  needed. 

Brun  (falls  into  the  Calder  at  Burnley).    See  under  Burnley. 

Names  of  Hills 

In  Blackburn  par.  are  : 

Billinge  (807ft.,  in  Witton) :  Billingehill  1429  VHL  VI.  340 ;  cf.  Billingehurst 
13  cent.  ib.  266,  Billinge  Hill  1594  DL,  subter  Billingg  1622  Blackburn  R.  The 
etymology  of  the  name  is  complicated  by  the  fact  that  a  neighbouring  hill  is 
called  Billington  Moor  (p.  71),  earlier  Billingahoth.  This  latter  apparently 
means  "  the  hill  of  the  Billings."  It  would  seem  most  natural  to  explain  Billinge 
in  a  similar  way,  that  is,  to  derive  it  from  an  O.E.  Billingahyll,  "  the  hill  of  the 


Billings,"  the  later  Billinge  being  elliptical.  Another  possibility  is  that  Billinge 
is  an  old  hill-name,  derived  from  O.E.  bill  "  sword."  Billinge  is  a  conspicuous 
ridge.  The  early  material  does  not  allow  of  a  definite  choice  between  these 
alternatives.  From  Billinge,  the  name  of  the  hill,  is  derived  Billinge  Scar  (the 
name  of  a  place  on  the  hill)  :  Billins  Carr  1615,  Billindge  Can  1624,  Billinges 
1652  Blackburn  R.  Scar  means  "  a  cliff,  the  ridge  of  a  hill,"  etc. 
Mellor  Moor.— See  p.  73. 

Revidge  (in  Over  Darwen)  apparently  has  as  second  el.  the  word  edge  (O.E.  ecg). 
The  first  may  be  O.E.  hreof  "  rough." 

Whalley  Nab  (606ft.,  the  eastern  point  of  Billington  Hill) :  Nab  (silva)  1579 
Whalley  R,  The  Nabb  in  Billington  1604  CW  176.  An  earlier  name  of  this  is  no 
doubt  Belsetenab  13  cent.  WhC  133,  (mentis)  Belsetenabbe  14  cent.  ib.  1013. 
Belsete  is  apparently  a  place-name  whose  second  el.  is  set  "  shieling  "  (cf.  p.  16) ; 
the  first  el.  is  very  likely  a  pers.  n.,  e.g.,  Beli  in  Belesby,  Line.,  etc.  (Bjorkman, 
Namenkunde).  Nab  is  M.E.  nabb  from  O.N.  nabbr  or  nabbi,  "a  projecting 

In  Whalley  par.  are  : 

Blacko  (1,018ft.,  N.  of  Nelson) :  Blacho  12  cent.,  Blakhow  1329,  Blakhou  1335 
Kirkstall  C,  the  Blackoo  1540  CCR  ;  now  [blaka].  "  The  black  hill  "  (O.N. 
haugr  "  hill  "). 

Boulsworth  (1,700ft.,  S.E.  of  Colne) :  Bulswyre  WhC  333,  Bulsware  1618, 
Bulswarre  1620  Colne  R.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  M.E.  bule  "  bull  "  and 
O.E.  swlra  or  O.N.  sviri  "  neck."  The  name  might  mean  "  the  bull's  neck,"  not  an 
inapt  description  of  the  long  massive  ridge.  But  swire  may  here  be  used  in  one 
of  the  senses  "  a  level  spot,  or  steep  pass  between  mountains,  a  declivity  near  the 
summit  of  a  hill,  a  hill  road  "  (EDD).  There  is  a  small  place  Boulsworth  near 
Thursden  Clough. 

Brown  Hill  (E.  of  Pendle) :  Brownhill  1528,  le  Brownehill  1533  CCR.  Self- 

Castercliff  (near  Nelson) :   Castell  Clif  1515,  the  Castydyff  1533  CCR.    There  are 
remains  of  an  ancient  earthwork  on  the  hill.    First  el.  M.E.  castel  (<  O.F.). 
Combe  Hill  (on  the  Yks.  border) :  Cawmhill  1643  Colne  R.    First  el.  O.E.  camb 
"  comb."    Dial,  comb  also  means  "  a  crest,  ridge  of  a  hill." 
Cribden  or  Cridden  (N.E.  of  Haslingden,  1,250ft.) :  (Lawnd  of)  Kyrden  1543, 
(Le  Launde  of)  Cryden  1559,  Cryddene  1563  CCR.     The  second  el.  of  the  name 
is  apparently  O.E.  denu  "  valley  "  ;  so  the  hill  seems  to  have  been  named  from 
a  place  in  the  vicinity  (cf .  Cribden  Side,  Cribden  End),  which  in  its  turn  took  its 
name  from  a  valley.     If  Cridden  is  the  correct  form,  as  the  early  forms  seem  to 
suggest,  the  first  el.  might  be  O.E.  Crioda  pers.  n. 

Crow  Hill  (Trawderi) :  Crowehull  WhC  334.    Presumably  "  hill  of  the  crows." 
Great  Hill  (Trawden) :  Greithill  1527  CCR.    Probably  literally  "  great  hill." 
Hameldon. — There  are  three  hills  of  this  name  :   Black  Hameldon  (1,573ft.,  on 
the  Yks.  border),  Hameldon  (S.  of  Extwistle),  Great  Hameldon  (1,343ft.,  W.  of 
Burnley).     The  last  is  Hameldon  a  1194  Kirkstall  C.    Hameldon,  like  Hambledon 
Hill  (623ft.,  on  the  border  of  Dorset  and  Wilts.),  has  for  its  first  el.  the  common 
Germ.  adj.  *hamala-  "maimed,"  etc.:   O.N.  hamall,  O.H.G.  hamal   etc.;   cf. 


O.E.  hamelian,  "to  mutilate,  etc."  (Torp-Fick  p.  73).  It  is  impossible  to 
determine  the  exact  meaning  of  the  word  in  Hameldon.  It  was  certainly  not 
"  rounded,"  as  the  Hameldons  are  not  characterised  by  a  rounded  shape.  More 
likely  it  was  "  treeless,  bare,"  or  perhaps  "  level,"  a  natural  development  from 
"  maimed."  Great  Hameldon,  seen,  e.g.,  from  the  Calder  valley,  and  the  other 
Hameldons  make  the  impression  of  fairly  level  ridges. 

Horelaw  (1,153ft.,  S.  of  Burnley) :  Horelaw  1598  Burnley  R.  "  Grey  hill."  A 
small  place  Wholaw  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  was  clearly  named  from  it.  Cf. 
le  Horelowe  1306  WhC  1013  (near  Wiswell). 

Noyna  (980ft.,  N.  of  Colne) :  Noynow  Cragg  1589  DL,  Noynowe  1602,  Noynoe 
1612,  Noonow  1614  ff.,  Nonowe  1627,  etc.,  Colne  R,  Clearly  O.E.  non  "  noon," 
and  O.E.  hoh  or  O.N.  haugr  "  hill,"  a  name  analogous  to  Mittaghorn  (Switzer- 
land), Middagsfjallet,  Nonsberget  (North  Sweden),  Middagshogda  (Norway),  and 
meaning  literally  "  noon  hill,"  "  a  hill  situated  S.  of  a  certain  place  so  that  the 
sun  is  seen  above  it  at  noon."  Cf.  on  names  of  this  kind  Liden  NoB  IV.  89, 
124.  Noon  is  [noin]  in  Lane,  dialects.  Noyna  Hill  is  almost  due  S.  of  Earby  and 
Thornton  in  Yks. 

Pendle  Hill  (1,831ft.) :  Pennul  1258  IPM,  Pennehille  1296  Lacy  C,  Penhul  1305 
Lacy  C,  Penhull  WhC  334,  Penhill  1311,  1324  LI.  The  name  is  mostly  used  of 
the  forest  (foresta  de  Penhull,  etc.).  Cf.  Pendleton,  p.  77.  The  elements  are 
Pen-  from  Brit,  pen  (Welsh  pen  "  head  ;  top,"  etc.  ;  cf.  Pendlebury,  Pendleton, 
Salf.)  and  O.E.  hyll. 

Pike  Law  (1,189ft.,  E.  of  Pendle) :  Pikedlawe  1329,  Pikedelawe  1333  Kirkstall  C. 
M.E.  piked  "  pointed  "  (from  pike  "  point ;  pointed  hill  ")  and  hldw.  The  same 
name  occurs  in  Blackburn  (le  Pikedlowe  WhC  334),  and  Thieveley  Pike  (S.  of 
Burnley)  was  formerly  called  Pykelaw  1528  CCR. 

Stank  Top  (1,060ft.,  E.  of  Pendle)  :  Stanghend  1524,  Stang  Toppe  1546  CCR. 
Stonk  is  O.N.  stong  "  a  pole." 

Wolfetones  (Trawden  ;  1,455ft.) :  le  Woluestones  WhC  333.  "  The  wolf-stones," 
really  the  name  of  a  county  boundary  mark.  It  is  doubtful  if  Wolf  is  "wolf" 
the  animal,  or  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Wulfa. 


This  parish  forms  the  W.  part  of  the  hundred,  being  separated  from  Whalley 
parish  by  the  Calder,  the  Hyndburn,  and  the  moors  S.  of  the  source  of  the  latter 
river.     It  consists  of  a  district  on  the  S.  bank  of  the  Ribble  and  a  broad  area 
on  both  sides  of  the  upper  Darwen.    The  surface  varies  considerably.     In  the 
S.  Darwen  Moor  reaches  1,320ft.     From  there  the  ground  slopes  towards  the 
Ribble,  but  there  are  several  minor  hills,  as  Mellor  Moor,  Billington  Moor,  etc. 
1.  Walton-le-Dale  (on  the  Ribble  S.  of  Preston,  v.) :    Waletune  DB,  Waleton 
1246  LAR,  Walton  in  La  Dak  1304,  1332  LF,  Walton  in  Le  Dale  1318  LF,  etc., 
Walton  in  the  Dale  1332  LS.     O.E.  Walatun  "  the  tun  of  the  Britons." 
Low  Chapel  (former  name  of  Walton  church)  :    Capella  (ecclesid)  de  la  Lawe 
13  cent.  WhC  90,  locum  de  la  Lawe  1283  ib.  114,  Law  1577  Saxton,  1577  Harr. 
O.E.  hldw  "  hill."     The  church  stands  on  a  slight  eminence. 
Bamber  Bridge  (v.  on  the  Lostock) :   Bymbrig  (in  an  early  deed)  VHL  VI.  290. 


Seems  to  be  the  "  bridge  of  Bym  "  ;  cf.  Bimme  pers.  n.  1246  LAR,  Bymmecroft 

(EccleshilD  13  cent.  WhC. 

Brownedge  (h. ;  on  an  eminence)  :  Brownage,  Browneegge  1551  DL.    Apparently 

"  brown  hill." 

Lemon  House  :    cf.  de  Lemoneshull  1341  IN.     First  el.  the  pers.  n.  Lagheman 

1246  LAR,  Laghmon  1347  OR,  from  O.N.  Logmadr,  literally  "  law  man,  judge." 

2.  Cuerdale  (on  the  Ribble,  E.  of  Preston)  :  Kiuerdale  c  1190  Ch,  1246  LAR,  de 
KeuirdalemS  CIR,  Keuerdale  1293  LI,  1296, 1305  Lacy  C,  Keuresdale  1311  LI, 
Keu'dale  1332  LS,  Kyuerdale  1356  LF.     Cuerdale  occupies  a  slight  ridge  of 
ground  between  the  Darwen  and  the  Ribble.     Cuerdale  Hall  is  in  a  haugh  close 
to  the  Ribble.    The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  identical  with  that  of  Cuerdley, 
p.  106.     If  so,  the  second  el.  is  probably  O.E.  hnlh  "  haugh,"   which  suits  the 
situation  of  the  place  extremely  well — indeed,  much  better  than  dale. 

3.  Samlesbury  (on  the  Ribble,  E.  of  Preston) :  Samerisberia  1179  LPR,  Sameles- 
bure  1188f.,  1194  LPR,  Samelesbur',  Samelisbur' 1212  BF,  SamdesUri  1238  LAR, 
Samelesbiry,  Samelesbiri,  (de  Samlebir,  Samlesbiry,  Samplesbiry)  1246  LAR,  de 
Samelesburi  1252  LI,  Samlisbyri  1258  IPM,  Samlesbury  1267  LAR,  1311  LI,  etc., 
Samlisbury,  Sampnelbiry,  Sampnesbiry  1278  LAR,  Samesbury  1276,  1278  LAR, 
Samlesbur'  1332  LI,  Samsbury  1577  Saxton  ;  Shamplesbiry,  de  SchameUsbiry, 
-byr  1246  LAR,  Scamelesbyry,  Shampelesbyri,  Shapnesbyri  1277  LAR. 

The  old  chapel  of  Samlesbury  stands  on  the  S.  bank  of  the  Ribble,  with 
Samlesbury  Lower  Hall  some  way  off  on  the  river.  I  take  this  to  be  the  site  of 
the  original  Samlesbury.  The  etymology  is  much  complicated  by  the  variety 
of  the  early  spellings.  The  forms  with  S-  are  in  the  majority,  but  there  are  a 
good  many  with  Sh-,  and  it  is  not  easy  to  see  why  S-  should  have  been  replaced 
by  Sh-,  whereas  S-  for  Sh-  is  easily  explained  by  Norman  influence.  If  the 
original  form  had  Sh-,  I  would  compare  the  following  names  :  Shamele  (hundred 
Kent)  1275  HR  ;  Shalmsford  (Kent)  :  Shamelesford  1285  FA,  Sahameleford 
1275  HR  ;  perhaps  Shamblehurst  (Hants) :  Samelherst,  Scamelherst'  1176  PR, 
Schameleshurste  1316  FA.  All  these  may  contain  O.E.  sceamol  "bench,  stool," 
or  some  derivative  of  it ;  cf.  to  pam  scamelan  909  BCS  629.  The  meaning  of 
this  word  in  topographical  use  is  not  clear,  but  very  likely  it  may  have  been 
something  like  "  ledge,  shelf  "  ;  cf.  G.  sandschemel  "  sand  shelf  "  (MiddendorfF). 
In  this  case  the  word  might  refer  to  a  ledge  on  the  bank  of  the  Ribble.  In 
reality,  Samlesbury  Lower  Hall  stands  on  a  slight  ledge  (c  50ft.  above  sea-level), 
which  stretches  as  far  as  the  church. 

If  the  spellings  in  Sh-  are  to  be  disregarded  the  etymology  is  much  more 
difficult.  The  first  el.  is  hardly  the  pers.  n.  Samuel.  If  it  is  a  pers.  n.,  as  the  early 
forms  rather  suggest,  it  may  be  a  derivative  of  the  stem  Sam-  found  in  German 
names.  This  stem  is  not  found  in  English  names,  but  the  related  stem  Som 
occurs  in  O.E.  Soemel  and  perhaps  in  the  first  el.  of  Semington,  Semley,  Wilts. 
Burh  in  this  name,  as  in  Salesbury,  may  mean  "  fortified  house,  fort  "  or 
"  manor  "  ;  cf.  p.  8. 

4.  Balderston  (on  the  Ribble,  N.E.  of  Preston)  :    Balderestone  a  1172  Whit.  II. 
359,  de  Balderston,  de  Baldeston  1246  LAR,  Baldreston  1256  LF,  1311  LI,  1332 
LS,  etc.,  de  Balderston  1297  LI,  Balderston  1341  IN.     "  The  tun  of  Baldhere  "  ; 
cf.  Bealdhere  (Searle). 


Myerscough  (h.).    Cf.  Myerscough,  Am. 

Ramsholme  Wood  (on  the  Ribble) :  RammesMme  1333  WhC  100.  First  el. 
apparently  O.E.  ram  "  ram  "  or  Ram  pers.  n.  Second  O.N.  holm,  "  island,"  etc. 
Smalley  :  Smalelei  a  1172  Whit.  II.  359,  de  Smalley  1332  LI.  "  The  small  lea." 
Sunderland  :  Sunderland,  -broc,  -holm  a  1172  Whit.  II.  359,  de  Sunderland  1246 
LAR,  (grangia  de)  Sunderland  WhC  98 ;  cf .  p.  29.  Sunderland  Hall  stands  near 
the  Ribble  at  a  considerable  distance  from  Balderston  village.  The  meaning 
"  outlying  land  "  seems  plausible. 

5.  Osbaldeston   (on  the  Ribble,  S.  of  Ribchester,  h.) :   OsbaUeston  1246  LAR, 
1292  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Osbaldiston  1258  IPM,  1311  LI,  Osebaldeston  1337  LF, 
Osbaston  1577  Saxton  ;  now  [o'bistn  ;  ozbsldestn].     "  The  tun  of  Osbald." 
Oxendale  Hall  (near  a  brook) :   Oxedeneklouh  c  1200  Whit.  II.  400.    Oxen-  is 
a  contraction  of  Oxedene,  "  ox  valley." 

Studlehirst  :  deStodelhirl  124:6  LAR,deStodelhurst  1337  LF.  Studle-  is  apparently 
a  compound  with  O.E.  stod  "  stud  "  as  first  el.,  the  second  being  O.E.  hyll. 
Higher  and  Lower  Studlehirst  stand  on  a  slope. 

6.  Clayton-le-Dale  (on  the  Ribble,  S.  of  Ribchester):    Clayton,  Claiton  1246 
LAR,  Clayton  1258  IPM,  Ckyton  near  Ribcestre  1301  LF,  Claiton  in  the  Dale 
1327,  1332  LS.     "  The  tun  on  clayey  soil." 

Madgell  Bank  (on  a  slight  hill) :  Maggeldes  meduclif  c  1200  Whit.  II.  400.  A 
difficult  name.  The  most  plausible  suggestion  I  can  make  is  that  the  elements 
are  O.E.  *Mcegga  pers.  n.  (cf.  O.E.  Mecga,  and  O.H.G.  Magio,  Macco,  etc.)  and 
O.E.  helde  "  slope." 

Showley  [Hall] :  Scholfley  VHL  VI.  263,  de  Schollarye  1339  WhC  292,  Sholey 
1497  LF.  Showley  Hall  stands  on  sloping  ground.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is 
probably  O.E.  sceolh  "  oblique,  wry." 

7.  Salesbury  (on  the  Ribble,  E.  of  Ribchester) :  Salesbyry,  Salebyry  1246  LAR, 
Salebiry  1258  IPM,  1266, 1272  LAR,  etc.,  Salebyri  1276  LAR,  Salbury  1278  LAR, 
Salebury  1288  LF,  Salebiri  1284  LF,  Salesbyry  1305  Lacy  C  ;    now  [se'lzbri]. 
Salesbury  Hall  stands  close  to  Sale  Wheel  (Salewelle  1296,  1305  Lacy  C,  Salewell 
1311  LI ;   now  [se'lwrl]),  a  wide  deep  pool  in  the  Ribble,  in  which  are  strong 
undercurrents,  and  which  is  said  to  be  very  dangerous.     The  elements  of  the 
name  Sale  Wheel  are  O.E.  salh  "  sallow,  willow  "   (or  a  derivative  of  it)  and 
O.E.  wcel1 "  a  whirlpool ;  a  deep  still  part  of  a  river."     The  first  el.  of  Salesbury 
is  evidently  identical  with  that  of  Sale  Wheel.     Perhaps  both  names  really 
contain  a  place-name  Sale,  an  earlier  name  of  Salesbury. 

Cadshaw  (Higher  and  Lower) :  Kaddehou,  Cadeshoubroc,  Cadeshouclou,  Cade~ 
houclou  c  1200  Whit.  II.  400,  Cadshawe  1617  Blackburn  R.  Sometimes  written 
Cadger  and  pronounced  [kadza].  The  places  are  on  the  brow  of  a  hill,  near  a 
brook.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Cada  and  O.N.  haugr 
"  hill  "  (or  possibly  O.E.  hoh),  later  associated  with  shaw. 
Loveley  Hall  :  Lovelay  c  1450  HS  LXIV.  280,  Luffeley  1473  VHL  VI.  256, 
Loueley  1663  CCR.  The  name  probably  means  "the  lea  of  Lufa";  cf.  Love 
Clough,  p.  92. 

8.  Dinckley  (between  Dinckley  Brook  and  the  Ribble) :    de  Dunkythele,  de 

1  The  same  element  is  found  in  the  name  of  another  pool  in  the  Ribble  :  Sandwdle  1296, 
Sandwele  1305  Lacy  C,  Samewell  1311  LI. 


Dinkedelay,  de  Dinkidele  1246  LAR,  de  Dinkedelegh  1257  LI,  Dunkedeley  1258 
IPM,  Dinkedley  1327  LS,  Dynkedlegh  1332  ib.,  Dynkedlay  1341  IN,  Dynkedelay 
1369  LF,  Dynkedeleghbrok  13  cent.  WhC  1019,  Dynkeley  1311  IPM.  Like 
Worsley  (p.  40),  Dinckley  consists  of  O.E.  leah  and  a  curious  first  el.  containing 
a  theme  -ked-  or  the  like,  which  is  difficult  to  explain.  I  submit  that  it  may  be 
an  old  Brit,  name,  e.g.,  *Din-ket,  corresponding  to  a  Welsh  Din-coed  "  fort  of  the 
wood  "  (or  Din-goed  "  wood  of  the  fort ").  Cf.  M.Bret.  Kaergoet  (Kerquoet) 
"  village  of  the  wood  "  (Loth  194,  199).  Dinckley  may  have  been  the  site  of  a 
Roman  or  British  fort.  There  are  traces  of  a  Roman  road  and  several  Roman 
altars  are  said  to  have  been  found  here  (VHL  VI.  336).  Another  possibility  is 
that  the  first  el.  may  be  the  O.W.  pers.  n.  Dincat  LL  (O.Bret.  Dincat),  found  in 
Dingestow,  Monm.  (merthir  dincat,  landinegat  LL). 

9.  Biffington  (on  the  Ribble  and  the  Calder) :  de  Billingduna  1196  YCh  1524, 
Billingdon  1203  LPR,  Billindon  1204  LPR,  de  Bilingdon  1208-25,  de  Biligdun 
1208-20  DD,  Bilingdon  1242  LI ;  Billinton  1208  LF,  1246  LAR,  1259  LAR, 
Bilinton  1241  LF,  Bilington,  Billington  1246  LAR,  Bylington  1309  LF,  Bylinton 
1313  LF,  Bylyngton  1325,  1336  LF,  1332  LS,  Billington  1493  LF.  The  S.E. 
boundary  is  formed  by  a  long  ridge  called  Billington  Moor,  earlier  Billingahoth 
c  1130  Sim.  Durh.  This  name  tells  us  that  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  Billinga  gen.  pi. 
"  of  the  Billings."  Billingas  is  most  probably  a  derivative  of  O.E.  Bill(a)  or  of 
bill  "  sword  "  (Bjorkman,  NoB  7,  166).  The  earlier  form  of  the  name  seems  to 
have  been  Billingdon,  really  the  name  of  Billington  Moor,  later  supplanted  by 

Braddyll  :  de  Brad(e)hull,  de  Bradul  1246  LAR,  de  Bradhill  1293  LI,  BradJiul 
14  cent.  WhC  950.  "  Broad  hill." 

Brockhall  (near  the  Ribble) :  de  Brochol  1227  LF,  Brockhole  1289  LF,  Brokhole- 
hirstsike  1294  WhC  1065.  "Brock  hole,"  O.E.  brocc  "badger"  and  hoi 
"  burrow." 

Chew,  Chew  Mill  :  le  Cho  13  cent.  WhC  233,  955,  987,  (manerium  de)  le  Cho 
1303  WhC  972,  Cho,  Choo  1325  LF,  Chobank  WhC  960.  The  same  name  is  found 
in  Salford  and  in  W.  Yks.  I  suppose  it  goes  back  to  O.E.  ceo  (dan,  chyun  pi.) 
"  gill  of  a  fish,"  which  may  have  been  used  also,  like  O.N.  gil,  of  "  a  narrow 
ravine,  a  valley."  Chew  Mill  is  on  Bushburn  Brook,  which  runs  in  a  marked 
ravine  near  Chew  Mill. 

Hacking  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Calder  and  the  Ribble) :  de  Baking  1258  LI, 
de  le  Hoeing  1292  LI,  del  Hackyng  1311  LI,  del  Hakking  1313  LI,  (molendinum) 
del  Hakkyng,  le  Hakkyng  14  cent.  WhC  950.  The  same  name  is  found  in  Salf. 
(p.  46).  Over  Hacking  is  in  Aighton  near  the  Hodder  ;  it  may  be  meant  in  some 
of  the  references  adduced.  Hacking,  as  shown  by  the  definite  article,  is  clearly 
not  a  patronymic.  The  name  may  be  compared  with  O.E.  hcecwer  "  a  weir  with 
a  grate  to  catch  fish  "  (  =  dial,  salmon-heck) ;  hcec  is  hcecc  "  hatch."  Perhaps 
we  should  rather  expect  a  form  Hatching,  but  a  form  Hacking  is  also  possible  ; 
cf.  N.  dial,  heck,  hack  for  hatch.  Besides,  Hacking  may  be  a  derivative  of  O.E. 
haca,  apparently  "  a  bolt,"  not  from  the  cognate  hcecc.  I  suppose  haking  is 
an  old  word  f or  a  "  fish- weir,"  perhaps  identical  with  haking,  "  a  kind  of  net,  or 
apparatus  with  net  attached,  used  for  taking  sea-fish  "  (1602  NED  :  Carew, 
Cornwall).  Over  Hacking  was  very  likely  named  after  a  family  that  came 


from  Hacking.  Members  of  the  Hacking  family  in  Billington  held  land  in 
Aighton  (VHL  VI.  328). 

Langho  :  Langale  13  cent.  WhC  1019,  1027,  Langalesik  13  cent.  ib.  1019.    The 
second  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  halh,  presumably  meaning  "  haugh." 
Snodworth  :    Snodiswrth  1243  LI,  Snoddesworthe  1296  Lacy  C,  Snoddesworth 
1322  LI.     The  first  el.  is  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Snod  (cf.  snod  adj.  "  smooth,  sleek  "), 
found  in  Snoddesbyri  972,  now  Upton  Snodsbury,  Wore.  (Duignan). 
Townworth  :    hyghe  Tunneworthe,   Tunneworthe  (hays,  Rydynge)  c  1550  WhC 
1176.     Cf.  O.E.  oBt  Tuneweorde  957  BCS  994  and  Tunworth,'  Hants.     This  may 
be  "  worp  belonging  to  the  tun  (i.e.,  village),"  perhaps  "  village  fold." 

10.  Great  Harwood  (on  the  Calder,  town) :   majori  Harewuda  a  1123  Whit.  II. 
388,  Harewode  1243  LI,  Harewude  1246  LAR,  Magna  Harwod  1303  FA,  Magna 
Harwode  1327  LS,  Harewode  Magna  1332  LS.     The  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  Mr 
"  grev>"   or  hara  "  hare." 

Martholme  (old  manor) :  Merkedholme  1324  Whit.  II.  390,  Merkethholme  1499 
DL,  Martholme  1577  Saxton.  "  The  market  holm."  Martholme  occupies  a 
piece  of  low  level  land,  bounded  on  three  sides  by  the  Calder  and  the  Hyndburn. 
Herwudesholm  1200  LPR  may  be  the  same  place. 

11.  Wilpshire  (N.  of  Blackburn) :    de  Wlypschyre  (Wlypsire,  Wlipsire,  Wlip- 
schyre)  1246  LAR,  Wlipschire  1258  IPM,  de  Wypsire  1272  LAR,  Wlyppeschyre 
1284  LAR,  Wilpschire  1311  IPM,  Wlipsh'  1332  LS,  Whypshire  1341  IN,  Wylpshire 
1396  LF,  Lipshire  et  Whilpshire  1589  TI,  Lipshyre  1615  Blackburn  R.     This 
township  occupies  the  hill  called  Wilpshire  Moor  (770ft.)  and  the  adjoining  lower 
land.    Wilpshire  proper  is  in  a  fairly  deep  valley. 

This  name  offers  particular  difficulties.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  scir,  but  this 
term  must  here  be  used  in  an  uncommon  sense.  There  is  no  reason  to  believe 
that  Wilpshire  was  ever  the  head  of  a  hundred  or  the  like.  There  are  three 
W.  Yks.  names  in  -shire,  which  denote  comparatively  small  districts,  viz., 
Borgscire,  Hallamshire  and  Sourbyshire  (now  Sowerby) ;  cf.  Goodall,  p.  156. 
But  apparently  these  names  denote  larger  districts  than  Wilpshire.  So  do  the 
Nhb.  and  Durh.  names  in  -shire  dealt  with  by  Mawer,  p.  xiv  f .  But  an  analogous 
name  is  apparently  Pinnock  (v.)  Glo. :  Pignocsire  DB,  Pinnocsir  1211-13  BF, 
PynnuJcshire  1316  FA.  Possibly  O.E.  scir  could  be  used  of  an  estate  managed 
by  a  steward  or  the  like.  Another  plausible  meaning  here  is  "  boundary  "  (cf. 
andlang  scire  956  BCS  982).  The  usual  form  of  the  first  el.  seems  to  have  been 
Wlip-.  The  only  Engl.  word  which  it  seems  possible  to  adduce  as  its  source  is 
O.E.  wlips,  wlisp,  "  lisping."  This  might  have  been  used  as  a  nickname.  The 
Brit,  word  for  "  wet,"  found  in  Welsh  as  gwlyb  (O.Corn.  gulip,  Ir.  fliuch) 
would  be  suitable  from  a  formal  point  of  view  and  it  is  used  in  Welsh  place- 
names,  but  it  does  not  seem  to  suit  the  locality. 

Dewhurst  :  de  le  Dewyhurst  c  1300  WhC,  del  Dewyhirst  1332  LS.  Perhaps  dewy 
has  the  sense  "  wet."  M.E.  dewes  Langland  P.P1.  (B)  XV.  289  apparently  means 
"  damp  places." 

Hollowhead  :  Hallhaede  1200-8,  Hallehede  a  1300  DD.  O.E.  hall  "  hall  "  and 
heafod  "  hill." 

12.  Rishton  (E.  of  Blackburn,  town) :    Riston  1200-8  DD,  1258  IPM,  Ruston 
1243  LI,  Ryston  1246  LAR,  Ruyston  1277  LAR,  Rissheton  1322  LI,  Russhton 


1332  LS,  Ryssheton  1371  LF.     O.E.  rise  "  rush  "  and  tun.      The  town  stands 

near  the  Hyndburn. 

Cowhill  :    Kuhill  1200-8  DD,  dv  CuMl  1210-20  DD,  1246   LAR,  de  Couhill 

(-hull)  1332  LS.     Literally  "  cow  hill."     The  place  is  on  a  hill. 

Cunliffe  :    de  Kuntediue  (Cumbediue)  1246  LAR,  de  Cuntecliue  CO  674,  de 

Cundeclive  1258,  1274  LI,  de  Cunteclyue  1276  LAR,  de  Condeclyve  1288  LF, 

de  Cundeclif  13  cent,  WhC  1027,  de  Cundeclyf  1277  DD,  1388  Moore  MSS.     The 

early  forms  seem  to  point  to  a  first  el.  Cunde-,  which  may  be  the  O.E.  pers.  n. 

Cunda  (one  ex.  Searle),  very  likely  a  Brit,  name  (Forssner).     Another  possibility 

is  that  the  original  form  was  Cunte-,  which  may  be  identified  with  cunte  "  cunnus." 

"  Cunnus  diaboli  "   was  a  monkish  name  for  a  hollow  in  a  rock  through  which 

people  in  Yorkshire  used  to  crawl  to  be  healed  of  sickness.     Cf.  Nyrop,  Dania  I. 

16.     There  may  have  been  at  Cunliffe  a  rock  of  this  character.     Second  el. 

O.E.  clif  "  cliff,"  etc.     The  place  is  on  a  slope. 

Dunscar  :    Dungecarre  12  cent.  Whit.  II.  388,  c  1360  DD,  Dundgecarr  1622 

Blackburn  R.    O.E.  dynge  "  dung,  manure,  litter,"  and  O.N.  Jciarr  "  swamp,"  etc. 

Sidebeet  (or  Sidebight) :   Le  ffidebitht  (for  Side-)  1258  LI,  Sydebiht  1278  LF,  de 

Sidebuhte  13  cent  DD.     "  The  wide  curve,"  O.E.  sld  "  wide  "  and  byht  "  bend, 

curve."     Sidebeet  is  in  a  wide  bend  made  by  a  brook.     With  -beet  cf.  [ni't]  for 

night  in  Lane.  dial. 

Tottleworth  :   Tottleworth  1200-8  DD,  de  Totlewrth  1258  LI,  de  Tatilwyrd  a  1288 

DD.     The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  *Tottla  ;  cf.  Tottel  and  Tyttla  in 


13.  Little  Harwood  (N.E.  of  Blackburn) :    Little  Harewud  1246  LAR,  Parua 
Har(e)wode  1327,  1332  LS,  Parva  Harwood  1341  IN,  Little  Harewode  1493  LF. 
See  Great  Harwood.     Li.  Harwood  is  separated  from  Gt.  Harwood  by  Rishton 
township.     Yet  we  must  assume  the  two  to  have  belonged  together  and  to  have 
been  named  from  the  same  wood. 

Ediholes  :  Ediholes  1200-8  DD,  Edyasholes  (for  Edyaf-)  1292  PW,  de  Edieles 
1284  LF,  de  Edyefholes  1310  VHL  VI.  249,  del  Ediholes  1323  LCR.  First  el. 
O.E.  Eadgeofu  pers.  n.  (fern.) ;  second  O.E.  hoi  "hollow,"  etc.  The  place  stands 
near  a  valley. 

Hastingley  :"  de  Harstaneslegh  1357  LF,  Harstonelee  1618  CW  162.  "  The 
hoarstone  lea  "  ;  cf.  p.  60. 

14.  Ramsgreave  (N.  of  Blackburn)  :    Romesgreve  1296  Lacy  C,  1311,  1323  LI, 
Romesgrave  1311  IPM,  Romysgreve  (wood)  1324  LI.     Ramsgreave  formerly  con- 
sisted to  a  great  extent  of  forest.    The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  grcef  "  grove." 
The  first  is  no  doubt  O.E.  ram  "  ram  "   (possibly  used  as  a  pers.  n.).     All  the 
early  forms  show  o  for  O.E.  a  (o)  before  the  nasal. 

15.  Mellor  (N.W.  of  Blackburn,  v.) :    Malver  c  1130  Whit.  II.  330,  de  Meluer 
1200-8  DD,  Meluer  1246  LAR,  13  cent.  WhC  etc.,  (de)  Melwrith  1246  LAR,  de 
Meluir  1276  LAR,    de  Meluyr  1285   ib.,   de  Melure  1274   LI,   Melure  1311 
LI,   1312   LF,    1327  LS,  Meluere  1322  LI,  Mdaire  1332  LS,  Mellour  1428, 
1508  LF.     The  village  stands  on  the  slope  of  Mellor  Moor,  a  hill  of  733ft.  above 
sea-level,  and  with  remains  of  a  speculatory  fort  of  the  Roman  period.     In 
Scandinavians,  p.  116,  I  identify  the  name  with  W.  Moelfre,  a  name  of  common 
occurrence  meaning  "  bare  hill."    Moel-  (Welsh  mod  "  bald,  bare  ")  goes  back 


to  Brit.  *mel  from  Prim.  Celt.  *mailo- ;  cf.  Welsh  coet  (<  *kaito-)  and  Cheetham, 

p.  33.     The  second  el.  is  identical  with  Welsh  bre  "  hill." 

Arley  (on  Arley  Brook) :   Ereley  13  cent.  VHL  VI.  262,  Erley,  Arley  1558  DL, 

Arley  1600  RS  XII.     Cf.  Arley,  Sa.  (p.  45). 

Shorroek  Green:  de  Shorrok  13  cent.  WhC  111,  1324  LCR,  1332  LS,  Old  Shorock 

1411  VHL  VI.  262  ;   Shorrocke  greene  1614  Blackburn  R.    The  most  plausible 

etymology  seems  to  be  O.E.  Scorran  dc  "  the  oak  of  Scorra"    Cf .  (to)  Scorranstane 

(Glo.)  896  BCS  574. 

16.  Blackburn  (town) :  Blachebvrne  DB,  Blakeburn  1187  ff.  LPR,  1332  LS,  etc., 
Blakebourn,   Blakeburn  1311  IPM,   Blagburne  1590  Burghley,   Blegburn  1864 
Staton.    Blackburn  is  on  the  Blackwater,  formerly  Blackburn  (see  p.  66). 
Audley  (or  Haudley)  Hall  :   de  HaUeley  1311  LI,  de  Haldelegh  (Aldelegh)  1324 
LCR,  Haudley  1577  Saxton.     O.E.  hold  "  inch'ned ;  sloping,"  and  leah.    The 
place  is  on  sloping  ground  S.E.  of  Blackburn. 

Bastwell  (N.  of  Blackburn) :  de  Baddestwysel  13  cent.  WhC  101,  de  Battistwyssel 
1329  ib.  263,  de  Battestwysell  1384  DD.  The  first  el.  is  probably  O.E.  Bcedd  or 
Badd  pers.  n.,  found  in  Bceddeswellan  972  BCS  1282  (orig.)  and  in  names  such  as 
Badsey,  Wore.  (Baddeseia  709,  etc.,  Duignan),  Baddesley,  Warw.  (Bedeslei 
DB,  Duignan),  etc.  The  second  is  O.E.  twisla  "  fork  of  a  river." 
Beardwood  (N.W.  of  Blackburn) :  de  Berdewrthe  1258  LI,  Berd[e]worthe,  Berd- 
worthgrene  1296  Lacy  C,  Berdeswurthgrave,  Burdeswurthe  1305  ib.,  Berdeworthe 
1311  IPM,  Berdeworth,  -greve  1324  LI,  Berdwood  1609  Blackburn  R.  The  second 
el.  was  originally  worp  (p.  20),  but  has  been  replaced  by  wood.  The  first  may  be 
Bearda,  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  perhaps  found  in  Bardney,  Line.  (Bardenai  DB),  or 
rather  a  cognate  name* Beard.  Beardwood  is  on  the  N.  slope  of  Revidge  Hill. 
Oozebooth  (N.  of  Blackburn,  on  Revidge  Hill) :  de  Huluysbothis  1258  IPM, 
Ulvesboth  1296  Lacy  C,  1324  LI,  Ulnebothes  1311  IPM.  Clearly  "  the  booth(s) 
of  Ulf"',  Ulfr  is  a  well-known  O.N.  pers.  n.  There  are  Higher  and  Lower 
Oozebooth,  hence  the  plural. 

17.  Witton  (W.  of  and  partly  in  Blackburn) :  de  Witton  1246  LAR,  Witton  1311 
LI,  1327  LS,  Wytton  1332  LS.    Probably  W ittan  tun.     O.E.  Witta  is  a  common 
pers.  n. 

Coo  Hill  :   Coohyll1  1591  DL.    Cf.  Cowhill,  p.  73. 

Redlam  (in  a  bend  of  the  Blackwater) :  Reddlomme  1609,  Redlom  1615  Black- 
burn R.  Doubtful.  Perhaps  O.E.  hreod  "  reed  "  and  lum  "  pool  "  ;  cf.  p.  62. 

18.  Pleasington  (W.  of  Blackburn,  in  a  bend  of  the  Darwen) :    de  Plesigtuna 
1196  YCh  1524,  Plesinton  1208  LF,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  de  Plesington 
1241  Kirkstall  C,  1258,  1274  LI,  Plesington  1267  LAR,  1497  LF,  Plessington 
1296  LF,  Plesyngton  13  cent.  WhC  106.    No  doubt  O.E.  Plesinga  tun,  Plesvngas 
being  a  patronymic  from  Plesa,  a  name  found  in  Pleseley  (in  Plesington)  1284 
VHL  VI.  267. 

Feniscowles  (partly  in  Livesey) :  de  Feinycholes  1276  LAR  ;  cf.  Fennyshales, 
Fenniscoles  1307-9  VHL  VII.  288,  now  [fenisko'lz].  The  elements  of  the  name 
are  fenny  adj.  "  dirty,"  and  scoles  "  huts  "  (O.N.  skali).  Cf.  de  Fennycotes 

1  Coo-  represents  a  dial,  form  of  cmo  with  O.E.  u  preserved  as  [ir].  This  pronunciation 
is  now  rare  in  Lane,  dialects,  except  the  northern  ones.  I  have  heard  brow  (of  a  hill)  pro- 
nounced as  [bru*]  in  Ribchester. 


1284  LAR  (Briercliffe).  Feniscowles  is  on  the  Darwen,  near  its  confluence  with 
the  Roddlesworth.  The  name  may  refer  to  muddy  ground  on  the  banks  of  the 

19.  Livesey  (S.W.  of  Blackburn,  bounded  on  the  W.  by  Roddlesworth  river,  on 
the  N.  by  the  Darwen) :  Livesey >e  1227  LF,  Liveshey  1243  LI,  Liuesay,  Lyuesay, 
(de  Liveshay,  -hey)  1246  LAR,  de  Livesai  1257  LI,  de  Lyvisay  1258  LI,  Livysay 
1258  IPM,  Lyveseye  1296  LF,  Lyvesay  1353, 1356  LF,  Levesay  1311  IPM,  Leuesay 
1332  LS,  Leyuesey  1539  LF.     The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  O.E.  eg 
"  island,"   etc.     Livesay  Hall  is  in  a  low  situation  near  the  Darwen.    The  first 
el.  is  presumably  a  pers.  n.,  possibly  O.E.  Leof,  as  suggested  by  Wyld,  the  early 
i  being  due  to  a  W.  Midi,  development  of  O.E.  eo.    But  the  early  forms  point 
rather  to  a  base  with  short  i,  possibly  related  to  O.E.  hlifian  "  to  stand  out 
prominently,  to  tower." 

Ewood  (h.  on  the  Darwen) :  de  Eywode  (Euot)  1246  LAR,  del  Ewode  1332  LS, 
1341  IN.  No  doubt  O.E.  ea-wudu  "  wood  on  the  river."  Of.  the  same  name 
p.  91. 

Feniscliffe  or  Finiscliffe  (on  the  Darwen)  :  Fanisdiffe  1522  VHL  VI.  288,  1615 
Blackburn  R,  farnscliffe  1600  RS  XII.  The  material  does  not  allow  of  a  definite 
etymology.  The  place  stands  fairly  high  above  a  level  piece  of  land  along  the 

Whithalgh  :  de  Quithale  1246  LAR,  de  Whythagh,  de  Whythalgh  1324  LCR. 
"  White  haugh."  The  place  is  at  the  confluence  of  a  brook  with  the  Roddies- 

20.  Tockholes  (W.  of  Darwen  town,  bounded  on  the  W.  by  Roddlesworth  river) : 
de  Tocholis  c  1200  CO,  Tocholes  1246  LAR,  1497  LF,  Thocol,  de  Thochol  1246 
LAR,  Tokhol  1259  LAR,  de  Thocholes  1269  LI,  Tockholes  1311  LI.    The  township 
is  on  the  slopes  of  moorlands.    It  does  not  appear  what  hoi  exactly  means  in 
this  case,  presumably  hollow  or  valley.     It  is  doubtful  to  what  place  in  the 
township  the  name  was  first  applied.    The  first  el.  is  apparently  O.E.    Tocca 
pers.  n.,  found  in  Toccan  sceaga  755  BCS  181  (orig.),  and  Tockenham,  Wilts. 
( :   Tocheha'  DB),  cf.  Tockington,  Glo.  ( :   Tochintune  DB). 

Hollinhead :  del  Holynhevid  1324  LCR,  Le  Holynhed  1381  CR  353.  "  Holly  hill." 

21.  Lower  Darwen,  Over  Darwen  (townships  on  the  Darwen,  S.  of  Blackburn ; 
Darwen  town  is  in  Over  Darwen)  :   de  Derewent  1208  LF,  Derewent  1246  LAR, 
Netherderwent  1311  IPM,  1335  LF,  Netherderwend  1332  LS,  1339  LF  ;  in  superiori 
Derwent  13  cent.  WhC  124,  de  Superior  Derwent  1246  LAR,  Overderewente 
1276  ib.,  Ovrederwent  1311  IPM,  Ouerderwent  1322  LF,  Ouerderuend  1332  LS ; 
Darrun  1868  Staton.     The  places  were  named  after  the  river  Darwen. 
Blacksnape  :   Blakesnape  1614  Blackburn  R.     "  Black  pasture  "  ;   cf.  p.  17. 
Hoddlesden  (E.  of  Darwen,  on  Hoddlesden  Brook) :    Hoddesdene  1296,  1305 
Lacy  C,  1323  LI,  Hoddesden  1311  IPM,  1324  LI,  Hodelesdon  1324  AP,  Hodlesden 
1507  CCR  ;    Hoddisdenebrok  WhC  102.     The  I  is  intrusive,  the  first  el.  being 
O.E.  Hod  pers.  n.  (Searle),  found  in  Hodsden,  Herts. :  Hodesdone  DB. 

Sough  :  Swoughe  1623,  Swough  1625  Blackburn  R.  M.E.  sough,  "  a  boggy  or 
swampy  place,  a  small  pool ;  a  drain,  a  trench." 

22.  Eccleshffl  (E.  of  Darwen) :    Eccleshull,  de  Eccleshil  1246  LAR,  Eckeleshulle 
1276  LAR,  Ecleshull  1301  LF,  Ecckshill  1322  LI,  Ecclishull  1332  LS.    "  The 


church  hill,"  named  from  a  spur  of  the  moorland  range,  which  reaches  860ft. 
at  New  Sett  End  (VHL  VI.  278).  Eccles-  I  take  to  be  the  Brit,  word  *ecles, 
church  (see  Eccles,  p.  37).  Of  the  church  there  are  no  traces. 
Grimshaw  :  de  Grineshare  1265  LI,  de  Grymeschawe  1284  LAR.  As  there  is  a 
Grimshaw  also  in  Cliviger,  it  is  somewhat  difficult  to  believe  that  the  first  el. 
is  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Grimr.  Perhaps  it  is  O.E.  grlma  "  spectre."  If  so,  Grim- 
shaw means  "  the  haunted  grove." 

23.  Yate  and  Pickup  Bank  (E.  of  Darwen).     The  township  consists  of  hilly 

Yate  Bank  :   Yatebank  1588  CW  221 .     Yate  may  be  O.E.  geat  "  gate."     On  lank 
"  hill,"   see  p.  7.     In  Yate  Bank  an  elevation  of  over  1,000ft.  is  reached. 
Pickup  Bank  :  de  Pycoppe  1296  Lacy  C,  Pickope  Bank  1595  CW  97.     The  name 
consists  of  the  words  pike  "  a  sharp  point  "  (cf .  Pike  Law,  p.  68)  and  O.E.  copp 
"  summit."     Pickup  Bank  Height  or  Greet  Hill  reaches  over  1,100ft. 


This  large  parish,  the  eastern  part  of  the  hundred,  consists  of  45  townships 
south  of  the  Ribble,  and  one  (Bowland-with-Leagram)  north  of  it.  It  consists 
to  a  great  extent  of  fell  country,  especially  in  the  south  and  east ;  the  highest 
point,  Pendle  Hill,  is  in  the  northern  part.  Old  villages  and  homesteads  are 
mostly  in  the  valleys  of  the  larger  rivers,  the  Ribble  and  the  Calder,  with  their 
tributaries.  In  mediaeval  times  there  were  three  large  forest  districts  in  Whalley  : 
the  forests  of  Pendle,  Trawden  and  Rossendale.  In  these  were  several  vaccaries 
or  dairy-farms,  some  of  which  have  later  developed  into  villages  and  townships. 

The  parish  is  divided  into  chapelries.  This  division  is  on  the  whole  followed 
for  practical  reasons. 


1.  Whalley  (N.  of  the  Calder,  v.) :  Hwcdleage  798  Chr.  D,  Hweallage  798  Chr.  E, 
Wallei  DB,  Walalege  c  1130  Sim.  Durh.,  Walleya  1124,  1154  YCh  (1475,  1486), 
Wallega  1184fL  LPR,  Walelega  1211-13  ib.,  de  Walleye  1245  LI,  Wallay  (de 
Whalegh,  de  Whalley,  Whallay)  1246  LAR,  de  Qualley  1257  LI,  Walley  1258  LI, 
Whalleye  1284  ChR,  Whallay  1298  LF,  Whaulley  c  1540  Leland ;  now  [wo'li]. 
The  second  el.  is  O.E.  leak  "  lea  "  ;  the  old  name  of  the  church  was  Alba 
Ecclesia  suUus  Legh  Whit.  I.  66.  The  first  cannot  be  O.N.  hvdll  "  hill  "  ;  the 
name  is  undoubtedly  older  than  the  Scandinavian  time.  The  earliest  quotations 
point  to  a  monosyllabic  first  el.  O.E.  Tiwcel  or  the  like.  We  seem  to  have  the  same 
first  el.  in  Whaley,  Derby  (  :  Walley  1255  IPM,  Whalleye  1332,  etc.,  Walker), 
and  Whalton,  Nhb.  (:  Walton  1203,  etc.,  Whalton  1205,  etc.,  Mawer).  Whale, 
Wml.,  on  the  other  hand,  may  be  O.N.  hvdll,  as  here  d  does  not  become  o.  Per- 
haps we  may  assume  an  O.E.  word  *hwwl  "hill,"  related  to  O.N.  hvdll,  but  with 
different  gradation.  If  so,  Whalley  must  have  been  named  after  Whalley  Nab, 
the  most  prominent  feature  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Whalley  village.  This 
etymology  also  seems  to  suit  the  situation  of  Whaley,  Derb.,  which  is  situated 
at  a  spur  of  hill,  and  Whalton,  Nhb.,  near  which  are  two  small  hills. 
Clerk  Hill  (on  a  spur  of  Pendle) :  Clerkhill  1517  CS  XLIV.  55,  Clarkehill  1600 


RS  XII,  1604  CW  47.     On  this  name  Whit.  II.  14  may  be  compared.     The  old 

name  was  Snelleshowe  1296  Lacy  C,  -how  1311  IPM,  -hou  1305  Lacy  C,  13  cent 

WhC  277  ;  Snelsoe  1618  DL.     The  name  means  "  the  hill  of  Snell  "  (how  <  O.N. 

haugr  ;   Snell  very  likely  O.N.  Sniallr). 

Moreton  (on  the  Calder) :  de  Morton  1246  LAR,  Morton  1270,  1276  LAR,  1292 

PW.     O.E.  mor  "  moor  "   and  tun. 

Portfield  :  PortefeyU  1553  WhC  1176.     The  place  is  on  the  N.E.  side  of  a  Roman 

encampment.     First  el.  O.E.  port,  perhaps  in  the  sense  "  fort."     Cf.  p.  34. 

2.  Little  Mitton,  Henthorn,  and  Coldcoats  (W.  and  N.  of  Whalley). 

Little  Mitton  (on  the  Ribble) :  Little  Mitton  1242  LI,  1278  LAR,  1322  LI,  etc., 
Little  Mutton  1283  LF,  parua  Mitton  1296  WhC  205,  Mitton  1332  LS,  Parva 
Mitton  1341  IN,  etc.  O.E.  gemypu  "  junction  of  streams  "  and  tun.  In  Yks., 
opposite  to  Little  Mittou,  is  Great  Mitton,  situated  N.  of  the  junction  of  the 
Hodder  and  the  Ribble.  This  is  no  doubt  the  gemypu  that  gave  name  to  the 
two  Mittons. 

Henthorn  :  Hennethyrn  1258  IPM,  -thyme,  -theme  1276f.  LAR,  Hennethirn  1311 
IPM,  Henthern  1332  LS,  Henthorn  1327  LS,  1360  LF,  etc.  O.E.  henn,  here  used 
in  the  sense  "  female  of  wild  birds,"  and  O.E.  pyrne  "  thornbush,"  also  as  it 
seems  "  clump  of  thornbushes,"  later  exchanged  for  thorn. 
Coldcoats  (a  detached  portion.  E.  of  Standen  in  Pendleton)  :  Kaldecotes  1243  LI, 
de  Caldekotes  1246  LAR,  Caldecote  1322  LI ;  Coldecotes  1296  Lacy  C,  1332 
LS,  etc.  There  are  in  England  numerous  places  called  Coldcoats,  Caldecot, 
Caldecote,  Caldecott.  Taylor  (Words  and  Places)  may  be  right  in  his  conjecture 
that  this  name  has  the  same  meaning  as  Cold  Harbour,  so  that  it  meant  "  a 
place  of  shelter  from  the  weather  for  wayfarers."  Coldcoats  stands  fairly  high 
up  on  the  hillside. 

3.  Pendleton  (on  the  W.  slope  of  Pendle  Hill,  h.) :  Peniltune  DB,  Little  Penulton 
1242  LI,  Penelton  1246  LF,  Pennulton  1262  LAR,  Penhulton  1272  LAR,  Penhil- 
tone  1305  Lacy  C,  Penhillton  1311  IPM.     There  were  two  manors  :   Great  and 
Little  Pendleton  :    parva  Penilton  1246  LAR,  Penhilton  (Magna  cum  parua) 
1332  LS  ;   magna,  parua  Penhulton  1296  WhC  205,  Little  Penhilton  1311  IPM. 
On  Pendle  see  p.  68. 

Wymondhouses  (h.) :  de  Wymotehuses  1285  LAR,  Wymondeshouses  1296  Lacy  C, 
de  Wymundhouses  1303  FA,  de  Wymondhous  1324  LCR.  The  first  el.  is  O.E. 
Wigmund  pers.  n. 

Standen  :  Standen  1258  LI,  etc.,  Standene  1296,  1305  Lacy  C,  1311  IPM.  O.E. 
stdn  "  stone  "  and  denu  "  valley."  The  place  is  on  Pendleton  Brook,  called 
aqua  de  Standene  c  1200  Whit.  II.  100. 

4.  Wiswell  (N.E.  of  Whalley,  v.) :    Wisewell  1207  LF,  Wisewalle  1243  LI,  de 
Wysewell  (Viseual)  1246  LAR,  Wiseivall  1262  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Wysewall 
1278  LAR,  1296  WhC  205,  etc.,  Wysewell  1272  LAR,  Wysewalle  1322  LI.     There 
are  several  small  streams  in  the  district ;  there  is  also  a  well  called  Old  Molly's 
Well.     The  el.  well  may  in  this  case  mean  "  well  "  or  "brook."     The  first  el. 
may  be  O.E.  wise  "  sprout,  stalk."     Or  if  well  means  "  well,"  the  first  el.  might 
be  a  substantivized  adj.  wise  "the  wise  one,"  "  the  wise  woman."     Of  course, 
there  may  have  been  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  Wlsa  ;  cf.  O.H.G.  Wiso. 

Barrow  :   cf.  Barowdough,  Baroivedoghsik  1324  LI.     O.E.  bearo  "  grove." 



5.  Clitheroe  (on  the  Ribble,  town,  castle ;    head  of  the  honour  of  Clitheroe) : 
Cliderhou  1102  Ch,  1176  LPR,  1212, 1242  LI,  1246  LAR,  1255  LF,  1332  LS,  etc. ; 
Gliderhou  c  1200  Kirkstall  C,  Cliderow  1235  LF;  Cliderhow  1246  LAR,  Clyderhou 
1236  LI,  1276  LAR,  etc.,  -how  1258  IPM,  1276  LAR,  -howe  1276  LAR,  Clyderawe 
1293  LI ;   Clidrehou  1311   IPM ;   Gliderho  1155-8  (1230)  ChR,  Cliderho  1260 
LAR  ;  Glitherow  1124  YCh  1486,  Clilherou  1154  ib.  1475,  Clitherhou  c  1200  John 
of  Hexham  (Chron.  &  Mem.  75),  Clithero  1356  OR  332,  Clytherawe  1441  LF. 
Clitheroe  Castle  stands  on  a  limestone  crag. 

The  second  el.  is  apparently  O.N.  haugr  "  hill."  The  first  el.  in  the  earliest 
sources  is  regularly  Glider-,  Clither-.  We  have  to  start  from  an  O.E.  form  with 
i  ;  if  the  O.E.  form  had  had  y,  we  should  expect  to  find  occasional  spellings  with 
u.  A  definite  etymology  of  this  el.  cannot  be  given.  Possibly  we  may  compare 
dial,  clitter  "  a  pile  of  loose  stones  or  granite  debris  "  (Dev.,  EDD).  Such  an 
etymology  would  suit  the  case  perfectly.  The  crag  on  which  the  castle  stands 
consists  of  loose  limestone,  which  crumbles  off  to  a  great  extent.  The  same  el. 
is  possibly  found  in  Clither  Beck,  Yks. :  (quarry  of)  Clitherbec  1272  IPM.  The 
word  clitter  perhaps  belongs  to  a  root  of  onomatopoeic  origin  meaning  "  noise  " 
or  the  like.  If  so,  it  is  probably  cognate  with  O.E.  clidrenn  "  a  clatter,  noise," 
which  agrees  nearly  in  form  with  the  first  el.  of  Clitheroe. 
Horrocksford  :  Hurrocford  c  1330  VHL  VI.  366,  horrockforth  1600  RS.  XII.  235. 
Horrocksford  is  close  to  the  Ribble  ;  there  is  now  a  bridge  at  the  place.  First 
el.  apparently  dial,  hurrock  "  a  piled-up  heap  of  loose  stones  or  rubbish." 
Salthffl  (at  a  hill  of  385ft.) :  Salthille  1296  Lacy  C,  Salthill  1324  LI.  The  meaning 
of  Salt-  is  not  apparent. 

Syddles  (or  Siddows) :  Sydales  14  cent.  WhC  1107,  1127,  Sydalith  ib.  1128.  The 
place  is  near  the  Ribble.  The  name  means  "  the  broad  haughs  "  (O.E.  sld 
adj.  and  halh). 

6.  Mearley  (Great  and  Little,  on  the  W.  slope  of  Pendle  Hill) :  Merlay  1241  LF, 
1332  LS,  Merley  1243  LI,  de  Merlay  1246  LAR  ;  Magna  Merlay  1102,  c  1140  Ch  ; 
Great  Merlay  1296,  1305  LF,  Little  Merley  1243  LI,  Magna  et  parua  Merlaya 
1296  WhC  205,  Magna  Merlay  1303  FA.     I  suppose  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  gemcere 
"  boundary."    Pendle  Hill  may  have  formed  an  important  boundary  in  early 

7.  Worston   (on  the  N.W.  slope  of   Pendle   Hill,   h.) :    Wrtheston  1242  LI, 
Wrthiston  1258  LI,  Wurtheston  1285  LAR,  Worstone,  Worchestone  1296,  Wurche- 
stone  1305  Lacy  C,  Worston  1311  IPM,  1320  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.    The  hamlet  stands 
on  a  brook  not  far  from  a  small  but  steep  and  prominent  ridge,  Worsaw  Hill : 
Worsow  1529,  Worsaw  1538  CCR.    Worsaw  seems  to  contain  the  same  first  el. 
as  Worston  and  O.E.  hoh  or  O.N.  haugr  "  hill."     The  first  el.  may  be  O.E. 
worp  "  homestead,"   etc.,  but  the  regular  genitive  -s  is  remarkable.     No  O.E. 
pers.  n.  that  may  be  the  first  el.  is  recorded,  but  an  O.E.  W (e)orp  or  the  like  is 
very  probably  the  base  of  Worthing,1  Suss.  Cf .  O.H.G.  Werdo,  etc.  (Forstemann). 
Worsthorn  has  the  same  first  el.  as  Worston. 

1  The  forms  Mordinges,  Ordinges  DB  are  probably  corrupt  for  Wordinges  and  point  to 
an  O.E.  patronymic. 


Angram  Green:  Anggrome  1508  COR ;  de  Angrum  1324  LGR,  1332  LS.  Angram 
is  apparently  identical  with  Angram,  Yks.,  a  name  found  several  times  (Goodall, 
p.  59).  One  of  the  names  appears  as  Angrum  1185-95  YCh  996.  This  seems 
to  be  the  plural  of  O.E.  Danger  =  G.  anger  "  pasture,"  etc. 

8.  Chatburn  (N.  of  Clitheroe,  on  the  Ribble,  v.) :  Chatteburn  1242  LI,  1251  ChR, 
1258  IPM,  1332  LS,  etc.,  -burne  1292  PW,  Chatburn  1341  IN.  The  village  stands 
on  a  stream  that  falls  into  the  Ribble  ;  clearly  this  stream  was  called  Chatburn, 
the  second  member  being  O.E.  burna  "  burn."     The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  the 
O.E.  pers.  n.  Ceatta. 


9.  Downham  (N.  of  Pendle  Hill ;  v.) :  Dunun  1188, 1189  LPR,  Dunum  1194  ib., 
Dunhum  1243  LI,  de  Dunham  1246  LAR,  Dounum  1251  ChR,  1276  LAR,  Dounom 
1332  LS,  etc.,  Dunnum  1262  LAR.     O.E.  dunum  dat.  pi.  of  dun  "  hill,  moun- 
tain."   The  village  stands  on  the  slope  of  a  ridge  of  high  land.    Near  it  are  the 
hill  formerly  called  Greenhow  and  Worsaw  Hill. 

Gerna  (S.  of  Downham  Church) :  Grenehou  c  1300  WhC  320,  (pastura  de)  Grenhou 
(in  Downham)  1305  Lacy  C.    Gerna  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  small  round  green 
hill.    The  name  means  "  the  green  hill  "  (O.N.  haugr  "  hill  "). 
Ravensholme  (on  a  brook) :    Rauensholme  c  1250  WhC  319.    First  theme  the 
pers.  n.  Raven  <  O.N.  Hrafn. 

10.  Twiston  (N.E.  of  Downham,  on  the  Yks.  border) :    Tuisleton  1102  Ch, 
Twisleton  c  1140  ib.,  Twysilton  1242, 1243  LI,  etc.,  Tuysilton  1258  IPM,  Twyselton 
1332  LS,  etc.,  Twiselton  1327  LS,  1346  FA,  Tuystonl21Q  LAR,  Twiston  1504=1$. 
First  el.  O.E.  twisla  "  fork  of  a  river."    The  township  stands  between  Ings  Beck 
and  another  small  brook,  a  tributary  of  it ;  cf .  Tivisleton-brok  WhC  333. 

PADIHAM  CHAPELRY  (N.W.  of  Burnley) 

Heyhouses  and  Higham  (extra-parochial)  belonged  to  Pendle  Forest. 

11.  Read  (E.  of  Whalley,  between  Calder  and  Sabden  Brook) :  Revet  1202  LPR, 
Reved  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Revid  1258  LI,  de  Revid  1292  LI,  Reued  13  cent.  WhC 
1067  fi.  1311  IPM,  etc.,  Reuid  1332  LS.    The  village  stands  on  the  slope  and 
near  the  end  of  a  ridge  which  attains  860ft.  above  sea-level.    The  name  is  prob- 
ably an  old  compound  with  O.E.  heafod,  here  in  the  sense  "  a  hill,  ridge,"   as 
second  el.     The  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  roege  "  female  of  the  roe  "  ;   cf.  Roeburn 
infra.    This  hypothesis  receives  some  support  from  a  form  Rieheved  quoted  by 
Whit.  II.  35  from  a  deed  of  1418.    Cf.  the  name  cet  Rcegeheafde  in  the  O.E. 
translation  of  Bede.    The  early  loss  of  h  and  contraction  of  the  vowels  offers 
no  difficulties  ;   cf.,  e.g.,  Newsham  in  De. 

12.  Simonstone  (N.W.  of  Padiham,  v.) :    Simundestan  1292  IM,  Simondestan, 
Symondeston  1278  LAR,  Simundistan  1292  LI,  Simundeston  1246  LAR,  Simon- 
diston  1258  IPM,  de  Simondestone  1296  Lacy  C,  Symoundeston  1327  LS,  Simoun- 
deston  1332  LS.    "  The  stone  of  Sigemund." 

Huntroyde  :  Huntrode  1412  VHL  VI.  500,  Huntteroade  1598  Padiham  R.    O.E. 
hunta  "  hunter  "   or  *Hunta  pers.  n.  and  rod  "  clearing." 

13.  Padiham  (town,  on  the  Calder) :  Padiham  1251  ChR,  1258  LI,  1332  LS,  etc., 


Padingham  1292  PW,  1296,  1305  Lacy  C,  Padyham  1305  Lacy  C,  1311  LI, 
Padynngeham  1311  LI.     O.E.  Padinga  ham.     O.E.  Pada  is  a  known  name. 
High  Whitaker  :   Whitacr  1296  WhC'205,  Whytacre  1296  Lacy  C,  High  Whittaker 
1547  LF.     "  White  acre." 

14.  Hapton  (S.W.  of  Burnley,  S.  of  the  Calder ;   v.) :   Apton  1243  LI,  Hapton 
1246  LAR,  1311 IPM,  1332  LS,  etc.     I  take  the  name  to  go  back  to  O.E.  heaptun 
from  heap  "  heap  "  ;  cf.  Heap,  p.  61.     I  suppose  the  name  refers  to  the  hill  of 
575ft.  close  to  Hapton  Hall  and  the  site  of  Hapton  Castle,  or  to  Great  Hill 
(1,303ft.)  on  the  slope  of  which  stood  Hapton  Tower. 

Birtwisle  (old  h.,  now  lost ;  cf.  Birtwell  Close  in  S.E.  Huncoat,  O.M.  1846-51)  : 
Bridestwisel  1209  LF,  Briddistuysil  1258  IPM,  Bridhistuwisil  1292  LI,  Briddes- 
twysel  1296  WhC  206,  Brydestwysel  (de  Breretwysel)  1311  LI,  Brittwysell  1395  LF. 
The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  Bridd  pers.  n.  rather  than  bridd  "  bird  "  ;  the 
second  is  O.E.  twisla  "  junction  of  streams." 

Shuttleworth  (h.,  old  manor)  :  de  Schutlesworth,  de  Suttelesworth  1246  LAR, 
de  Shotelisworth  1277  LAR,  Shuttelesworth  1329  LI,  de  Shuttlesworth  1332  LS, 
Shotilworth  1482  LF.  Cf.  the  same  name  p.  63. 

15.  Dunnockshaw  (S.  of  Hapton ;    a  booth  in  Rossendale) :    de  Dunnockschae 
1296  Lacy  C,  de  Dunnokschaw  1323  LCR,  de  Dunnofahagh  1332  LS,  Donocshay 
1536  CS  103.    The  same  name  occurs  in  SLo.    This  renders  it  unlikely  that 
Dunnock-  is  an  unrecorded  O.E.  pers.  n.  Dunnoc.  It  is  probably  dunnock  "  hedge- 
sparrow  "   (1400,  etc.,  NED).     The  hedge-sparrow,  locally  in  Lane,  dunnock, 
is  "  a  resident  common  throughout  the  county  all  the  year  round  "   (VHL  I. 

16.  Heyhouses  (N.W.  of  Padiham) :    Heyhowses  1509,  Heyhouses  1518  CCR. 
Hey-  is  O.E.  heg"  hay  "  rather  than  hege  "  enclosure." 

Sabden  (town  ;  in  the  valley  of  Sabden  Brook)  :  Sapeden  c  1140  Ch,  1377  CCR, 
de  Sappeden  (Sapedon)  1377  CCR,  Shapedenhey,  -banke  1463-4  Whit.  I.  358, 
Sabdenbank  1504  CCR.  Sapley  (Hunts.)  is  derived  by  Skeat  from  O.E.  sappe 
11  spruce  fir  "  and  leah.  "  Spruce  valley  "  would  give  a  good  meaning. 

17.  Higham  with  West  Close  Booth  (N.  of  Padiham,  part  of  Pendle  Forest) : 
Higham  (v.,  on  the  slope  of  a  ridge) :  Hegham  1296  Lacy  C,  1324  LI  (vaccary), 
1325  LCR,  Highamboth,  Heghamclose  1464  Whit.  I.  358f.     O.E.  heah  "  high  " 
and  hamm  "  enclosure  ;   pasture,"   etc.,  or  possibly  ham  "  homestead." 

West  Close  :    Westecloos  1324  LI  (vaccary),  Westclos  1325  LCR,  le  Westclose 

1464  Whit.  I.  358.    Self-explaining. 

Copthurst  (at  a  hill) :   Coppethursthey  1464  Whit.  I.  358,  Copthyrst  Bowse  1539 

CCR.     "  Peaked  hill  "  ;  cf.  p.  51. 

Hunterholme  (on  the  Calder) :    Huntersholme  1507,  Hunterholme  1511  CCR. 

Hunter  is  presumably  a  family  name. 


This  chapelry  corresponds  to  a  large  part  of  the  old  forest  of  Pendle  E.  of 
Pendle  Hill.  The  modern  townships  are  all  old  booths  or  vaccaries.  The 
chapelry  was  named  from  Newchurch  in  Goldshaw  Booth. 

18.  Goldshaw  Booth  (on  the  S.E.  slope  of  Pendle  Hill) :  Goldianebothis  1324  LI, 


Goldiaue,  the  other  Goldiaue  1325  LCR,  Nethir-,  Overgoldshagh  1464  Whit.  I.  359, 
Over-,  Nethergouldeshey  1502  Whit.  I.  297.  The  name  is  remarkable.  The 
original  form  seems  to  have  been  Goldiaue-both(is),  Goldiaue  being  an  O.E. 
woman's  name  Goldgeofu  (cf.  Golgifu  in  Searle  ;  for  the  vowel  a  in  the  second 
member  cf.  Ediholes  p.  73).  Later  Goldiaue  was  apprehended  as  a  place-name 
(cf.  Wheatley  Booth,  etc.)  and  came  to  be  used  alone.  Goldiave  became  Gold- 
shaw  by  association  with  shaiv,  after  dj  had  become  [dz],  as  in  O.E.  micgern  < 
midgern  ;  of  course,  in  this  case  the  change  took  place  later.  The  O.E.  pers.  n. 
Goldgifu  seems  to  be  found  in  acra  Goldgive,  Goldgivewik  Reg.  Prioratus  beatae 
Mariae  Wigornensis  (Camderi  Soc.).  Another,  to  me  less  probable,  explanation 
is  that  the  vaccary  was  originally  called  Goldgeofu  "  the  gold-giver,"  i.e.,  "  the 
fat  pasture  "  or  the  like. 

The  Craggs  :   lez  Craggez  1464  Whit.  I.  359,  CraJcs  1518,  le  Craggs  1532  OCR. 
Crag  is  a  Celtic  loanword  (p.  9). 
19. 'Barley  with  Wheatley  Booths  (E.  of  Pendle  Hill). 

Barley  (the  W.  part ;  v.)  :  Bayrlegh  1324  LI,  Barelegh  1325  LCR,  Barleboth 
1462  Whit.  I.  298,  Barkybothe  1507,'  1513  CCR.  Evidently  "  barley  lea  "  (O.E. 
bere  "  barley  "). 

Wheatley  Booth  (the  N.  and  E.  part) :  Whitley  in  Haboothe  1502  Whit.  II.  297, 
le  Wheyteley  1516,  Witley  Bothe  1524,  Witley  1526  CCR.  "  Wheat  lea,"  Wheatley 
seems  to  have  been  originally  a  large  district,  to  judge  by  the  names  Wheatley 
Carr  infra  and  Wheatley  Lane  in  Old  Laund  Booth.  Of  some  interest  is  the 
name  of  a  ford  (situation  unknown),  which  apparently  contains  the  name 
Wheatley:  Whateleyford  1464  Whit.  I.  359,  Watlyngfore  1526,  Watlyngforthe 
1529,  Whyttleyford  al.  Wattelyngford  1539  CCR.  If  the  form  Watlyng-  is  old,  it 
would  seem  to  be  the  gen.  of  O.E.  Whcelleaingas  "  inhabitants  of  Wheatley." 
Firber  :  Firber  1546,  Firthbarre  1557  CCR.'  O.E.  furhp  "  frith  "  and  beorh 
"  hill." 

Haw  (or  Hay)  Booth  :  Hagh  1325  LCR,  Haghebothe  1324  LI,  Hawbothe  1507, 
Hayboth,  the  Haybothe  1513,  Hayghboth  1515  CCR.  First  el.  O.E.  haga  "  enclo- 
sure," etc. 

White  Hough  :  Whithalgh  1324  LI,  1325  LCR,  Whitehaweboth  1464  Whit.  I. 
359,  Whytalgh  1546  CCR'.  "  The  white  haugh."  The  place  is  on  Pendle  Water. 

20.  Roughlee  Booth  (Roughlee  v.  is  on  Pendle  Water,  N.W.  of  Nelson)  :  Rughley 
1296  Lacy  C,  Rughdegh  1324  LI,  Rughlegh  1325  LCR,  Over-,  Netherroghlegh 
1462  Whit.  I.  298,  le  Roughlee  1515  CCR  ;    now  [ruf  Ir,  6a  ruf  lr].     Literally 
"  the  rough  lea,"    The  ground  along  Pendle  Water  is  very  uneven,  with  many 
small  ridges  and  hillocks. 

Dimpenley  Clough  :   Dymppanleigh  1564  CCR,    Etymology  obscure. 
Thorneyholme  (h.  on  Pendle  Water) :    Thorneholme  1535,  1537  CCR.     "  The 
thorny  water-meadow." 

21.  Wheatley  Carr  Booth  (on  Pendle  Water,  N.  of  Nelson) :    Wheteleycam  1464 
Whit.  I.  359,  Wheitley  Carr  1539  CCR.     No  doubt  named  from  Wheatley  supra. 

22.  Old  Laund  Booth  (on  Pendle  Water,  N.W.  of  Nelson) :    OJddand  1462 
Whit.  I.  298,  Olde  Lande  1504  CCR.    "  The  old  laund,"  i.e.,  "  glade,  pasture  " 
(Fr.  lande). 

Brownbrinks  (on  a  steep  slope)  :    BronebreJce  1523,   Brownebrinke  Hey  1545, 


Browne  Brynke  Hey  1552  OCR.  "  Brown  slope."  Brink  <  O.N.  brekka  (< 
*brinka)  or  a  corresponding  O.Dan,  word. 

Fence  (v.) :  del  Fence  1425,  the  Fence  1515  OCR.  No  doubt  simply  fence  "  en- 


A  large  district  on  both  sides  of  the  upper  Calder.  New  Laund  Booth, 
Filly  Close  and  Reedley  Hallows  (extra-par.)  are  parts  of  the  old  Pendle  Forest. 

23.  Reedley  Hallows,  Filly  Close  and  New  Laund  Booth  (N.W.  of  Burnley,  on  the 
Calder) : 

Reedley  Hallows  :  Redelegh  Halowez  1464  Whit.  I.  359,  Rydelehalghs  1464  ib.  I. 
298,  Redehalowes  1513,  Redyhalus  1564  CCR.  The  "  haughs "  or  "water- 
meadows  of  Reedley,"  named  from  Reedley  (O.E.  hreod-leah}  S.  of  the  Calder. 
The  ground  is  low  and  level  on  both  sides  of  the  river. 

Filly  Close  (N.  of  the  Calder) :  Filicloos  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  ffyliclos  1325  LCR, 
Filiclos  1333  OR.  Filly  is  Q.N.fylja  ;  close  is  an  O.F.  word. 
Moor  Isles  (or  Moorhiles)  :  Mawre  Hillez  1517  CS  XLIV.  53,  Mawre  Hyles 
1541  CCR,  Mawer  Hyles  1554  DL,  Moorehiles  1608  Burnley  R.  "  Ant-hills," 
the  first  el.  being  O.N.  maurr  "  ant,"  the  second  hile1 "  cluster,"  also  in  pisamor 
hile  "  ant-hill  "  (in  Lane.  dial.). 

New  Laund  Booth  :  Newland  1462  Whit.  I.  298,  Newlaund  1507  CCR.  "  The 
new  laund  "  ;  cf.  Old  Laund  Booth. 

24.  Ightenhffl   Park   (N.W.    of   Burnley):     Ightenhill   1242,    1311    LI,    ete., 
Hyghtenhutt  1251  ChR,  Hucnhul  1258  IPM,  Icienhille,  Ichtenhille  1296  Lacy  C, 
Higtonhull  1296  WhC  206,  Itinhill,  Hitenhill,  Histenhell  1336  Whit.  I.  309, 
(park  of)  Ightenelle  1345  OR ;  now  [aitn(h)il].    The  place  was  named  from  the 
hill  on  which  the  old  manor-house  stood  (530ft.),  now  apparently  called  Park 
Hill.    I  identify  Ighten-  with  Welsh  eithin  "  furze  "  (=  O.Bret,  ethin  "  rusci," 
O.Ir.  aitenn  "  furze,"  Gael,  aitionn  "  juniper  ")  from  *ektm  (  <  *ak-tin).  Brit. 
ektin  would  no  doubt  become   O.E.   or  M.E.   Ihten,  just  as  heht   >  hight. 
Very  likely  the  Brit,  name  of  the  hill  was  something  like  O.W.  ros  ir  eithin  "  the 
gorse  moor  "   LL  221,  and  the  name  was  adopted  by  the  Anglians  as  Ehtin, 
to  which  hyll  was  added.    The  same  word  (with  loss  of  final  -n)  perhaps  is  the 
first  el.  of  Ightfield,  Sal.  (Istefelt  DB)  and  Ightham  Ke.  (Eghteham  1316  FA). 
Ightham  is  on  Oldberry  Hill,  the  highest  point  of  Ightham  Common. 

25.  Habergham  Eaves  (S.W.  of  Burnley) :  Habringham  1242  LI,  1305  Lacy  C, 
etc.,  de  Habrigham  1258  LI,  Habring(g)eham  1296  Lacy  C,  Habrinchm  1296 
WhC  206,    Habrincham  1324  LI,  1358*  Whit.  II.  179,  de  Habercham  1269  LI, 
de  Habryngham,  de  Abricham  1407  f.  CR,  Habrygham  1425  CCR,  Haberjambe 
1527  LP  I.  144  (pers.  n.),  Haberjam  1551  LF  ;  Abryngham  Eves  1510,  Haberiam 
Eives  1561  CCR,  Haberchamevys  1539  DL.    I  suppose  Habergham  was  named 
from  the  most  prominent  physical  feature  of  the  township,  viz.,  Horelaw,  a 
hill  of  1,153ft.,  on  the  slope  of  which  the  old  hall  stands.     I  conjecture  that 
this  was  called  O.E.  Heabeorh  ;    cf.  O.E.  heahbeorh  "  mountain."    Habercham 

1  Cf  dd  Hyles  1332,  del  Mourehyles  1366  LS  (Bickerstaffe),  "  the  highway  between  le  hyles 
and  Howkeshagh  "  1509  CCR  (Tottington),  Netle  Hyles  1549  ib.  (Trawden).  Possibly  hile 
goes  back  to  an  O.E.  *hygel  "  bill,"  corresponding  to  G.  hugel. 


1269  may  be  simply  Heabeorh-hdm.  Shortening  of  ea  to  ea  (whence  a)  would 
easily  take  place  in  such  a  form.  The  usual  early  form  I  take  to  represent 
O.E.  Heabeorginga  ham,  "  the  ham  of  the  dwellers  by  Heabeorh."  This  latter 
would  seem  to  have  been  the  common  form,  but  association  with  Heabeorh 
was  always  possible,  so  long  as  this  name  was  in  use.  However,  a  derivative  of 
O.E.  Heahburh  pers.  n.  or  even  Heaburh  "  high  fort  "  is  also  possible  :  O.E. 
Heaburginga  ham.  The  addition  Eaves  seems  to  mean  "  edge  of  a  hill "  ;  cf. 
Oakeneaves  (Okynheveys  1509,  Okeneves  1524  OCR),  the  name  of  a  place  c  900ft. 
above  sea-level  on  the  slope  of  Horelaw.f 

Clifton  (h. ;  on  the  slope  of  Park  Hill) :  ?  de  Clifton  1377,  Clifton  1495  CCR. 
"  Cliff  tun." 

Cronkshaw  :  del  Cronsschaghe  1305  Lacy  C,  de  Cronkeschaw  1324  LCR,  de 
Crounkeschawe  WhC  1143,  Cronkshay  1507  CCR.  O.E.  cranuc  (cronuc)  "  crane  " 
and  sliaw. 

Gannow  :  Garihow  1526  CCR.    Etymology  obscure. 

Gawthorpe  Hall  :  de  Gouthorp'  1256  (copy  of  1439)  DD,  de  Goukethorp  1324  LI 
(p.  191),  Gawthrop  1472  Lindkvist,  p.  141.     O.N.  Gaukr  pers.  n.  and  porp. 
Pickup  :  Picoppe,  Picop  1425  CCR ;   cf.  p.  76. 

26.  Burnley  (town) :  Brunlaia  1124  YCh  1486,  Brunleya  1155-8  (1230)  ChR, 
Brunley  1154  YCh  (1475),  1251  ChR,  1296  Lacy  C,  etc.,  Bronley  1258 IPM,  Brumley 
1292  PW,  1341  IN,  Brumleye  1294  ChR,  Brunlay  1324  LI,  1332  LS,  Bruneley 
1311  IPM,  Burneley  al.  Brunley  1533  DL,  Burneley  1577  Harr.  Burnley  stands 
on  the  Brun,  which  joins  the  Calder  N.  of  Burnley  town.  There  are  two  (or  even 
three)  alternative  explanations,  between  which  it  is  not  easy  to  choose.  The 
name  Brun  may  be  O.E.  burna  "  stream  "  (cf.  Brunne,  earlier  form  of  Bourne, 
Line.).  The  early  forms  seem  to  favour  this  explanation.  Or  the  stream  may 
have  had  a  name  derived  from  the  adj.  brun  "  brown."  The  vowel  would  easily 
be  shortened  in  the  name  Burnley,  and  Bnin  may  be  a  back-formation.  In 
favour  of  this  may  be  adduced  Brownside,  the  name  of  a  place  on  the  Brun : 
Brownes  Wode,  Brownesyd  1542  CCR.  Lastly,  Burnley  may  mean  "  the  brown 
lea,"  the  river-name  being  a  back-formation.  Brom-  is  probably  due  to  asso- 
ciation with  O.E.  brom,  but  assimilation  to  the  initial  B-  (cf.  O.E.  plume  <  Lat. 
prunus)  may  have  contributed  to  the  change. 

Brunshaw  :   Brunschaghe  1296  Lacy  C,  Brounshagh  1311  LI.    W.  of  the  Brun. 
This  may  be  the  "  brown  shaw  "  or  the  "  shaw  on  the  Brun." 
Fulledge  :   Fullach  1510,  Fulege  1523,  Fulhege  1525  CCR.     The  place  is  on  the 
Calder.    The  name  means  "  foul  (i.e.,  dirty)  letch  "   (cf.  p.  15).    An  identical 
name  is  Fulelache  1211-32  Kirkstall  C  (Bowland,  Yks.). 

Heysandforth  (on  the  Brun) :  Feasandford  1496  LF,  Fezandforthe  1596  Burnley 
R,  Fezandford  1608  CW  88  ;  Haysondforth  1500  DL,  Hezandforth  1549  CCR. 
Apparently  "  pheasant  ford."  The  change  from  F-  to  H-  may  be  due  to  dis- 

Royle  (on  the  Calder,  by  a  small  hill) :  Rohille  1296  Lacy  C,  Roel  1324  LI,  1325 
LCR,  Le  Roile  Hill  1558,  the  Rook  Hill  1560,  Roitt  Hill  1564  CCR.  "  Roe  hill." 
Saxifield  (on  the  S.  slope  of  Marsden  Height) :  Saxifeldyk  1324  AP,  Saxxefeld 
1425,  Saxyfeld  1507,  Saxfeld  1510  CCR,  Saxesfeld  1549  DL.  First  el.  possibly 
O.E.  Seaxa  or  O.N.  Saxi  pers.  n. 


Towneley  Park  (S.  of  Burnley)  :  Tunleia  c  1200  Whit.  II.  189,  Tunley  1243  LI, 
Touneley  1296  Lacy  C,  Thunleye  1303  FA,  Tounley  1322  LI,  Tounlay  1346  FA. 
Probably  "  the  lea  belonging  to  the  town,"  i.e.,  Burnley. 

27.  Cliviger   (S.E.   of   Burnley):     Clivercher   1196    LF,   Cliueschre,    Cliuecher, 
Cliuercher  12,  13  cent.  Kirkstall  C,  Clyuacher,  de  Clyuakcr  1246  LAR,  Clyvichir 
1258  IPM,  Clyuach&r  1284  LAR,  1296  WhC  206,  1327  LI,  Clyvacher  1294  ChR, 
1341  IN,  Clivacher  1296  Lacy  C,  Clyvachre  1311  IPM,  Cliuach'  1332  LS ;  Clevachre 
1305  Lacy  C,  Cleveger  1551  LF  ;   Clyfacre  1311  LI  (II.  32),  Clinacres,  CUvacres 
1324  AP  ;    [tlivit/or,  tlividzar]  Ellis  p.  350.     Simply,  "  clifi  acre."    O.E.  cecer 
here  appears  exceptionally  with  palatalization  ;    cf.  Alsager,  Ches.  (Alsacher 
1317  AD  VI.,  Alsachere  1322  ib.),  and  atchern,  etc.,  from  O.E.  (Bcern  in  NED 
and  EDD.     Practically  all  the  land  of  the  township  is  on  a  steep  slope  E.  of 
the  Calder.    On  the  palatalization  in  Cliviger,  etc.,  see  Anglia-Beiblatt  32,  p.  155ff. 
Barcroft  (near  the  Calder)  :    de  7?ercro/M296,  de  Bercroftes  1305  Lacy  C.  O.E. 
bere  "  barley  "   and  croft. 

Dineley  (W.  of  the  Calder)  :    de  Dynley  1296  Lacy  C,  de  Dynlay  1305  ib.,  de 

Dynleye  1323  LF,  de  Dynelay  1311  LI,  1340,  1342  LF.    Lands  called  Stypdyne 

in  Cliviger  are  mentioned  1551  VHL  VI.  486.     Does  this  contain  O.E.  dyne  in 

ofdyne  "  slope  "  ?     The  place  is  on  a  steep  slope.     Dineley  Knoll  reaches  c  1,175ft. 

Grimshaw  :  de  Grymeschagh  1311  LI ;  cf.  p.  76. 

Helly  Platt  (E.  of  the  Calder,  800ft.  above  sea-level,  Lower  Helly  Platt  c  625ft. 

above  sea-level)  :  de  Heley  1311  LI,  Hele  place  1536  CS  103,  Heat-hies  PUtte, 

Helyplatts  1590  DL.     "  High  lea."    Plait  is  no  doubt  plat  "  a  piece  of  ground  "  ; 

cf.  p.  31. 

Holme  (v.)  :  de  Holme  1305  Lacy  C,  del  Holm  1311  LI,  le  Holme  1380  Whit.  II. 

203,  Holme  1577  Harr.     O.N.  holmr.     The  vil.  is  on  a  piece  of  low  level  land 

along  the  Calder. 

Meer  Clough  (h.) :  del  Meerclogh  1311  LI.     "  Boundary  clough  "   (O.E.  gemcere 

"  boundary  ").     The  clough  must  have  been  an  old  boundary. 

Ormerod  :   de  Ormerode  1305  Lacy  C,  1311  LI.     O.N.  Ormr  or  Ormarr  pers.  n. 

and  O.E.  rod  "  clearing." 

Thieveley  (W.  of  the  Calder  on  a  steep  slope)  :    Thaueley  1301  VHL  VI.  485, 

Theveley}Q20  CW  207.    First  el.  M.E.  theve  "  brushwood  "  or  the  like,  found  in 

O.E.  pefanporn,  etc. ;  cf.  Thevethornes  LI  II.  196  (meadow  Bl.).     Or  else  dial. 

theave  (late  M.E.  theyve)  "a  young  ewe"  (NED,  EDD). 

28.  Worsthorne  w.  Hurstwood  (E.  of  Burnley). 

Worsthorne  (v.)  :   Worthesthorn,  Wrdestorn  1202  LF,  de  Wurthesthorn  1246  LAR, 

Wrthisthorm  1258  IPM,  de  Worthesthorne  1285  LAR,  Worstorn  1296  WhC  206, 

Worthestom  1332  LS,  Worsthorne  1496  LF ;    now  [wa-stho-n].     The  second  el. 

is  O.E.  porn  "  thornbush  "  ;  the  first  is  the  same  as  that  of  Worston,  p.  78. 

Hurstwood  (h.) :   de  Hurstwode  1285  LAR,  Hirstwode  1370  LF,  Hirstewod  1397 

LF.     O.E.  nyrst  and  wudu  "  wood."    Hurstwood  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  hill ; 

so  hurst  may  here  mean  "  hill,  hillock." 

Bottin  (in  Hell  Clough)  :   de  Bottedene  1292  Whit.  II.  230.     First  el.  apparently 

an  O.E.  pers.  n.  Botta  as  in  Botley,  Hants.  (Botelie  DB,  Botteleye  1316  FA).    Cf. 

Skeat,  Trans.  Phil.  Soc.  1907-10,  p.  65. 

High  Halstead  :   de  Halstedes  1292  Whit.  II.  230,  de  Hallestedes  1330  LF,  del 


Hallestudes  1332  LS,  Heigh  Hoisted  1544  COR.     The  place  stands  on  a  slope, 

some  750ft.  above  sea-level.     O.E.  hall-stede  "  place  (site)  of  a  hall."     Hall 

may  have  the  same  meaning  as  in  New  Hall  p.  64. 

Rowley  (on  the  Bran)  :  de  Roulay  1324  LI,  Rowley  1600  RS  XII.     Now  [ro'li]. 

Possibly  O.E.  raw  "  row,  street,"    and  leak.     Or  the  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  ruh 

"  rough."     If  so,  the  modern  pronunciation  is  due  to  the  spelling. 

29.  Briercliffe  with  Extwistle  (N.E.  of  Burnley). 

Briercliffe  :    Brerecleve  a  1193  Whit.  II.  221,  de  Brereclive  1258  LI,  Brerediue, 

-dyf  1285  LAR,  Brereclive  1296  Lacy  C,  Brerecliffe  1311  IPM,  etc.,  Brerclif 

1332  LS.    O.E.  brer  "  briar  "  and  clif.    The  township  consists  of  two  ridges,  on 

the  northern  one  of  which  is  Briercliffe. 

Burwains  :  Burwens  1541,  Burwyns  1559  OCR  ;  now  [bo'winz,  ba'winz].     "  The 

borran  or  cairn."     Borran  is  common  in  place-names  in  N.W.  England.     Cf. 

burganes  lapidum  c  1200  YCh  1700,  Cringelborthan,  Cringelborhanes,  -broghan 

13  cent.  LC  177  ff.  (Bolton-le-Sands ;  Cringel-  is  O.N.  kringla  "  circle  "),  Borgan 

FC  IT.  152,  Borganes1  ib.  137,  Griseburghanes  13  cent.  OWNS  XX.  67  (Wml.). 

The  word  is  apparently  cognate  with  O.E.  byrgan  "  to  bury."     Cf.  NED  s.v. 

borwen,  burian. 

Cockden  :   Cockden  1559  OCR.     Probably  O.E.  cocc  "  cock  "  and  denu. 

Haggate  (v.)  :    HacJcgate  1 640  Burnley  R  ;    now  [hag  ge't].     Cf .  the  Hackgait 

1539  CCR  (Goldshaw).     O.E.  hcec-geat ;    hcec  being  O.E.  hc&cc  "  wicket  "    etc. 

(>•  mod.  hatch,  hack,  heck).     Hatehgate  in  the  sense  "  a  wicket "    is  given  in 

NED,  in  the  sense  "  gate  at  the  junction  of  manors  or  parishes  "  in  EDD. 

Higher  Ridihalgh  :   de  Redihalgh  1324  LCR,  Redehalgh  1509,  Heigh  Redehalgh 

1534  CCR.     "  The  reedy  haugh,  or  water-meadow."     the  place  is  near  Thursden 


Thursden  :   Thirsedeneheved  1324  AP,  Thirsden  1515  CCR.    O.E.  pyrs  "  giant  " 

and  denu  "  valley."     The  place  is  on  Thursden  Brook. 

Walshaw  (on  Walshaw  Clough) :  de  Wolleshagh  1311  LI,  de  Walleshagh  1332  LS, 

de  Walschagh  1333  WhC  995.     O.E.  wcella  "  brook,"  and  scaga  "  shaw." 

Extwistle  (the  S.  part) :  Extwysle  a  1193  Whit.  II.  226,  Extwisil  1243  LI,  Extwysel 

1303  FA,  Extwesil  1322  LI,  Extwisell  1332  LS,  1346  FA,  etc.    Extwistle  was 

probably  named  from  the  junction  (O.E.  twisla)  of  the  Swinden  and  the  Don. 

The  first  el.  is  perhaps  O.E.  exen  pi.  of  oxa  "  ox."    Ex-  is  not  uncommon  for  Ox- 

in  early  forms  of  names,  but  is  no  doubt  frequently  a  corrupt  spelling.    Exx. 

Excum  (Oxcombe,  Line.)  HR  I.  302,  Execroft  (Oxcroft,  Camb.)  1346  FA,  Exe- 

slededale  (usually  Oxe-)  Percy  C  136.    Early  spellings  do  not  favour  derivation 

from  a  pers.  n.  O.E.  Ecci  (Searle),  even  if  they  do  not  render  it  impossible. 

1  The  form  Borganes  (Burwens,  etc.)  does  not  seem  to  be  plural.  I  am  inclined  to  believe 
that  M.E.  borghanes,  burghanes  is  a  derivative  with  a  suffix  -asno  from  the  old  subst.  burg- 
(prob.  preserved  in  Engl.  burrow  ;  cf.  p.  8)  which  seems  to  be  the  base  of  O.E.  byrgan  "  to 
bury."  This  suffix  is  found  in  Goth,  hlaiwasnos,  "  tomb  "  (cf.  O.E.  hldw,  hlcew,  "  mound  "), 
arhwazna  "  arrow,"  O.H.G.  alansa  "  awl,"  segansa  "  scythe,"  O.E.  cefesn  "  pasturage," 
lyfesn  "  charm  "  (cf.  Kluge,  Stammbildungslehre,  §  86).  If  this  is  right,  we  must  assume  a 
Prim.  Engl.  *bur$cesn,  *bori,cesn,  whose  ce  was  preserved  before  the  group  of  consonants,  and 
in  which  -sn  became  -ns  by  metathesis.  Cf.  O.H.G.  alansa,  etc.,  and  O.E.  -els  (in  byrgels, 
etc.)  <  -isL  With  borghanes  instead  of  borghans  we  may  compare  M.E.  birieles  <  O.E.  byrgels. 

Kempesbirines  c  1200  CC  (Winstanley)  "  the  warrior's  tomb,"  apparently  has  as  second 
el.  O.E.  byrigness  "  burial,"  here  concrete  "  burial-place." 



The  N.E.  part  of  the  hundred. 

30.  Marsden  (E.  of  the  Calder,  on  both  sides  of  Walverden  Brook,  now 
absorbed  in  Nelson1  and  Brierfield  towns)  :  Merkesden  1195ff.  LPR,  Merkelesden 
(de  Marchesden,  MarcMene)  1246  LAR,  Merdisden,  de  Merchisden  1258  LI, 
Merdesden  1327,  1332  LS,  Marclesden  1363  OR.  There  are  two  parts  :  Great 
and  Little  Marsden:  in  Majori  Merkedenna  1180-93  YCh  1514,  Merdesden 
major,  Little  Merkelstene  1242  LI,  Gret  Merdesden,  Little  Merlesden  1251  ChR, 
Merklesden,  parua  Merdesden  1296  WhC  206,  Merdesdene,  Parva  Merdesden 
1296  Lacy  C,  Great  Mersden  1458  LF,  Little  Mersden  1496  LF.  Now  [ma-zdin]. 
The  first  theme  of  the  name  is  probably  O.E.  mercels  "  mark ;  mark  to  shoot 
at,  marked  spot."  Whether  mercels  here  means  "  a  monument,"  "  a  boundary 
mark,"  or  "  a  place  for  practising  marksmanship,"  or  something  else,  cannot, 
so  far  as  I  can  see,  be  determined.  O.E.  mercels  had  palatal  c,  and  early  forms 
like  Marchesdene  perhaps  show  the  palatal.  But  the  form  mercies  would  arise 
by  metathesis,  where  c  remained  a  stop ;  cf .  M.E.  rekles,  rekels,  recheles  "  incense  " 
<  O.E.  recels.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  denu  "  valley."  The  valley  of  Walverden 
Brook  is  very  deep  ;  this  was  clearly  called  Mercelsdenu. 

Catlow  (on  the  slope  of  a  hill  c  940ft.  high) :  de  Callow  1311  LI,  de  Catlowe  1332 
LS,  Catlow  1478  OCR ;  now  [katla].  O.E.  catt  "  cat,"  here  no  doubt  "  wild 
cat,"  and  hldw  "  hill." 

Clover  Hill  (on  Walverden  Water) :  Claverhole  1516,  Clauerholle  1527  OCR. 
"  Clover  hollow." 

Grindlestonehurst  :  Grendilstonhirst  1425,  Gryndillstonharst  1496  CCR.  Grindle- 
stone  is  a  common  north  country  (also  Lane.)  word  for  "  grindstone."  The 
name  means  "  hill  where  grindstones  were  got." 

Hendon  (on  Hendon  Brook) :  de  Henden  1425  CCR.  O.E.  henn  "  hen  "  and 

Linedred  :  Lyverode  (for  Lyne-)  1464  Whit.  I.  358,  Lynerode  1540  CCR,  Lyneroid 
1602  Burnley  R.  Evidently  "flax  clearing  "  (O.E.  Im  "  flax  "  and  rod  p.  16). 
Lomeshay  (on  Pendle  Water) :  Lomeshagh  1443  CCR,  1464  Whit.  1. 358,  Lomeshaw 
1496,  Lagher  Lomeshey  1533,  Lomyshey  1541  CCR  ;  now  [lomiji].  Perhaps 
"  loamy  shaw." 

Scholefield  :  de  Scolefeld  1324  LCR,  1425  CCR,  Heigh  Scole  Feild  1540  ib. ;  now 
[sko-fi-ld].  First  el.  O.N.  skali  "  hut." 

Shelfleld  :   Sholfolt  1510,  Shelefeild  1550  CCR.    The  place  is  on  the  slope  of  a 
pointed  hill  called  Shelfield.     The  name  may  have  as  first  el.  O.E.  scelf,  scylf 
"  peak  "  ;  the  second  seems  to  be  O.E./eW.    But  as  the  forms  are  late  the  second 
el.  may  be  O.E.  hyll ;  cf.  Shelfield,  Warw.  «  Schelfhull  1322). 
Swindell  (at  Swinden  Clough) :  Swyndene  1562  CCR.    "  Swine  valley." 
Walverden  (on  Walverden  Water) :    Walfredum  1296  Lacy  C,  Walfreden  1311 
IPM,  Woolfarden  1478,   Walferden  1522  CCR.     The  regular  /  in  early  forms 
indicates  that  the  first  el.  is  a  compound,  perhaps  O.E.  wcella  "  stream  "   and 
fyrhfi"  frith." 

1  Named  from  an  inn,  The  Lord  Nelson  Inn.     Brierfield  must  have  been  one  of  the 
Marsden  town-fields. 


WhackersaU  (on  Colne  Water) :  de  Wakerehal,  de  Wakershal  1246  LAR,  de 
Wakerishale  1324  LCR,  Wakersale  1356  CR  332.  O.E.  W cecer  pers.  n.  and  halh 
"  haugh." 

31.  Barrowford  Booth  (N.  of  Nelson,  v.) :  del  Barouforde  1296  Lacy  G,  Barouford 
(vaccary)  1324  LI,  1325  LCR,  Over-,  Nethirbarowforth  1464  Whit.  1. 359.    Barrow- 
ford  vil.  is  on  Pendle  Water.    The  name  has  as  its  first  el.  O.E.  bearo  "  grove." 
There  are  two  old  villages,  Higherford  and  Lowerford,  whose  names  seem  to 
refer  to  two  different  fords. 

Blackay  :   Blakay  1296  Lacy  C,  1324  LI,  etc.,  Blackay  1305  Lacy  C,  Blakehey 

1464  Whit.  I.  358.     "  The  black  hey." 

Blacko  (v.) :   Blackowe  1514  COR,  Blackow  1575  GW  22.    Named  from  Blacko 

Hill,  p.  Q7. 

Fulshaw  :   Fulshagh  1324  LI.    O.E./wZ  "  foul,  rotten  "  and  scaga  "  shaw." 

Rishton  Thorns  :  Russhetonthornes  1507,  Ryssheton  Thornes  1510  CCR.  Rishton 

is  possibly  a  family  name. 

32.  Colne  (on  Colne  Water ;  town) :  Calna  1124,  1154  YCh  (1475,  1486),  1155-8 
(1230)  ChR,  Kaun  1242  LI,  de  Calne  1246  LAR,  1253  LAR,  de  Cain  1255  LAR  ; 
Caune  1251  ChR,  1305  Lacy  C,  Kaune  1296  Lacy  C  ;  Colne  1296,  1305  Lacy  C, 
1311  IPM,  1332  LS,  etc.;  now  [ko-n].    The  old  form  was  obviously  Calne', 
Caune  is  a  Norman  spelling,  and  Colne  is  due  to  a  change  al  >  61.    The  name  is 
probably  an  old  river  name.     Cf.  aqua  de  Colne  1464  Whit.  I.  359,  Colne  Eey 
1538  CCR.    Colne  (Calne  1170-85  YCh  1692)  is  the  name  of  a  river  in  S.W.  Yks. 
Calne  (Wilts.),  which  appears  as  Calne  955,  etc.  (Ekblom),  stands  on  a  stream. 
The  etymology  of  the  river-name  must  be  left  open  ;  it  is  no  doubt  British. 
Alkincoats  :    Altenecote   1201  LPR,  1242  LI,  -s  1204  LPR,  Altanecotes  1203 
LPR,  de  Altancotes  1303  FA ;    Alcancotes  1296  WhC  206,  de  Alcancotes  1296 
Lacy  C,  de  Alkencotes  (-kotes)  1311  LI,  Altencotes  (surname)  1332  LS.    The  place 
stands  on  a  ridge  ;   cf.  Alkencotegge  1528  CCR.    The  form  with  t  is  the  earlier. 
No  definite  etymology  of  the  name  can  be  given.    Alt-  recalls  Welsh  allt  "  a 
hill-side  "   (cf.  Alt  p.  29)  and  may  very  well  be  derived  from  that  Brit.  word. 
But  the  rest  of  the  first  el.  is  obscure.    A  diminutive  of  alU  (alltan  "  little  cliff  ") 
is  thinkable.     On  coats  see  p.  9. 

Ayneslack  or  Hainslack  (on  the  Yks.  border,  near  a  stream) :  Haynslak,  -e  1425 

CCR.     Second  el.  slack  "  valley  "    (from  O.N.  slakki).     The  first  is  possibly 

O.Scand.  Tiegn  "  hedge  ;   enclosure." 

Carry  Bridge  :   le  Carrehey  1443  CCR,  1464  Whit.  I.  358,  Carrehey  1527  CCR  ; 

Carybridge  1604  Colne  R.    Carry  is  from  Carr-hey,  i.e.,  O.N.  kiarr  "  swamp  " 

and  O.E.  hege  (or  possibly  O.E.  haga,  O.N.  hagi)  "  enclosure." 

Emmott  :  de  Emot  1296  Lacy  C,  1324  LCR,  1332  LS,  de  Emote  1311  LI,  Emot 

1341  IN.    O.E.  Ea(ge)motu  "  junction  of  streams  "  ;  cf.  cet  Ea  motum  926  Chr 

(D).    Wycoller  Brook  and  Laneshaw  River  join  near  Emmott  Hall. 

Heyroyd  :  Heyroide  1524,  Heyrode  1527  CCR.    "  High  clearing  "  ;  cf.  rod  p.  16. 

The  place  is  in  a  high  situation. 

Langroyd  :  le  Langrode  1475,  Longrod  1540  CCR.    "  The  long  clearing." 

Standroyd  :    Stanrede  1465,   Stanrode  1539   CCR,   Staynrode   1540,   Stanerode 

1542  DL.    "  Stone  clearing." 


33.  Foulridge  (N.  of  Colne,  on  the  Yks.  border ;   v.) :   de  Folric  1219,  1221  f. 
LAR,  de  Folrigge  1246  LAR,  Folrig  1296  WhC  206,  Folerigg  1311  IPM,  Folrigg, 
Folrigge  1322 'LI,  J.  346  FA,  ffolrige  1332  LS,  Fulrigge  1542  DL,  Folrige  1551 
LF  ;    now  [fo-lridz].     I  suppose  the  first  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  fola  "  foal." 
The  ridge  that  gave  name  to  the  place  may  be  Pasture  Hill  (786ft.)  W.  of  Foul- 
ridge  village.    The  name  may  mean  "  the  ridge  where  foals  grazed  "  (cf.  Pasture 
Hill)  or  "the  foal's  back  "   owing  to  some  likeness  to  one. 

Acornley  :    Akerlandeleye  1259  VHL  VI.  546,  Acrondley  1608  CW  1.     M.E. 

acre-land  "  ploughed  or  arable  land  "    (NED)  and  lea. 

Barnside  (a  detached  part) :    Bernesete  1258  IPM,  1296  WhC  206.     The  first 

el.  is  probably  a  pers.  n.,  O.E.  Beorn  or  O.N.  Biorn,  Biarne,  the  second  being  set 

"  a  shieling  "    (p.  16).    The  place  is  in  a  high  situation.    Near  it  is  Knarrs  ; 

cf .  Bernesetknarres  WhC  333.    Knar  "  a  rugged  rock  or  stone  "  is  found  e.g.  in 

Gaw.  2166. 

Monkroyd  :  de  Monkerode  1332  LS,  Monkrude  1542  DL.    "  The  monks'  clearing." 

The  place  belonged  to  the  priory  of  Pontefract  (Whit.  II.  253). 

34.  Trawden  (S.E.  of  Colne,  on  the  Yks.  border  ;  v.) :    Trochdene  1296  Lacy  C, 
Troudene  1305  ib.,  Troweden  1311  IPM,  Troudene  1324  LI,  Trouden  1356  CR  332  ; 
now  [tro'din].    O.E.  trog  "  trough,"  later  "  hollow  or  valley  resembling  a  trough," 
and  O.E.  denu  "  valley."     The  village  of  Trawden  is  in  a  broad  troughlike 

Beardshaw  (W.  of  Trawden  vil.) :  Berdeshaw  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  Berdeshagh 
1325  LCR,  Over-,  Netherberdshaw  (vacc.)  1422-23  CCR,  Berdshaughboth  1464 
Whit.  I.  359,  Berdshabothe  1507  CCR.  First  el.  perhaps  the  pers.  n.  found  in 
Beardwood  Bl. 

Beaver  :  Beaver  1640,  Sever  1644  Colne  R.  The  place  is  on  a  knoll  in  a  high 
situation.  Though  it  is  surprising  to  find  a  French  name  in  such  a  remote 
spot,  I  suppose  Beaver  is  identical  with  Belvoir,  Line.,  and  means  "  fine 

Lodge  Holme  :  Logeholme  1557  ;  Loygemosse  1530  CCR.  Cf .  Lane.  dial,  lodge 
"  a  reservoir  of  water  stored  for  mill  purposes." 

Winewall  (on  Trawden  Water) :  Wynewelle  1296  Lacy  C,  Wynwell  (vaccary) 
1324  LI,  Wynwelle  1325  LCR,  Wynewall  1507  CCR.  The  first  el.  seems  to  be 
O.E.  Wina  pers.  n.,  the  second  being  wella  (wcella)  "  stream."  Winewall  may 
be  an  old  name  of  Trawden  Water.  The  present  pronunciation  [wainwo'l]  seems 
to  be  due  to  the  spelling. 

Wycoller  (on  the  Yks.  border,  E.  of  Colne  ;  v.) :  (causey  of)  Wycoluer  WhC  333, 
Wycolure  1324  LI,  Wyculure  1325  LCR,  Overwicoller,  Netherwycoller  1464  Whit.  I. 
359,  Wykeoller  Deyne  1561  CCR,  Wicoler  1577  Harr.;  now  [waikob].  The  vil. 
stands  at  the  foot  of  Combe  Hill  on  Wycoller  Brook.  An  old  road  from  Colne 
to  Keighley  passes  the  vil.  (cf.  Cawsay  dough  1561  CCR).  The  name  seems  to 
be  a  compound  of  O.E.  vnc  and  air  "  alder."  O.E.  wic  very  likely  means  "  a 
dairy-farm  "  or  the  like.  The  early  forms  of  the  second  el.  are  remarkable,  but 
we  may  compare  Lightholevers  1246  for  Ligh tollers  (p.  58).  Perhaps  v  was  intro- 
duced between  I  and  r  in  the  same  way  as  th  in  M.E.  alther-  from  O.E.  eallra. 
The  labial  character  of  I,  which  has  caused  al  to  become  [ol],  may  explain  the 
fact  that  the  intrusive  consonant  came  to  be  v. 



S.  of  the  Calder,  W.  of  Burnley. 

35.  Altham  (h.)  :    Mvetham  c  1150  Whit.  II.  265,  de  Eluetham  1200-8  DD, 
de  Alvetham  1243  LI,  1257,  1278  LF,  etc.,  Halwetham,  Eluetham  1246  LAR, 
Aluetham  1308  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Altham  1383  LF,  Aluethambrok,  -lode  1337 
WhC  1045.     The  h.  stands  near  the  Calder.     Two  alternative  explanations  of 
the  name  seem  possible.    The  first  el.  may  be  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Mlfyeat  (>  M.E. 
Alviet,  etc.),  the  second  being  O.E.  ham  or  hamm  ;    this  is  Wyld's  suggestion. 
Or  the  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  celfet,  a  side-form  of  elfet,  ielfet  "  swan  "   (cf.  p.  21) ; 
if  so,  the  second  el.  is  no  doubt  O.E.  hamm.    O.E.  ylfethamm  actually  occurs  in 
a  charter  (973-4  BCS  1307).    I  am  inclined  to  prefer  the  second  alternative. 
Kindle  :   Hindil  1210-30  (copy  of  1596)  DD,  de  Hindehull  1332  LS.    First  el. 
O.E.  hind  "  female  of  the  hart." 

Hoghton  is  a  place-name  found  WhC  305  (campo  de  Hoghton)  ;  cf.  de  Hoghton 
1332  LS  (under  Altham).  This  would  seem  to  be  an  old  name  in  -tun.  Cf.  the 
same  name  in  Leyland. 

36.  Clayton-le-Moors  (W.  of  Altham,  N.W.  of  Accrington) :    Cleyton  1243  LI, 
Clayton  1263,  1277  LAR,  de  Clayton  super  Moras  1284  LAR,  Claiton  sr  Moras 
1332  LS,  Clayton  othe  Mores  c  1370  CR  348,  Clayton  on  the  Moors  1390  LF. 
Cf.  Clayton-le-Dale,  p.  70. 

Dunkenhalgh  (old  manor)  :    Dunkansale  1208-20  DD,  de  Dunkaneshalghe  1285 
LAR,  Dunkinhalghe  1577  Saxton.    The  first  el.  is  the  Goidelic  pers.  n.  Duncan 
(O.Ir.  Donnchad,  Gael.  Donnchadh  ;  O.E.  Dunecan  1093  Chr.) ;    the  second  is 
O.E.  halh  "  haugh."     The  place  stands  on  the  Hindburn. 
Hay  Slacks  :  Haislackes  1210-30  DD.    Second  el.  O.N.  slakki  "  valley." 
Henfield  or  Enfield  (h.) :  Hyndefeld  1376  DD,  HenfeU  1523  CCR.    First  member 
O.E.  hind  "  female  of  the  deer."    But  the  occurrence  of  the  el.  hind  in  Hindburn, 
Hindle,  and  Henfield  is  curious.     Possibly  Hindle,  Henfield  are  elliptic  for 
Hind,burnhill,  -feld. 

Ringstonhalgh  :  de  Ryngestoneshalgh  1352,  Ryngstorihalgh  1422  DD.  The  mean- 
ing of  the  first  el.  is  not  obvious ;  perhaps  "  stone  circle."  Cf.  Ringstones  1641 
RW  141  (Ringstones,  Tatham). 

Sparth  :  Sparth  1455,  1574  DD,  the  Sparthe  1542,  the  Sparth  1663  CCR.  Sparth 
is  also  the  name  of  a  field  in  Irlam  (VHL  IV.  364).  A  similar  form  is  le  Sporthe 
(Heaton  Norris,  Sa)  1282  IPM,  denoting  a  piece  of  land.  If  the  older  form  was 
Sporth,  we  may  derive  the  name  from  O.N.  sporbr  "  tail."  Cf.  Bartle,  Am.  infra. 
But  there  seems  to  have  been  a  side-form  with  a  of  O.N.  sporftr,  the  base  of 
Norw.  dial,  spcerl,  sped  "  tail,"  also  "  a  strip,  a  narrow  piece."  Cf.  the  Norw. 
place-names  Spcslen  NG  IV.  1,  159  and  Sperle  NG  XII.  2. 


37.  Old  and  New  Accrington  (the  district  round  Accrington  town) :   [Hay a  de] 
Akarinton  a  1194  Kirkstall  C,  Akerynton(a)  1258  ib.,  Akerunton,  Akerinton, 
Akerynton  1258  LAR,  Acrinton  1292  PW,  Ackryngton  1311  IPM,  Acryngton 
(vaccaries)  1324  LI.    This  name  may  mean  "  acorn  tun  "   (O.E.  cecern  "  acorn  " 


and  tun).    New  Accrington  (the  S.  part)  was  long  regarded  as.  in  the  forest 

(VHL  VI.  424).    Oak  mast  was  formerly  of  great  importance  as  food  for  swine, 

and  a  homestead  may  well  have  been  named  from  such  produce  ;  cf .  Swinton, 

a  common  name.    O.B.  JEcerntun  might  become  M.E.  Akerenton,  Akerinton  and 

the  like,  just  as  Fearndun  became  Farindon,  Farendone,  now  Faringdon  (Berks.). 

There  is  no  O.E.  pers.  n.  from  which  the  first  el.  can  be  with  any  probability 

derived.    But  if  the  Frisian  names  Akkrum,  Akkeringa,  Dutch  Akkerghem,  etc., 

are  correctly  derived  in  Nomina  Geographica  Neerlandica  1. 168f.  from  a  pers.  n. 

Akker,  a  corresponding  O.E.  name  may  perhaps  be  assumed  from  which  Accring- 

might  be  derived. 

Antley  :  Amteleiasic  a  1194  Kirkstall  C,  de  Anteley  1296  Lacy  G,  Antilay  1324  LI. 

Literally  "  ant  lea  "  ;    O.E.  cemette  "  ant  "   and  leak. 

Baxenden  (v.) :    Bastanedenecloch  a  1194  Kirkstall  C,  Bakestandene,  Bakeston- 

dene,  de  Bakestonden  1305  Lacy  C,  Bacstanden  1324  LI,  Baxtonden  1464  Whit.  I. 

360.    The  first  el.  is  bakestone  "  a  flat  stone  or  slate  on  which  cakes  are  baked  in 

the  oven  "  (1531  fi.  Lane.,  etc.,  NED).    This  word  is  common  in  place-names, 

probably  denoting  places  where  bakestones  were  to  be  found.    Cf.  Bacstanebec 

CC  885,  Bakesta(i)neforde  Guisb.  C.    Baxenden  is  on  a  brook. 

Brocklehurst  (on  a  hill  slope) :  Brocholehirste  1296  Lacy  C.    Cf.  Brockhall  p.  71. 

Cowhouses  :  Couhouses  1324  LI,  Couhous  1325  LCR,  CWefowsl464Whit.I.359. 


Dunnyshope  (near  a  brook) :   Dunshope,  Dunserope  1241  LF,  Dunschopfal  1305 

Lacy  C,  Dunsopkar  1324  LI.    "  The  hope  (or  valley)  of  Dunn  "  ;    Dunn  is  an 

O.E.  pers.  n.    The  form  Dunny  Shop  in  O.M.  1846-51  is  remarkable. 

Friarnills:  Frerehull  1464  Whit.  I.  359,  Frerehill  1552  LP  III.  130.  Self-explaining. 

Icornhurst  :    Ikecornehurst  1464  Whit.  I.  360,  Hycornehurst,  Thykynhirst  1526 

LP  I.  132.    "  Squirrel  hurst  or  copse."    O.N.  ikorni  "  squirrel." 

Ryley,  High  Ryley  :    Rilay,  Rylay  1324  LI,  Rylayker  1296  Lacy  C,  Highriley 

1464  Whit.  I.  360.    O.E.  ryge  "  rye  "  and  leak. 

Scaitcliffe  :  Sclatedyff  1527,  Scaitclyff  1535  CCR.    "  Slate  cliff."    Cf.  p.  59. 

Warmden  Clough  :  Warineden  (for  Warme-)  a  1194  Kirkstall  C.   "  Warm  valley." 


N.  and  W.  of  Accrington. 

38.  Church  (E.  of  Hyndburn  brook ;   town) :   Chirche  1202  LF,  1258  LI,  1332 
LS,  etc.,  Chiereche  1204  LPR,  Chyrche  1202  LF,  1284,  1285  LAR,  Churchkyrk 
1536  LP  II.  105.    O.E.  cirice  "  church."    The  first  record  of  a  church  (or  rather 
chapel)  dates  from  1296  (VHL  VI.  403),  but  the  name  shows  that  a  church 
must  have  been  here  from  ancient  times. 

Ponthalgh  :  Pouthale,  Poutehale  c  1288,  Poutehalgh  1482  DD,  Povthalgh  c  1450 
HS  LXIV.,  Pontawghe  1536  LP  II.  106,  Puttaughe  1556  DD,  Powtalghe  1574  DL. 
Ponthalgh  is  in  a  tongue  of  land  between  the  Hyndburn  and  a  tributary  of  it ; 
the  place  was  clearly  in  a  haugh.  The  older  form  of  the  name  was  Pouthalgh, 
Pont-  being  due  to  misreading.  The  first  el.  is  perhaps  pout  the  name  of  a  fish. 
If  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  Puta  existed,  however,  it  is  a  more  probable  first  element. 

39.  Oswaldtwistle  (S.W.  of  Church) :   de  Oswaldthuisel  1208-25  DD,  de  Oswalde- 


t(h)wihil  (Oswaldithwihil)  1219,  1221  f.  LAR,  de  Oswalde(s)twisel  1246  LAR, 
Oswaldtuysil  1258  IPM,  Osewaldewysel  1276  LAR,  Osewaldestwisel  1327  LS, 
Oswaldestwysell  1332  LS.  O.E.  Oswald  pers.  n.  and  twisla  "  fork  of  a  river."  Two 
brooks  join  in  the  township. 

Aspden  or  Aspen  (on  a  small  stream) :  Aspedene  Clogh  1200-8  DD,  de  Haspeden 
1246  LAR,  de  Aspeden  1286  LAR,  1323  LCR,  1329  LI.    "  Aspen  valley." 
Catlow  Hall  :  de  Cattelow  c  1280  DD,  de  Catlou  1305  Lacy  C,  de  Cattelowe  1317 
LF,  de  Gatlowe  1332  LS.    O.E.  catt  "  cat  "  and  hldw  "  hiU." 
Duckworth  (once  a  separate  vill) :  Ducworth,  Ducworthley  1241  LF.    The  place 
is  on  a  brook.    The  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  duce  "  duck  "  or  a  pers.  n. ;  cf.  Dux- 
bury  infra.    The  second  is  worp  "  enclosure,"   etc. 

Knuzden  (Brook) :  Knuzdenbroke  1200-8  DD,  Knousedene  Whit.  II.  403,  Knowes- 
den  WhC  334.  The  first  el.  is  doubtful.  There  is  no  reason  to  identify  it  with 
that  of  Knowsley,  as  the  loss  of  I  could  not  be  explained  in  the  same  way  (by 

40.  Huncoat  (E.  of  Church,  on  the  N.W.  slope  of  Hameldon  Hill ;  h.) :  Hunnicot 
DB,  Hun(n)ecotes  1241  LF,  Huncotes  1246  LAR,  1296  Lacy  C,  Hunecote  1296 
WhC  206,  Huncote  1332  LS,  etc. ;   de  Huntcot  1227  LAR.    O.E.  Buna  or  Hun 
pers.  n.  and  cot  (p.  9). 


In  the  S.,  on  the  Salford  border. 

41.  Haslingden  (E.  of  the  Irwell;   town):    Heselingedon   1242   LI,  Haselm-, 
Heselindene,  Aselin-,  Aschelindene  1246  LAR,  Haselingden  1251  ChR,  Haselin- 
dene  1258  Kirkstall  C,  Has(s)elinden  1269  LI,  Haselinden  1332  LS,  Haslyngdene 
1341  IN,  Haselden  1577  Harr.    O.E.  hceslen  adj.  "  of  hazels  "  and  denu  "  vaUey." 
H.  town  lies  in  a  valley.    Haslingden  Grane  (Grayne  1566  CCR,  ye  Grane  1681 
Altham  R)  is  a  hamlet.    Grane  is  M.E.  grain  (<  O.N.  grein  "  branch,"    etc.) 
"  fork  ;   branch  ;   valley  branching  out  of  another."     The  hamlet  is  in  a  valley 
branching  out  W.  from  the  central  valley. 

Ewood  (on  the  Irwell) :   de  Thewode,  de  Tewode  1269  LI,  (manor  of)  Le  Ewode 

1323  LI,  del  Ewode  1325  LCR ;    now  [rwud].     O.E.  ea-wudu,  like  Ewood  in 

Livesay,  p.  75.  g 

Helmshore  :    Helkhour  1510  CCR ;    cf.  Helme  croft,  Helmecroft  (Haslingden) 

1546  CCR.    The  place  stands  on  a  fairly  steep  ridge  between  the  Irwell  and  a 

tributary  of  it.    Helm  is  no  doubt  helm  "  a  shed  "   (perhaps  <  O.N.  hialmr) ; 

cf.  Helme  c  1215  WhC  1067,  de  Helme  1324  LCR,  referring  to  a  place  in  Read. 

The  second  el.  is  no  doubt  shore  "  a  steep  cliff,"  etc.,  cf.  p.  58. 

Holden,  Broad  Holden  (E.  of  Haslingden  Grane) :    de  Holdene  1305  Lacy  C, 

1325  LCR,  de  Holden  1332  LS ;    Brodeholden  1520  LF.    "  The  hollow  valley." 

The  places  were  named  from  the  valley  just  referred  to. 

42.  Henheads  (N.  of  Haslingden,  on  a  hill-side)  :   Henhades  1464  Whit.  I.  359, 
Henneheedes  1507  CCR.    "  Hen  hills  " ;   cf.  Henthorn  p.  77,  and  Hades  p.  57. 
Near  Henheads  was  formerly  Overhaddes  1507  CCR. 

43.  Higher  Booths  (township  consisting  of  some  booths  in  the  old  Forest  of 
Rossendale  ;   N.E.  of  Haslingden). 


Crawshaw  Booth  :  Croweshagh  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  1325  LCR,  Crawshaboth  1507 
OCR.  "  Crow  shaw,"  O.E.  crdwe  "  crow  "  and  scaga. 

Gambleside  :  Gameleshevid  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  Gameleshevyd  1325  LCR,  Gamel- 
seud  1507  CCR.  Gamel  pers.  n.  (probably  O.N.  Gamall)  and  heafod  "  hill."  The 
place  is  in  a  high  situation. 

Goodshaw  Booth  :  Godeshagh,  Godischaw  1324  LI,  Godeshagh  1325  LCR,  God- 
shaugh  1507,  Gudsheybothe  1527  CCR.  If  the  spelling  Godischaw  be  at  all  trust- 
worthy, the  first  el.  may  be  O.E.  Godgyp,  M.E.  Godith  pers.  n.  (fern.).  Or  it 
may  be  O.E.  Goda. 

Love  Clough  (in  the  valley  of  a  small  stream)  :  Lugheclogh,  Lufclough  1324  LI, 
Lufclogh  1325  LCR,  1425  CCR,  Luffecloch  1464  Whit.  I.  360.  The  spelling  Lughe- 
clogh is  no  doubt  due  to  dittography.  The  first  el.  is  probably  O.E.  Lufa  or 
Lufu  pers.  n. 

44.  Lower  Booths  (chiefly  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Irwell ;    part  of  Rossendale 

Rawtenstall  (town  ;  on  Limy  Water)  :  Routonstall  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  1325  LCR, 
Runstall,  Rounstall,  Rotenstall  1507  CCR.  Cf .  Rawtonstall  in  W.  Yks.  :  Routon- 
stall 1274,  Rutonestal  1276,  Routunstall  1298  (Goodall).  The  name  means  "  the 
roaring  pool  "  (or  "  stream  ").  The  first  el.  is  the  pres.  part,  of  M.E.  routen 
"  to  roar,  bellow  "  from  O.N.  rauta.  Second  el.  O.E.  stall  "  pool  in  a  river," 
perhaps  also  used  of  a  stream  (cf.  p.  159). 

Constable  Lee  :  Constabillegh  1324  LI,  1325  LCR,  Cunstabellegh  1324  LI.  "  The 
lea  belonging  to  the  constable." 

Oakenhead  :  Okenheved  1305  Lacy  C,  Okenhevedwod  1464  Whit.  I.  359,  Oken- 
heid  wod(de)  1507  CCR.  "  The  hill  clad  with  oaks." 


45.  Newchurch-in-Rossendale   (N.E.  of  Rawtenstall ;    the  greater  part  of  the 
old  Forest  of  Rossendale,  for  the  most  part  desolate  hill  country). 

The  Forest  of  Rossendale  :  Rocendal  1242  LI,  Rossendale  1292  PW,  13  cent. 
WhC  154,  Rosendale,  Roscyndale,  Roscindale  1296  Lacy  C,  (de)  Roscyndale 
1324  LI,  Rossyndale  1311  LI,  de  Roscundale  1308  OR  160,  Rosendale  1577  Harr. 
A  clough  with  a  stream  (White well  Brook)  runs  from  N.  to  S.  past  Newchurch 
through  the  middle  of  the  district.  This  is  very  likely  the  valley  that  gave  name 
to  the  forest.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  difficult,  partly  on  account  of  the 
variation  in  the  spellings.  But  I  take  it  that  c,  sc,  ss  cannot  point  to  any  other 
early  form  than  Rossen-.  Possibly  this  might  be  connected  with  Welsh  rhos 
"  moor."  A  (diminutive)  Rhossan  is  found  in  Welsh  as  the  name  of  Ross  in 
Heref.  (Rhossan  ar  Wy) ;  cf.  Owen's  Pembrokeshire  II.  407,  where  other  examples 
of  Rossan  in  place-names  are  given.  The  word  is  once  exemplified  as  the  name 
of  a  brook.  Such  a  form  might  have  given  E.  Rossen-  ;  but  of  course  the  con- 
nection is  doubtful. 

Newchurch  :   Newchurch  Rossindall  1590  Burghley. 

Bacup  (town) :  ffulebachope  c  1200  WhC  154,  Bacop  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  -e  1325 
LCR,  Bacopboth  1464  Whit.  I.  360,  Bacobbothe  1507  CCR  ;  now  [be'kap].  Bacup 
stands  on  the  upper  Irwell,  which  here  runs  from  N.  to  S.,  turning  west  just 


below  Bacup.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  hop,  here  used  in  the  sense  "  a  smaller 
opening  branching  out  from  the  main  dale."  The  first  el.  is  perhaps  O.E.  bcec 
"  back,"  used  in  the  sense  "  a  ridge  "  or  "  hill  "  (cf.  back  "  a  hill  "  in  the 
Ches.  dial.)  ;  cf.  Backbarrow  in  Lo. 

Deadwin  Clough  :  Dedequenclogh  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  1325  LCR,  Dedewhenclogh 
1464  Whit.  I.  360,  Dedonclough  1507  OCR.  "  The  clough  of  the  dead  woman  " 
(O.E.  dead  adj.  and  cwene  "  woman  ").  A  dead  woman  may  have  been  found 
in  the  clough. 

Deerplay,  Deerplay  Moor  :  Derplaghe  1296,  1305  Lacy  C,  Derpelawe  1324  LI. 
"  The  place  where  deer  play."  O.E.  deor-plega.-f 

Lumb  (on  Whitewell  Water)  :  Le  Lome  1534  CCR.    Cf.  the  same  name  p.  62. 
Sharneyford  (N.  of  Bacup) :    Schernyford  WhC  334.     "  The  miry  ford  "  ;    cf. 
O.E.  scearn  "  dung." 

Sow  Clough  (at  a  valley  of  the  same  name):  Soclogh  1463  Whit.  1. 353,  Soodogh  1528 
CCR.  Literally  "  sow  clough  ";  So-  represents  a  Northern  development  of  O.E.  sugu. 
Tunstead  :  Tunstede  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  Tunsted  1325  LCR,  1507  CCR.  O.E. 
tunstede  "  village,"  very  likely  also,  as  in  this  case,  "  deserted  site  of  a  tun." 
Wolfenden  :  Wolfhamdene  (vaccary)  1324  LI,  1325  LCR,  Wolfendenboth  1507 
CCR.  "  The  valley  of  the  wulfhamm  "  apparently.  O.E.  hamm  originally  meant 
"  enclosure,"  and  O.E.  wulfhamm  might  mean  the  same  thing  as  O.E.  wulfhaga, 
i.e.,  "  enclosure  to  protect  the  flocks  from  wolves  "  (Crawf.  Ch.  p.  53).  Or  it 
might  mean  "  enclosure  to  trap  wolves  in."  But  hamm  is  found  with  the  name 
of  an  animal  as  defining  el.  without  such  a  sense,  as  in  O.E.  heafoces  hamm 
(BCS  1169),  ylfethamm  (ib.  1307). 


Derbei  hvndret  DB,  Derbi  1169  LPR,  de  Derebi  Wapentachio  1188  LPR, 
Derebiscire  1197  LPR,  Derbisire  1212  LI,  Derebyschyre  1246  LAR,  Derbischyre 
1252  IPM,  Westderby  wapentake  1265  IPM,  Derbishir  1327  LS,  Westderbishire 
1338  LF. 

West  Derby  hundred  forms  the  S.W.  part  of  the  county.  It  is  bounded  on 
the  W.  and  S.  by  the  sea  and  the  Mersey.  The  N.  boundary  is  (or  was)  partly 
formed  by  Martin  Mere  and  the  Douglas.  The  surface  is  on  the  whole  flat  or 
slightly  undulating.  The  highest  point,  Billinge  Hill  with  Brownlow,1  reaches 
nearly  600ft.  above  sea-level. 

Before  the  Conquest  the  three  hundreds  of  West  Derby,  Newton,  and  Warring- 
ton  corresponded  to  the  present  West  Derby,  and  West  Derby  proper  comprised 
only  the  western  half.  Soon  after  the  Conquest  the  present  hundred  of  West 
Derby  was  formed. 

Warrington  (Walintvne  hvnd'  DB)  is  considered  to  have  comprised  the  present 
Warrington,  Leigh,  and  Prescot  parishes,  and  Culcheth  township  in  Winwick. 
Newton  hundred  (Neweton  hd'  DB)  corresponds  roughly  to  Winwick  and  Wigan 

Newton  hundred  is  often  called  Makerfield,  and  this  name  is  frequently 
1  Ye  Browne  Low  1616  Upholland  R. 


added  to  the  names  Ashton,  Ince,  and  Newton.  Early  forms  :  Macrefeld  1121 
Ch,  Machesfelda  1123  Ch,  Machesfeld  Wapentachio  1169  LPR  ;  Makefeld  1206, 
1213  LPR,  Makefeud  1246  LAR ;  Makifeld  1206  LPR ;  Makeresfeld  1204, 
1205,  1215  LPR,  Makerefeld  1213  LPR,  Makerfeld  1243  LI,  1261  LAR,  etc., 
MacresfeU  1280,  1291  ChR,  Makrefeld  1338  LF. 

We  have  to  start  from  the  early  forms  Maker-  and  Makeresfeld.  Such  as 
Makefeld,  Makesfeld  have  probably  lost  an  abbreviation-mark  for  er  after  the  k. 
The  interchange  of  forms  with  and  without  the  genitive  s  would  seem  to  point 
to  a  pers.  n.  as  the  first  el.,  but  if  so  I  can  only  suggest  that  it  is  the  name 
Macharius  (found  in  Liber  Vitae  and  DB),  which  does  not  seem  convincing. 
A  place-name  as  first  el.  often  has  the  gen.  form.  Examples  are  Nympsfield, 
Glo.  (first  el.  identical  with  Nymet,  Dev.),  Andredes  leage  Chr.  A.  477,  Andredes 
cester  Chr.  A.  491  (first  el.  Andred,  the  old  name  of  the  Weald).  I  believe  Maker 
is  a  Brit,  place-name,  identical  with  Welsh  magwyr  "  wall,  ruin  "  (O.W.  macyrou 
pi.  LL  143),  O.Bret,  macoer  "  wall  "  (Loth  148)  from  Lat.  maceries,  maceria 
"  wall."  The  O.Brit,  form  must  have  been  *macer.  This  is  a  common  name  in 
British  countries. 

Macoer  (Brittany)  Loth  148,  219. 

Maker  (par.,  vil.  Cornw.) :  Makere  1346  FA,  Magre  1428  FA. 

Magor  (Momn.) :   Magor  13  cent.  LL. 

Fagwyr  (Wales).    F-  for  M-  is  due  to  lenition. 

Makerton  (Cornw. ;  in  Maker) :   Macretone  DB,  Makerton  1284  FA. 

I  suppose  Macer  was  the  British  name  of  some  place  in  Makerfield  and  was 
adopted  by  the  Anglian  invaders.  From  it  was  formed  the  name  Makerfield. 
The  original  Makerfield  may  have  been  Ashton,  near  which  there  are  traces  of  a 
Roman  road,  and  where  a  fort  may  once  have  been.  Two  fields  in  Ashton  were 
called  the  two  Makerfields  in  the  16th  cent.  (VHL IV.  131).  Or  it  may  have  been 
Newton,  where  there  are  two  ancient  barrows,  one  of  which  at  least  is  called 
Castle  Hill  (ib.  IV.  132).  The  surface  of  Newton  is  flat,  especially  in  the  N.  part, 
where  Newton  vil.  and  Castle  Hill  stand. 

The  old  division  into  three  hundreds  is  not  kept  up  here,  as  it  would  make  it 
necessary  to  separate  parts  that  belong  together  geographically.  But  the  two 
old  hundreds  of  Warrington  and  Newton  are  dealt  with  first,  the  original  W. 
Derby  hundred  coming  last. 

Names  of  Rivers 

Glazebrook  (a  trib.  of  the  Mersey) :  Glasebroc  c  1230  CC,  Glasebrok  1246  LAR, 
Glasbrooke  c  1540  Leland,  the  Gles  or  Glesbrooke  water  1577  Harr.  Cf.  Glazebrook 
p.  95.  The  name  may  be  compared  with  Glaisdale,  Yks.  (Glasedale,  rivum  de 
Glasedale  1223  Guisb.  C.),  also  with  Glasenbach,  Glasbach  in  Germany 
( :  Glasa  933,  etc.,  Glasipach  in  Forstemann).  Glas-  is  probably  an  old  river- 
name.  Forstemann  suggests  an  adj.  glasa-  "  bright."  Another  possible  source 
(for  the  Engl.  names)  is  Celt,  glasto-  "  green,  blue  "  (Welsh  glas,  e.g.,  in  glaspull 
LL  78,  a  river-name  ;  Ir.  glas). 

Sankey  (falls  into  the  Mersey  near  Warrington) :  Sanki  1202  LF,  Sanky  1228 
C1R,  1251  ChR,  Sonky  1228  WhC  372.  See  Great  Sankey  p.  105.  This  is  no 
doubt  a  Celtic  name.  As  regards  the  ending  such  Welsh  river-names  as  Tywi 


(Tobios  Ptol.),  Honddu  ( :  hodni  LL    242),  Troggi  (Taroci  LL  236),  TrotM 
(  :  trodi  LL  123,  etc.)  may  be  compared.    Etymology  obscure. 
Goyt  (a  trib.  of  the  Sankey)  :  M.E.  gote  "  water-course,  stream." 
Otter's  Pool  (Liverpool) :    Hot'pol  1228  C1R,  Oterpol  1228  WhC  371,  Otirpul 
13  cent.  WhC  568.    Clearly  "  otter-pool."    Near  this  was  a  brook  called  Hoskelles- 
broc,  Haskelesbroc  1228  C1R,  Oskelesbrok  1228  WhC  371.     The  name  contains 
the  pers.  n.  O.N.  Askell.     There  is  another  Otterpool  in  N.  Meols :    Oterpul 
c  1250  Farrer,  History  of  N.  Meols  p.  11,  Otrepol  1311  LI. 

Alt  (falls  into  the  sea) :  alt  c  1190  CC,  dUe  c  1200  CC,  AUh(e),  Alta  a  1220  CC, 
AUh  c  1260  CC,  Alte  13  cent.  WhC  490.  The  name  is  no  doubt  Celtic.  It  cannot 
be  derived  from  Welsh  allt  "  cliff,"  as  the  river  flows  through  flat  country. 
Gael,  alt  means  "  a  stream  "  ;  a  similar  sense  might  have  developed  in  the  Brit, 
language  of  Lancashire.  But  it  is  also  possible  that  Alt  is  quite  distinct  from 
allt.  There  is  in  Wales  a  river  called  Aled,  an  affluent  of  the  Elwy,  whose  name 
appears  in  early  sources  as  Alet  (e.g.,  Ughalet  "  above  Alet,"  1335  Seebohm, 
Tribal  Custom  in  Wales,  Appendix  p.  61).  Brit.  Alet  might  have  become  Alt 
just  as  Cunetio  became  Kent. 

Eller  Beck  (a  trib.  of  the  Douglas)  gave  name  to  a  place  :  de  Ellerbek  1246  LAR, 
1366  LS.  First  el.  M.E.  eller  "  alder  "  (very  likely  <  O.N.  elri  "  alders  "). 
The  brook  is  called  riuulus  de  Egacras  1189-96  Ch,  obviously  from  a  place  Egacras 
ib.  ("  edge-acres  ") ;  an  earlier  name  is  apparently  Blithe,  found  in  Blythe  Hall 
(see  p.  122). 

Tawd  (Lathom) :  taude  1577  Saxton,  the  Taude  1577  Harr.  See  Tawdbridge, 
Lathom  p.  123. 


This  parish  embraces  the  low-lying  districts  N.  of  the  Mersey,  between  Glaze- 
brook  and  Sankey  Brook,  and  Burtonwood  W.  of  the  latter. 

1.  Rixton  with  Glazebrook  (E.  of  Warrington). 

Rixton  :  Rixton  1201ff.  LPR,  1212  LI,  1332  LS,  etc. ;  de  Eiston  1246  LAR, 
Richeston  1260, 1262  LAR,  de  Ryckeston  1259  LAR,  Rigston  1577  Harr.  The  first 
el.  is  probably  a  pers.  n.,  O.E.  *Rlc,  as  suggested  by  Sephton,  or  Rlcsige. 
Glazebrook  :  de  Glasbroc  1227  LF,  Glasebrok  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Glasbrok  1258  LAR, 
Glasebroc  1261  LAR,  1341  IN,  Glasebroke  1332  LF.  The  place  was  named  from 
the  Glazebrook,  which  forms  the  E.  boundary. 

Hollins  Green  or  Hollinfare  (h.) :  Boiling  greene  1577  Harr.,  Hollyn  grene  1577 
Saxton  ;  Le  Fery  del  Holyns  1352  VHL  III.  339,  [the]  holynfeyr'  1504  RS  XII., 
cap.  de  Helingfare  1550  LR,  Hollynfayre  1556  LF,  Hollen  Ferry  1565  DL. 
First  el.  O.E.  holegn  "  holly."  The  el.  -fare  apparently  means  "  ferry  "  or 
"  ford  "  ;  it  seems  to  be  O.E.  fcer  "  passage,"  etc.,  here  in  a  concrete  sense. 
The  place  is  on  the  Mersey. 

2.  Woolston  with  Martinscroft  (E.  of  Warrington). 

Woolston  :  Oscitonam  1094,  Ocsitonam  1122,  Ulfitonam  1142,  Oxsitonam  1155, 
Wlfitona  c  1180  Ch.,  Wolueston,  Wulueston  1246  LAR,  Wlston  1257  ChR,  Wolston 
1327,  1332  LS,  1389  LF,  etc.  If  the  earliest  forms  can  be  disregarded,  the  ety- 
mology seems  to  be  O.E.  Wulfes  tun  from  Wulf  pers.  n.  Some  early  forms 
perhaps  point  rather  to  Wulfsiges  tun. 


Martinscroft  :  de,  Marlimscrofl(v)  1332  LS.  The  pers.  n.  Martin  is  found  in  O.E. 

3.  Poulton  with  Fearnhead  (K.  of  Wari-m^ton). 

Poulton  (v.)  :  PoUonam  1094,  1 122  Ch,  Pultonam  1142,  1155  Ch,  Polton  1240  LF, 

/'niton  I2()H  LAR,  1417  LF.    First  el.  O.E.  pdl,  pull  "  pool."    Poulton  vil.  standH 

near  Padgate  stream  ;   the  meaning  of  ptil  may  be  "  a  stream." 

Fearnhead  :    Ferneheued  1292  H8  XL.   158,  del  ffermlwd  1332  LS,  Fernyhed 

1467  LF.    "  Fern-clad  height."    O.E.  /earn  "  fern  "   and  heafod  "  hill."    The 

hamlet  stands  c  45ft.  above  sea-level. 

Bruche  (old  manor) :  del  Bruch  1280,  de  Briche  1314  HS  XL.  157  f.,  de(l)  Bruche 

1292,  1304    OR,  Bruche  1577  Harr.,  Bryche   1577   Saxton.     Evidently  O.E. 

bryce  "  breaking,"  here  in  the  sense  "  broken  up  ground,  newly  cultivated  land." 

Cf.  Newebruchea  13  cent.  WhC  82(5  and  breach  "  a  piece  of  land  broken  up  by  the 

plough  "  (1594,  etc.,  NED). 

4.  Warrington  (town) :    Walintvne  DB,  Werineton  1228  C1R,  Werington  1246, 
I2S5   LAK,  1246  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Werinton   1259,   1278  LAR,  Queryngton 
1258  LAR,   Weryngton  1296,  1321  LF,  1322  LI,  etc. ;    Warryngton  1332  LI, 
Waringtun  c  1540  Leland.    The  first  el.  is  a  patronymic,  probably  identical  with 
the  first  el.  of  Warwick  (  :  W cerincwicum  1001  CD  705,  at  W  ceringwicum  Chr. 
9140),  i.e.,  a  derivative  of  the  stem  Wwr-  (Wer-),  common  in  O.E.  pers.  names. 
Arpley  (in  a  bend  of  the  Mersey) :  Arpeley  1416  TI,  1465  Warr.    First  el.  O.E. 
eorp  "  dark,"  possibly  used  as  a  pers.  n.    There  is  hardly  any  reason  to  adduce 
O.N.  Erpr,  Jarpr  pers.  n. 

Howley  (in  a  bend  of  the  Mersey) :  le  Holey  1314,  Holay  1334  HS  XL.  159, 
Hollay  1465  Warr.  O.E.  holh  "  hollow  "  and  leah. 

Orford  (h.) :  Orford  1332  LI,  de  Orford  1332  LF,  Overforthe  1465  Warr.,  1529  DL. 
Probably  "  the  upper  ford."  The  hamlet  stands  N.  of  Warrington  not  far  from 
two  streams.  The  Roman  road  from  Wigan  to  Warrington  crossed  the  Orford 
Brook  at  Longford  Bridge  (Codrington,  Roman  Roads,  p.  89). 

5.  Burton  wood  (N.W.  of  Warrington  ;  v.) :   Burtoneswod  1228  Ch,  Bourtonewod 
1251  ChR,  Burtonwode  1298  LI,  1322  LI,  1332  LS,  Burtonwod  1341  IN.    Burton- 
wood  was  put  into  the  forest  of  Lancaster  by  Henry  I.    Its  old  name  was  Burton  : 
1200  LPR  ;  cf.  hay  of  Burton,  Burtunebrok  1251  ChR.    The  name  is  O.E.  Burhtun. 
on  which  see  p.  32. 

Bewsey  Hall  :  Beausee  1330  LI,  Beause  1416  TI,  Bewsey  1503  RS  XII.,  1516  DL. 

Fr.  beau  se  "  beautiful  seat." 

Bradley  (old  manor) :  Bradley  1577  Harr. ;    cf.  Bradelesbroc  1228  C1R,  Brodelegh- 

brok  1228  WhC  372.    "  Broad  lea,"  O.E.  brad  and  leah. 

Dallam,  D.  Moss  :    Dallum  1328  VHL  III.  325,  1416  TI,  de  Dalhom  1332  LS. 

The  place  is  on  Sankey  Brook.    The  name  may  consist  of  O.E.  dcel  "  valley  " 

and  hamm  "  a  meadow,"   etc. 


This  large  parish,  situated  N.  of  Warrington,  is  bounded  on  the  E.  by  Glaze- 
brook,  on  the  W.  by  Sankey  Brook.  The  surface  varies  considerably.  In  the 
S.  the  ground  is  low,  in  the  N.  an  altitude  of  350ft.  is  reached. 


1.  Culcheth  (in  the  K.,  on  the  Glazebrook)  :   Cukhet  120H.  LPR,  de  Kukheth 

12-10  LAK,  (/,//,-////  mo,  1  2.™  LAI;,  /\  ,//,-////  121:;  LI,  ,i<-  A  ///•//  /v//  12-10  LAR, 

f  .'///<•//////.  I2H4  LA  11,  1311  LI<\  etc,.,  <  !  iiMn-Ut  1322  LI,  I.T10  KA,  etc,.,  Kulrliillt 
1;;:J2  LS,  Unlchijlh  I.'l87  LK,  A'  //<•//,-///  1577  Sstxlon.  Kxn-pl  ional  are  :  de  Cukhef 
1240  LA  It,  Kylc.hid,  d<-  Kt/Mii/ld  127(5  il».,  AY/,7,,/  120'.)  il».,  <1nlclii(l)k  1  278  il>., 
KylWiyrth,  Kilt-hiih  I285'ib.,  d«  A/7r////  1303  Ll<\  AY/.s-/m//v  l.r,f,o  Ll<\  (lnlsltrth 
1583  DL,  AY/.S-/M//  1590  Burghley.  Sn-  ;>!«<>  Wyl.l  und  VIIL  IV.  150.  Tim 
name:  i.s  a  compound  of  tin-  words  corresponding  to  Welsh  r/7  "  hack  ; 
corner,  nool<  ;  retreat"  (common  in  Welsh  place  names),  and  <v»v/  "wood." 
The  .same,  elements  are  found  in  Kihpiite,  Cornw.  (  :  Kylyoyd  1303  FA),  (Johpule, 
Cornw.  ('.Kilcoit  1308  I  I'M),  Cilcoit,  Monrn.  (:«7cot<  LL  221),  Blaencilgoed, 
Pembr.  (  :  Blancukoyt  1325  1PM)  and  probably  Culgaith,  Climb.  The  name 
may  mean  "  back  wood  "  or  "  retreat  in  a  wood."  1  As  regards  the  pahtali/a!  ion 
(»l  the  nit-dial  r,  Lichfield  (from  O.K.  Licccdfcld  •  I'ril.  Lclon-tun)  ma.y  be  com- 
pared. The  variation  between  -t,  -th  is  found  also  in  Penketh  p.  106,  and  Tulket 
Am.  The  church  is  called  Newchurch  :  Newchurch  1577  Saxton. 
Flitcroft  :  Fluttecroft  1212  LI,  FliUecrofl  1292  PW.  The  first  el.  is  doubtful. 
Holcrott  (on  Glazebrook)  :  de  llole^roft  1240  LAR,  1330  LF,  1332  LS,  de  Hokroft 
1301,  1314  LF,  llnlrmfl  1577  llarr.  The,  "  hollow  croft,"  O.E.  holh  "  hollow  '» 
and  croft.  Of.  Hole  Mill  Farm  in  Holcroft. 

Kinknall  :  de  Kynkenale  1311,  1314  LF,  -hale  1332  LS.  The  first  el.  seems  to 
be  O.E.  *Cynecn  from  Cyne  and  names  in  Cyne-,  like  Wineca  from  Wine.  The 
second  is  O.E.  halh  "  haugh,  water-meadow."  The  place  is  not  on  a  stream, 
though  not  far  from  one. 

Peasiurlong  :  de  Pesefurlanig  1246  LAR,  Pesforlong  1554  LF.  The  name  means 
"  the  furlong  where  pease  were  grown." 

Risley  :  de  Ryselq/h  1284  LAR,  de  Risselley  1285  ib.,  de  Riselegh  1328  LI,  1332 
LS.    O.E.  hrls  "  twigs,  brushwood  "  or  perhaps  hrlsen  adj.  and  O.E.  leah. 
Scholefleld.    No  early  forms.    Cf.  Scholefield  8a.  p.  56. 

Twiss,  Twiss  Green:  de.  Twiss<>.  (  1258  LA  It,  Ad  Twywe  1270  LAR, 
del  Twys  1314  LF,  Twistyrene  1565  DL.  Twis  is  a  word  not  found  in  O.E.  or 
M.K.  literary  sources,  meaning  "  the  place  where  two  streams  meet."  It  occurs 
in  Cockersand  (Jhartulary  in  a  context  where  it  is  obviously  a  common  noun  : 
a  (juudam  Twis  561  ;  cf.  tofto  inter  Twis  etfontem  Sanctw  Maricu  559  (Allerton). 
The  word  is  related  to  O.K.  yetwis  "  germanus,"  getwisa  "  twin,"  twisla  "  fork 
of  a  river"  ;  it  may  go  back  to  an  O.E.  adj.  *twia.  Twiss  is  N.W.  of  Culcheth 
church  in  a  tongue  of  land  between  two  streams. 

2.  Southworth  with  Croft  (K.  of  Winwick). 

Southworth  :  Suthewrthe  1212  LI,  Suthworth  1326  LF,  Sotheworth  1327,  1332  L8, 

1  The  latter  moaning  IH  HiiggeHtod  by  Forator,  Keltisohos  Wortgut  im  EngliBchen  (1921), 
J).  213.  KorsU-r  suggowtH  tliat  i,\\>-  vowel  of  l,lu;  lirHt  Hyllable,  winch  WM-IIIH  I-.  ;".  l>;n-k  (••  <  ).  I'i.  //, 
represents  a  Jirit.  |y  |,  an  intermediate  sound  between  Prim.  Celt,  u  and  Brit.  f.  I  am  not 
sure  this  in  correct,  aw  the  change  u  >  f  must  have  taken  place  very  early.  I  am  more 
inclined  to  believe  that  O.K.  y  in  UMH  CIIHC-  in  a  il,ul,ioii  for  a  Hound  «l<-v<  •\»\><  •<!  from  Brit,  t, 
due  to  shortening  of  i.  This  would  have  given  Welsh  y  [e],  but  the  O.W.  sound,  as  suggested 
by  the  spelling  i,  //,  WJIH  very  likely  not  |/re;i,tly  dilleivnl  from  (lie  Mod.  Wclnli  y  in  words  like 
dyn,  which  is  pronounced  rather  like  a  |  y  |.  Shortening  of  f  seems  to  account  for  spellings 
such  as  Blanculc.oyt  supra  and  Culcudyn  LL  320  (Kilgiden,  Monm.). 



1422, 1432  LF ;  Seftewurd  1185  LPR.  O.E.  sup  "  south  "  and  worp  "  enclosure,"  etc. 
Croft  :  Croft  1212  LI,  1284  LAR,  1341  IN,  Crofte  1321  LF,  1327,  1332  LS. 
O.E.  croft  "  small  field,"  etc. 

3.  Houghton,  Middleton,  and  Arbury  (E.  of  Winwick). 

Houghton  (v.) :    Houton  1263  LAR,  Hoghton  1327  LS,  1341  IN.     O.E.  hoh 
"  spur  of  land  "  and  tun.    Houghton  Green  vil.  stands  on  a  slight  ridge. 
Middleton  [Hall]  :   Midelton  1212  LI,  1332  LS,  1341  IN,  Middelton  1327  LS. 
"  The  middle  town." 

Lynnall  (in  Middleton) :  de  Lynals  1381  OR  362.  O.E.  lin  "  flax  "  and  halh 
"  haugh." 

Arbury  :  Herdbiri  c  1215  CO,  Herbury  1243  LI,  Erthbury  1246  LF,  Erthbyry 
1246  CO,  Erbury  1332  LS,  1346  FA,  Eresbury  1322  LI.  O.E.  eorpburg  "  earth- 
fortification."  There  do  not  now  seem  to  be  any  traces  of  such  a  fortification. 
Arbury  in  Herts,  and  Cambs.,  both  names  of  Roman  camps,  are  very  likely 
to  be  explained  in  the  same  way.  Burrow-on-the-Hill  (Leic.)  is  Erdborough 
1316  FA. 

4.  Winwick  with  Hulme  (N.  of  Warrington). 

Winwick  (v.) :  Winequic  1170  ff.  LPR,  Wynewhik  1192  WhC  39,  Wynequic 
1212  LI,  Quinequike  c  1210  CC,  Wynquik  1332  LS  ;  Winewich  1204  LPR, 
Whinewic  1205,  1206  LPR,  Wynewyke  1212  RB,  Wynewyc  1212  LI,  de  Winewik, 
Wennewyk  1246  LAR,  Wonewyke,  -wycke  1518  LP  I.  71,  wynnik  1590  Burghley. 
This  name  is  no  doubt  correctly  explained  by  Wyld  as  a  compound  of  O.E. 
Wineca  pers.  n.  and  O.E.  wic.  The  loss  of  k  seems  due  to  the  change  kw  >  hw 
found  often  in  northern  dialects.  Cf.  Wynewhik  1192  supra. 
Hulme  (h.)  :  Hulm  1246,  1276  LAR,  1332  LS,  1341  IN,  etc.  O.Dan,  hulm 
11  island,"  etc.  See  p.  13.  Hulme  stands  on  slightly  rising  ground  near  Sankey 
Brook  and  a  tributary  of  it.  The  land  along  the  Sankey  is  low  and  stated  to  be 
liable  to  floods. 

5.  Newton-in-Makerfield  or  Newton-le-Wfflows  (town)  :  Neweton  DB,  1201  LPR, 
Niweton  1177  LPR,  Nieweton  1202  ff.  LPR,  Neuton  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  1332 
LS,  etc.,  Neuton  Macreffeld  1257  ChR,  Neuton  in  Makerfeld  1332  LF.     "  The 
new  town." 

-6.  Kenyon  (v.) :  Kenien  1212  LI,  de  Kenien  1269  LAR,  Kenian  1243  LI,  1302  ib., 
de  Kenian  1246  LAR,  Kenyan  1258,  1284  LAR,  1311  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Kynian 
1276  LAR,  Keynyan  1310  LF.  The  surface  is  level.  There  is  no  stream  of  any 
importance.  On  the  border  of  Croft  (to  the  S.)  is  a  place  called  Kenylow  (Kenylo 
Bridge  in  O.M.  1846-51) ;  Kenylaw  (Lache)  is  exemplified  in  VHL  IV.  169  from 
1287,  1292.  Keny-  may  very  well  be  a  worn-down  form  of  Kenion. 

The  name  Kenyon  looks  un-English.  I  suspect  a  Brit,  origin  for  it.  It 
is  to  be  noticed  that  Kenyon  adjoins  Culcheth.  The  ending  -an  reminds  one  of 
that  of  Cardigan  from  Welsh  Ceredigiawn  (O.W.  Cereticiaun)  or  of  the  pers.  n. 
Mohan  in  Maban(es)hou  CC  1048,  Mabandall  (Halton)  c  1225  FC  II.  160,  from 
Welsh  Mabon.  But  a  definite  etymology  is  difficult  to  attain.  One  possibility 
is  that  the  name  contains  the  common  Welsh  pers.  name  Einion,  which  must 
in  an  earlier  period  have  had  the  form  Enion.  A  combination  of  a  noun  ending 
in  -k  with  Enion  might  have  been  misunderstood  ;  cf.  O.N.  Kodran  <  Ir.  Mac 
Odrdin  "  the  son  of  Odran."  A  Brit.  *Cruc  Enion  "  Einion's  mound  "  (Welsh  crug 


"mound")  might  have  been  taken  to  mean  Cruc  Cenion,  and  Cenion  to  be  the 
name  of  the  mound,  Cruc  Cenion  being  translated  as  Cenion  hlaw  >  Kenylow. 
This  is,  of  course,  very  uncertain. 

7.  Lowton  (v. ;  N.E.  of  Newton) :  Lauton  1202ff.  LPR,  1212  LI,  1332  LS,  etc., 
Lawton  1432  LF,  Laweton  1500  LF;  Laitton  1201  LPR  is  obviously  miswritten. 
First  el.  O.E.  Tildw  "  hill ;  mound,"  M.E.  lawe  in  the  Alliterative  Poems.    Lowton 
is  on  slightly  rising  ground. 

Byrom  (old  manor)  :  de  Burum  c  1265  CC,  Buyrom  1306  HS  XL.,  Byrum  1328 
LF,  Byram  1577  Saxton.  O.E.  byrum  "  (at)  the  byres." 

8.  Golborne  (v. ;   N.  of  Newton) :   Goldeburn  1187  LPR,  1278  LAR,  1302  LF, 
1332  LS,  etc.,  Goldburne  1203  LPR,  1212  LI,  Goldeburne  1271  LAR,  1328  LF,  etc., 
Goldburn  1390  LF  ;  Golburn  1259  LAR,  Golborne  1468  LF  ;  corrupt  are  Goseburn 
1202  LPR,  Gold(e)burc  1201,  1206,  1207  LPR,  Golburc  1205  LPR. 

G.  village  stands  on  Millingford  Brook,  which  must  have  formerly  been 
called  Golborne  ;  Leland  (c  1540)  calls  it  Golforden.  We  may  compare  Goldeborne 
Bl.  (VHL  VI.  324)  and  (in)  goldburnan  969  BCS  1240  (Midds.).  It  is  improbable 
that  the  first  el.  is  gold,  the  name  of  the  metal.  Gold  (O.E.  golde)  is  the  name  of 
some  yellow  plants,  e.g.,  Calendula  omcinalis.  It  is  hardly  too  bold  to  assume 
that  it  was  in  early  times  used  also  of  the  marsh  marigold  (Caltha  palustris). 
The  etymology  is  probably  O.E.  golde  "  marsh  marigold  "  and  burna  "  burn." 
Lightshaw  :  Lightshagh  1322  LI,  Lyghtshagh  1396  LF.  "The  light  shaw," 
liglft  meaning  either  "  thin,  not  thick  "  or  "  light  in  colour." 

9.  Haydock  (N.  of  Newton,  v.) :    Hedoc  1169  LPR,   Heddoch   1170f.  LPR,  de 
Heidoc  ?  12  cent.  HS  XXXII.  184,  Haidoc  1212  LI,  Haydok  1286  LF,  1332  LS, 
etc.,  de  Hadock  1292  HS  XL.  158,  Haydock  1322  LI,  Heydok  1508  LF.    There  are 
no  prominent  physical  features  suggesting  a  definite  etymology.    The  surface  of 
the  township  is  flat  or  undulating. 

The  second  el.  of  the  name  cannot  be  O.E.  dc ;  forms  in  -oc  are  too  early. 
Harrison  suggests  as  first  el.  O.E.  hege,  as  second  el.  O.E.  docce  "  dock  "  (a 
plant)  or  O.N.  dokk  "  hollow."  But  O.E.  docce  ought  probably  to  have  appeared 
as  -docke  in  the  earliest  forms.  Scand.  elements  are  extremely  rare  in  this 
district.  We  have  found  some  probably  British  names  in  Winwick  par.,  and  as 
-ock  recalls  the  common  Celtic  suffix  -dko  (O.W.  -awe,  Welsh  -og),  Haydock  may 
be  suspected  to  be  one  too.  The  name  may  represent  a  derivative  of  Welsh 
haidd  "  barley,"  analogous  to  Welsh  Clynnog  (<  M.W.  Kellynnawc,  from 
celyn  "  holly  "  ;  cf.  Jones  p.  54)  and  particularly  Ceirchiog,  the  name  of  a  parish 
in  Anglesey  (  :  Welsh  ceirch  "  oats  ").  A  Welsh  derivative  of  haidd  would  have 
had  the  form  Heiddiog  from  earlier  Heidiauc.  This  name  is  perhaps  evidenced 
in  Heythock  moore,  Pembr.  (Owen's  Pembrokeshire  I.  1)  and  in  Llanhaithog, 
Heref.  (  :  Lenheydok  1326  IPM)  ;  cf.  Bannister.  It  is  true  we  should  expect  the 
Brit,  word  to  have  given  E.  Haythock.  But  substitution  of  O.E.  d  for  Brit,  d  is 
possible.  In  early  O.E.  there  was  no  sound  d ;  Prim.  Germ,  d  at  an  early  date 
became  d,  and  p  between  vowels  probably  remained  as  [}>]  for  some  time  after 
the  immigration  of  the  Anglo-Saxons.  Biilbring  §  474  thinks  the  change  took 
place  about  700.  An  analogous  case  is  O.E.  Temede  (now  Teme),  the  name 
of  a  river,  corresponding  to  Welsh  Tefaidd  or  Tefedd  (Owen's  Pembrokeshire 
1. 202),  in  which  dd[<b]  is  no  doubt  due  to  earlier  s  (cf .  O.E.  Temese  "  the  Thames  "). 


Cf.  also  Meend,  Glouc.,  earlier  Munede  (Welsh  mynydd  "  hill  "),  Longmynd, 
Shr.,  and  the  like  (see  McClure  p.  157f.),  and  Cuerden,  Leyl. 
Cayley  (old  estate) :  de  Caylegh  1323  LI.  First  el.  perhaps  O.E.  Ccega  pers.  n.  as  in 
Cainhoe,Beds.  But  O.E.cce^"key"  in  some  unrecorded  earlier  sense  is  also  possible. 
10.  Ashton-in-Makerfield  (in  the  N. ;  v.) :  Eston  1212  LI,  Aystone  1246  LF, 
Ashton  1255  LF,  1259  LAR,  Asshton  1327,  1332  LS,  Assheton  in  Makrefeld 
(Makerfeld)  1338,  1430  LF.  O.E.  cesc-tun  "  ash  town." 

Brynn  (old  manor)  :  de  Brunne  1276  LAR,  del  Brynne  1432  LF,  the  Bryn  1491 
LP  I.  4,  Bryne  1503  DL,  Bryn  Park  1577  Harr.  It  is  possible  Brynn  is  identical 
with  Welsh  bryn  "  hill,"  O.Bret,  bren  "  colline."  Bryn  Hill  is  the  name  of  a 
place  near  Brynn.  Welsh  bryn  is  common  in  place-names.  Bryn  in  Shropsh. 
(Bren  1272  IPM)  is  no  doubt  the  same  word. 

I  do  not  think  Bryn  is  from  O.E.  byrna,  a  doubtful  side-form  of  burna.  The 
Dan.  word  br0nd  "  well  "  is  now  held  to  be  a  late  form  of  brunn,  due  to  a  change 
u>y>0.  Cf.  Kock,  Svensk  Ljudhistoria  II.  §  809f.  The  same  explanation  no 
doubt  holds  good  for  Norw.  (dial.)  brynn  and  for  brin  "  rivulet  "  in  the  Shetland 
and  Orkney  dialects.  But  Brynn  might  be  a  late  form  of  O.E.  brunna  (burna)  ; 
cf.  Brindle  in  Leyl. 

Garswood  (old  estate) :  Grateswode  1367  VHL  IV.  142,  Gartiswode  1479  LF, 
Garteswodde  1508  DL.  The  early  forms  do  not  throw  sufficient  light  on  the 
name.  Cf.  Gartemos  (Astley)  c  1210  CC. 


S.E.  of  Wigan. 

Leigh  :  de  Lecthe  c  1265  CC,  Leeche  1276  CC,  Legh',  Legh,  Leth,  -e,  Leech',  Leythe, 
Lecht,  de  Leze  1276  IM,  Legh  1292  LF,  Leegh  1341  IN,  Leth  1451  CC.  The  name, 
according  to  YHL  III.  414,  was  formerly  also  used  of  the  district  formed  by 
Westleigh  and  Pennington,  sometimes  also  Bedford,  i.e.,  the  W.  part  of  the 
parish.  The  old  village,  now  the  town,  of  Leigh  stands  partly  in  Westleigh, 
partly  in  Pennington.  It  seems  not  improbable  that  the  names  Astley,  Tyldesley, 
Shakerley  really  contain  as  second  el.  the  place-name  Leigh  :  Astley  =~-  East 
Leigh,  etc.  Leigh  is  O.E.  leah  "  open  land,  meadow,"  etc.  The  country  is  on 
the  whole  flat,  but  rises  slightly  in  the  N.E. 

1.  Westleigh  (v.  ;    W.  of  Leigh  town) :    Westlegh  1238  LAR,  1340,  1350  LF, 
Westeleghe,  Westeleie  c  1260  CC,  Westley  1276  IM,  1396  LF,  Westelegh  1327  LS, 
Westeley  1332  LS.    This  name  probably  means  West  Leigh. 

2.  Pennington  (now  in  the  town  of  Leigh)  :    Pinington  1246  LF,  de  Pyninton, 
de  Pynington  1246  LAR,  Pininton  c  1240  CC,  1299  LF,  Pyninlonn  1299  LF, 
Pynyngton  1322  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Pynynton  1327  LS,  1340  LF,  Penyngton 
1372  LF.    The  name  is  etymologically  distinct  from  Pennington  in  Lo.,  which 
always  has  e  in  the  first  syllable.    Its  first  el.  is  apparently  a  patronymic  O.E. 
Pin(n)ingas.    It  is  true  an  O.E.  Pin  or  Pinna,  is  not  well  evidenced ;  cf .,  however, 
Pinnun  rode  1043  CD  767  and  Pin  Ellis  B  (Searle). 

Etherston  Hall  :  Etheriston  1338  VHL  III.  430,  Ether(e)ston  1415  TI.  The  first 
el.  is  apparently  a  pers.  n.,  e.g.,  O.E.  Eadric  or  Eadred,  or  jEdelric,  -red  (cf. 
Elswick  Am.).  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  tun  or  possibly  stdn  "  stone." 

LEIGH  PAR.  101 

3.  Bedford  (E.  of  Leigh  town  and  Pennington)  :   Bedeford  1201  LPR.  1258  LAR, 
c  1260  CO,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Bedford  1258f.  LAR,  1322  LI,  etc.     "  The  ford   of 
Bede  "    (O.E.  Beda).     The  ford  was  probably  over  Pennington  Brook. 
Eckersley  (apparently  a  lost  name  ;  cf.  Eckersley  Fold  in  Tyldesley)  :  de  Ekdia 
1259  LAR,  Ekersleght  1371  VHL  III.  434.    The  first  el.  seems  to  be  a  pers.  n., 
perhaps  O.E.  Ecghere  or  Ecgheard  with  change  of  g  to  k  before  h.    Second  el. 
O.E.  leak. 

Graveoak  :    Gravoke  manor  1563   DL.     Perhaps  literally   "  the   oak   by   the 


Hopecarr  (on  Pennington  Brook)  :    Hopkar  1329  VHL  III.  433.     O.E.  hop 

"  a  piece  of  dry  land  in  a  fen  "  or  the  like  (cf.  p.  13)  and  O.N.  kiarr  "  swamp." 

Shuttleworth  :   de  Shuttlesworth  1332  LS.    See  p.  63. 

4.  Astley  (v.  ;  E.  of  Leigh) :  Asteleg(h)e  c  1210  CC,  Asteleg  1246  LAR,  Estleg, 
Hasteleg,  Astel  1258  LAR,  Esteleg(h)e  1268  CC,  Astelegh  1309  LF,  etc.,  Asteleye 
1311  IPM,  Asteleghe  1332  LS,  Astley  1479  LF,  etc.     Either  "  East  Leigh  "   or 
"  east  lea." 

Blackmoor  :  Blakemor  c  1210  CC,  de  Blakemor  1298  LI.  "  Black  moor  "  is 
the  meaning  in  the  earliest  example. 

Morleys  [Hall]  :  Morleghe  c  1210  CC,  de  Morlegh,  de  Morleghes  1332  LS,  Morley 
c  1540  Leland,  Morley  al.  Morlas  1546  LF,  Morelees  1577  Saxton.  First  el. 
O.E.  mor  "  moor."  The  place  is  a  little  to  the  S.  of  Blackmoor. 

5.  Tyldesley  with  Shakerley  (N.E.  of  Leigh). 

Tyldesley  (town) :  Tildesleia  c  1210  CC,  Tildesle  1212  LI,  de  Tyldesleg  1246  LAR, 
Tildeslege  c  1280  CC,  Tildeslegh  1332  LS,  etc.,  Tyldeslegh  1322  LI,  etc.  The  first 
el.  seems  to  be  a  pers.  n.,  perhaps  found  also  in  Tilberthwaite,  Lo.  But  an  O.E. 
Tild(e)  is  unknown  and  difficult  to  explain.  On  the  other  hand  Til-  is  a  common 
name-el.,  as  in  Tilfrip,  Tilred,  Tilweald.  Possibly  an  early  contraction  of 
Tilred  or  Tilweald  to  Tild-  may  be  assumed.  Or  Tild(e)  may  be  a  hypochoristic 
form  of  one  of  these  names. 

Shakerley  (h.)  :  Shakerlee,  Shakerlegebroc  c  1210  CC,  Schakeslegh  1246  LAR, 
de  Schakerley  1284  LAR,  Shakerleie  c  1280  CC,  de  Shakerlegh  (Shakreslegh)  1332 
LS,  Shakerslegh  1384  LF.  With  this  name  are  to  be  compared  :  Scakeresdalehefd 
1189-96  Ch  (Ormskirk),  Shackerley,  Le.  Perhaps  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  sceacere 
"  robber  "  ( =  O.H.G.  scdhhdri),  possibly  used  as  a  pers.  n.  ;  cf.  semita  latronum 
(near  Ramsbottom)  13  cent.  Whit.  II.  324.  But  the  common  occurrence  of  the 
el.  is  remarkable  and  renders  some  other  etymology  desirable.  In  NED 
shakers  (pi.)  is  evidenced  in  the  sense  "  quaking- grass,  Briza  media  "  from  1597. 
The  word  is  found  in  Ches.  dial.  If  this  is  an  old  word,  it  may  be  the  first  el.  of 

Chaddock  Hall  :  de  Chaydok  1246  LAR,  de  Chaidoke  1323  LI,  de  Chaidok  1332 
LS.  Nothing  in  the  situation  of  the  place  throws  any  light  on  this  remarkable 
name.  The  early  forms  have  ai  (Chadoc  temp.  Henry  III.,  quoted  VHL  III. 
4422,  is  found  in  a  late  transcript)  ;  the  first  el.  can  thus  not  be  the  pers.  n. 
Chad.  I  suspect  Chaddock,  like  the  similar  Haydock,  is  a  Celtic  name.  But  the 
etymology  is  too  doubtful  to  be  discussed  here. 

Cleworth  :  de  Cleworthe  1332  LS,  Cliworth  1600  RS  XII.  The  place  stands  on 
a  slight  hill.  The  name  very  likely  contains  the  elements  O.E,.  clif  "  height  " 


and  worp  "  enclosure,"  etc.  Cf.  Clewer,  Berks.,  identified  by  Skeat  with  O.E. 
clifware  "  cliff  men  "  in  clifwara  gemcere  (Kent). 

6.  Atherton  (N.  of  Leigh,  town) :  Aderton  1212, 1243  LI,  de  Haderton  1246  LAR, 
de  Aserton,  de  Adserton  1265  LI,  Atherton  1322  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  de  Atherton 
1298  LF,  Athirton  1340  LF,  etc.,  de  Athirton  1293  LI.  The  first  el.  is  probably 
O.E.  Mfalhere  or  JEdelred  (>JEdere,  JEderred}.  But  Eadhere  (suggested  by 
Sephton)  or  Eadred  is  also  possible.  Atherstone,  Warw.  (Aderestone  DB, 
Edrideston  1246),  Atherstone-on-Stour,  Warw.  (Edricestone  DB,  Athericstone 
1248),  Arreton  Ha.  (Atherton  1316  FA)  may  be  compared.  The  forms  Adser-, 
Aserton  may  be  Norman  spellings. 

Chowbent  (now  in  Atherton  town) :  Chollebynt,  Shollebent  c  1350  VHL  III.  437, 
Cholbent  1496  ib. ;  but  Cholle  1385  ib. ;  Chowebent  c  1550  DL.  Cholle  is  also 
used  as  a  family  name  (e.g.,  de  Cholle  1322  LI).  Perhaps  it  is  identical  with 
(de)  Cholale  (apparently  a  lost  place  near  Liverpool)  1323  LI,  1325  LCR,  1330 
LF,  i.e.,  Ceol(a)  pers.  n.  and  halh.  The  second  el.  -bent  seems  to  be  correctly 
explained  by  Wyld  as  "  bent-land."  Cf.  Chequerbent,  N.  of  Leigh. 


This  parish,  the  district  round  Wigan  town,  is  separated  by  the  Douglas 
from  Leyland  hundred. 

1.  Abram  (S.E.  of  Wigan ;   v.) :   Adburgham  a  1199  CC,  1246,  1303  LF,  1332 
LS,  etc.,  Edburgham  1212  LI,  de  Abburgham  1246,  1263  LAR,  Abraham  1372 
LF,  etc.,  Abram  1461  CC.    The  "  ham  of  Eadburh  "   (Harrison).    Eadburh  is  a 
common  fern.  O.E.  name. 

Bamfurlong  :   Banforthlang  1448  VHL  IV.  Ill,  Banforthland  1538  LP  II.  92, 

Banforlonge  Hall  1553  DL,  Bamferlonge  1584  Wigan  R.     O.E.  bean  "  bean  " 

and  furlong.    Cf.  Peasfurlong  p.  97. 

Bickershaw  :    Bikersah,  Bikesah  c  1200,  Bikersahge  c  1240  CC,  Bykershalgh] 

1395  LF.     The  first  el.  is  presumably  identical  with  that  of  Bickerstaffe,  De. 

See  further  Bickerstaffe,  which  is  better  evidenced  in  early  records.    Bickershaw 

is  apparently  not  on  a  brook. 

Occleshaw  :    Aculuesahe,  Aculuesaue  a   1199  CC,  de  Aculleschwe,  Akolwesag 

1246  LAR,  de  Okelshagh  1303  LF.    "  The  shaw  of  Acwulf"  Acwulf  is  a  common 

O.E.  pers.  n. 

2.  Hindley  (E.  of  Wigan,  v.) :  Hindele  1212  LL  c  1230  CC,  1246  LAR,  Hindeleye 
1259  LAR,  Hyndeley  1285  LAR,  1332  LS,  Hindelegh  1301  LF,  Hyndelegh  1303, 
1335  LF,  etc.,  Hindley  1479  LF.    The  first  el.  is  O.E.  hind  "  doe." 

Platt  Bridge  :  platte  1212-42  CC,  Plat  Bridge  1599  Wigan  R.  Cf.  Platt  Sa.  p.  31. 
The  addition  Bridge  shows  that  this  is  probably  dial,  plat  "  a  foot-bridge  " 
(1652ff.),  derived  in  NED  from  O.F.  plat. 

3.  Aspul  (N.E.  of  Wigan) :    Aspul  1212  LI,  c  1210  CC,  Apshull,  de  Haspull, 
de  Aspyll  1246  LAR,  Aspull  1262  LAR,  Asphull  1332  LS,  Aspehull  1421  LF. 
O.E.  cesp  "  aspen  "   and  hyll  "  hill."    The  township  occupies  fairly  high  land. 

4.  Haigh  (on  high  land,  N.E.  of  Wigan,  v.) :  Hage  1194  LPR,  Hache  c  1210  CC, 
Hagh  1298  LF,  1312  LI,  etc. ;  Haghe  1303  FA,  1332  LS  ;  Hawe  1330  LI,  c  1540 
Leland,  Hay  1£39  CC,  haigh  1581  Wigan  R,  Thaigh  al.  Le  Haigh  1628  DL.    O.E. 

WIGAN  PAR.  103 

haga  "  enclosure  "  ;    also  "  homestead,  messuage."    As  regards  the  sound  de- 
velopment, cf.  p.  21. 

5.  Ince-in-Makerfield  (S.E.  of  Wigan,  of  which  it  is  a  suburb) :   Ines  1202  LPR, 
1212  LI,  1284  LAR,  1327  LS,  etc.,  Hynis  a  1199,  c  1210  CC,  Huines  1204  LPR, 
Ynes  1206  LPR,  1261  LAR,  Hines,  de  Inys  1246  LAR,  Ynes,  Tins  1261  LAR, 
Inies,  Ines  1262  LAR,  Hyns  1276  LAR,  del  Henes  1285  LAR,  Ins  in  Makerfeld 
1332  LS,  Ins  1341  IN. 

This  is  a  British  name,  identical  with  Welsh  ynys,  O.Bret,  inis,  O.Ir.  inis, 
etc.,  "  island."  The  Celtic  word  is  often  used  to  denote  a  "  holm,"  "  a  water- 
meadow  "  and  the  like.  Cf.  on  Ir.  inis  Joyce  I.  441,  on  Welsh  ynys  Bannister 
p.  5.  Ince  is  found  as  a  place-name  also  in  W.  Derby  (  :  Ince  Blundell)  and  in 
Ches.  The  latter  appears  as  Inise  in  DB.  Ince  (Ches.)  with  Elton  forms  an 
"  island  "  in  the  low  country  along  the  Mersey.  Ince-in-Makerfield  township 
to  no  small  extent  consists  of  mossland  (VHL  IV.  101).  No  doubt  the  name 
originally  referred  to  some  higher  dry  land  among  mosslands. 

6.  Wigan  (town) :   Wigan  1199  Ch,  1477, 1501  LF,  Wygan  c  1215  CC,  1237,  1246, 
1278,  1284  LAR,  1317  LF,  1332  LS,  1387  Trevisa  V.  329,  etc. ;   Wyan  1420  LF  ; 
de  Wigani  (for  Wigain  ?)  1209  LPR,  Wigayn  1245  ChR,  de  Wygayn,  de  Wygain 
1246  LAR,  Wygayn  1258  ChR.    Wigan  stands  near  the  river  Douglas.     It  is 
held  to  be  identical  with  Coccium  of  the  Roman  time. 

It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  this  can  be  a  Germanic  name.  A  Brit,  origin 
seems  plausible.  The  usual  early  form  is  Wigan.  The  side-form  Wigayn  ( Wygain, 
etc.)  may  be  due  to  the  influence  of  the  pers.  n.  Wigan  which  often  appears  as 
Wigayn,  etc.  This  pers.  n.  is  apparently  of  Breton  origin  (O.Bret.  Uuicon, 
Guegon,  M.Bret.  Guegan,  Loth  174,  208)  ;  the  form  Wigayn  is  to  be  explained 
in  the  same  way  as  M.E.  Aleyn  by  the  side  of  Alan.  If  the  place-name  Wigan 
is  of  Brit,  origin,  at  least  two1  alternative  explanations  seem  possible.  It  may  be 
identical  with  Gaul.  Vicanum  (now  le  Vigan),  derived  by  Holder  from  the  pers.  n. 
Vicanus.  Or  it  may  be  analogous  to  Wigan  in  Anglesey.  This  seems  to  be  an 
ellipsis  of  an  earlier  name  of  the  type  Tref  Wigan  or  Bod  Wigan  "  the  village 
(homestead)  of  one  Wigan."  A  place-name  Bodewygan  (not  identical  with 
Wigan)  actually  occurs  in  early  sources  relating  to  Anglesey  (The  Extent  of 
Anglesey  1294,  in  Seebohm,  Tribal  Custom  in  Wales,  App.  A.  p.  12).  The  Welsh 
pers.  n.  Wigan  may  represent  O.W.  Uuicant  (cf.  Welsh  Morgan<O.W.  Morcant). 
If  Wigan  in  Lane,  is  due  to  similar  ellipsis  it  may  contain  a  name  corresponding 
to  O.W.  Guicon,  O.Bret.  Uuicon.  As  regards  the  ending  -an  we  may  compare 
the  name  Mohan  (DB)  <  O.W.  Mabon.  The  medial  g  is  due  to  Brit,  lenition.2 
Gidlow  :  de  Guddelawe  1246  LAR,  de  Gedelowe,  de  Gydelawe  1285  LAR.  First  el. 
apparently  O.E.  Gydda  pers.  n.  in  gyddan  dene  943  BCS  789  (Berks.),  perhaps 
found  also  in  Gidcot,  Gidleigh  (Devon).  Second  el.  O.E.  hldw  "  hill." 
Poolstock  :  Pulstoke  1520,  Pullstoke  1528  DL.  First  el.  O.E.  pull  "  pool "  ; 
second  O.E.  stoc  "  place."  The  place  is  close  to  Poolstock  Brook. 

1  Dr.  Bradley,  EHR  26,  p.  822,  suggests  a  derivative  of  Welsh  gwig  (<  Lat.  vicus).     This 
is,  of  course,  possible. 

2  The  different  treatment  of  Brit,  k  in  Eccles,  Maker(field),  where  lenition  also  must  have 
taken  place,  may  be  due  to  a  difference  between  Brit,  g  (<  k)  and  O.E.  g,  which  caused 
substitution  sometimes  of  O.E.  g,  sometimes  of  O.E.  k  (c).    In  Pedersen's  opinion  (I.  11  Off.), 
k  by  lenition  first  became  a  pure  tenuis,  whence  later  usually  g. 


Scholes  :  del  Scales  1332  LS,  1342  LF,  Scooles  1555  LF.    O.N.  skali  "  hut." 
Swinley  :    de  Suyneley  1283  CC,  de  Swynlegh  1332  LS,  1384  LF.     O.E.  swin 
"  swine  "    and  leah. 

WheUey  :  Whelley  1553  LF,  1603  Wigan  R.  First  el.  perhaps  as  in  Wheelton 
(p.  132),  i.e.,  O.E.  hweol  "  wheel." 

7.  Pemberton  (S.W.  of  Wigan) :    Penberton  1201  LPR,  1242  LAR,  Penbreton 
1202  LF,  Pemberton  1212  LI,  1241,  1292  LF,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Pembirton 
G  1225  CC,  1292  LF,  etc.,  Pembreton  1284  LAR,  Pemburton  1396  LF. 

I  believe  this  is  a  compound  of  pen  "  hill  "  (a  Brit,  word  on  which  see  p.  41) 
and  O.E.  beretun  "  barton."  Pemberton  seems  to  have  been  one  of  the  beretuns 
of  Newton  (VHL  IV.  79).  The  place  stands  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  (310ft.)  which 
has  given  name  to  Orrell ;  this  may  have  had  an  earlier  name  Pen.  Derivation 
from  O.E.  pen  "  a  fold  "  is  possible,  but  seems  improbable. 
Hawkley  :  Hawkley  or  Hawcliffe  1512  VHL  IV.  81,  Hawkeley  1520  DL,  Haucley 
1586  Wigan  R,  hawcliffe  1600  RS  XII.  Earlier  forms  are  needed.  First  el. 
no  doubt  O.E.  hafoc  "  hawk." 

Laithwaite  :  Leikeththeit,  Leikestheith  c  1200  LPD  II.  197,  Leicketeitegate  c  1200 
CC.  First  el.  probably  O.N.  Leikr  ;  cf.  Lindkvist  p.  117.  On  thwaite,  see  p.  19. 
Markland  :  de  Marclane,  de  Markelan  1278  LAR,  Marclan  1323  LI,  de  Marclan 
1383  LF.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  lanu  "  road."  The  first  seems  to  be  O.E. 
mearc  "  boundary,"  etc.  ;  the  name  is  perhaps  equivalent  in  meaning  to  dial. 
markway  "  a  track  to  enable  the  holders  of  the  divisions  of  a  common  field  to  have 
access  to  them  "  (EDD). 

Norley  :    de  Nortlegh  1293  LI,  de  Northlegh  1306  AP,  1320,  1321  LF.     "  The 
north  lea." 
Tunstead  :    Tunstede  1202  LF.    Cf.  the  same  name  p.  93. 

8.  Winstanley  (S.W.  of  Wigan)  :     Vnstanesle,   Vnstaneslega   1206,  1207   LPR, 
Winstanesle  1212  LI,  c  1200  CC,  Winstaneslee  c  1200  CC,  Winstaneslege  1212  LI, 
de  Wynestaneslegh  1246  LAR  ;    Winstanlee  c  1200  CC  657,  Winstanlegh  1332  LS. 
"  The  lea  of  Wynstan."     Wynstdn  is  a  common  O.E.  pers.  n. :  Winestan  DB  is 
very  likely  the  same  name. 

Blackley  Hurst  :   Blakeleie,  -broc  c  1200  CC.    The  place  is  situated  at  a  hill. 

9.  Billinge  (N.E.  of  St.  Helens  ;    v.)  :    Billing  1202  LPR,  Bulling  c  1200  CC, 
1204  LPR,  1212  LI,  1278  LAR,  etc.,  Billing  1206  LPR,  1246  LAR,  Buttynth 
1292  VHL  IV.  83,  Bullyng  1321  LF,  Bullinge  1332  LS,  de  Billyngge  1332  LF, 
Billynge  1366  LF,  Billindge  1580,  1585  Wigan   R.     According  to   Wyld   the 
name  is  pronounced  [bilindz]. 

In  Billinge  township  is  the  top  of  Billinge  Hill  (over  550ft.),  and  it  would  be 
reasonable  to  suppose  that  it  was  named  from  the  hill.  Cf.  Billinge  Hill  in  Bl 
(p.  66).  Only  the  usual  form  Bulling  seems  to  point  to  O.E.  -y-,  and  perhaps 
we  have  to  start  from  an  O.E.  Byllingas,  a  patronymic  formed  from  O.E.  Bulla 
or  Bolla  pers.  n.  But  between  b  and  I  O.E.  i  might  well  have  become  y  ;  cf. 
Pilkington,  p.  49.  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  the  name  is  an  original  hill-name. 
Birchley  :  Biricherelee  1202  LF,  Birchelei(e)brok  a  1212  CC,  Bircheley  1422  LF. 
O.E.  birce  "  birch  "  and  leah. 

Crookhurst  :  Crochurste  a  1212  CC,  Crochurst  1256  LF,  de  Crochurst  1246  LAR, 
de  Crokhirst  1262  LF.  The  first  el.  is  doubtful.  It  may  be  M.E.  crok  "  bend," 


or  the  pers.  n.  Croc  (probably  Scand.).   But  cf.  O.E.  crochyrsta  (pi.)  947  BCS  834, 

crochyrst  963  BCS  1125  (Berks.). 

Falling  (apparently  now  lost)  :   Falinge  a  1212  CC.    O.ft.fcelging  "  fallow  land.' 

Cf.  Falinge  p.  60,  and  see  p.  10. 

Gautley  :   GaUley  Wood  1551  DL.    Is  the  first  el.  O.N.  goltr  "  hog  "    or  GdUi 

pers.  n.  ? 

10.  Orrell  (S.W.  of  Wigan)  :  Horhill  1202  LPR,  Horhull  1204,  1205  LPR,  Orhille 
1206  LPR,  Horhul,  Horul  1212  LI,  Orul  a  1220  CC,  Oril  1272  LAR,  Orhul  1292 
LF,  Orell  1332  LS.    An  altitude  of  over  300  ft.  is  reached  at  Orrell  Mount ;  this 
is  no  doubt  the  hill  after  which  the  township  was  named.    The  first  el.  might  be 
O.E.  or  a,  "  margin,  bank."     The  Douglas  forms  the  northern  boundary  of  the 
township,  but  the  higher  country  is  some  way  distant  from  the  river.     More 
likely  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  or  a  "  ore,"    though  it  is  true  there  seems  to  be  no 
evidence  of  any  other  mining  than  coal-mining  having  been  carried  on  in  Orrell. 
Lamberhead  Green  (v.) :  Londmerhede  1519  LF.    O.E.  landgem&re  "  boundary  " 
and  heafod  "  hill."  The  place  is  on  the  boundary  between  Orrell  and  Pemberton. 
It  stands  on  a  hill. 

11.  Upholland  (W.  of  Wigan,  v.)  :    Hoiland  DB,  Hollande  1202  LF,  Holand 
1224  LF,  1332  LS,  1341  IN,  Upholand  1226  LI,  1298  LI.    Upholland  is  so  called 
to  distinguish  it  from  Downholland.    The  name  is  to  be  compared  with  Down- 
holland  (which  see),  with  Hoyland  in  Yks.  (  :  Hoiland,  Holand  DB),  Holland  in 
Line.     We  have  to  choose  between  O.E.  hoi-land  "  hollow  land  "  and  ho-land 
from  hoh  "  heel ;    spur  of  hill,"    etc.     As  regards  Upholland  derivation  from 
hoh  is  extremely  probable,  as  the  village  stands  on  the  slope  of  a  ridge.    The 
early  forms  with  almost  exclusive  -I-  also  point  to  Holand  ;   later  shortening  of 
the  vowel  has  taken  place.     The  spelling  oi  in  early  forms  points  to  Ho-  ;    oi 
is  probably  a  Norman  spelling  for  o  (cf.  Menger,  The  Anglo-Norman  Dialect 
p.  74f .).    In  early  northern  texts  as  the  Cursor  Mundi  (MS  C)  oi  is  used  to  denote  6. 
Pimbo  :   Pembowe,  Pimbowe  1598  DL.  The  place  is  on  the  N.W.  slope  of  Billinge 
Hill.    Earlier  material  is  necessary. 

12.  Dalton  (W.  of  Wigan,  on  the  Douglas)  :   Daltone  DB,  Dalton  1212  LI,  1276 
LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Daltun  a  1225  CC.    The  place  was  no  doubt  named  after 
the  valley  of  the  Douglas  :   O.E.  dcel  or  possibly  O.N.  dalr  "  valley  "   and  tun. 
Ashhurst  Beacon,  A.  Hall  :    de  Aschehyrst  1285  LAR,  de  Asshurst  1323  LI, 
de  Asshhurst  1332  LS,  de  Asshehurst  1321,  1341  LF,  Ashhurst  1577  Saxton. 
O.E.  cesc-hyrst  "  ash-hill."    Ashhurst  Beacon  is  on  a  hill  reaching  c  570ft. 
Dalton  Lees  :    de  Daletanelees,  de  Daletonlees  c  1240  CC,  Dalton  leis  1461  CC. 
"  The  Dalton  meadows  "    (O.E.  leah). 

Hawksclough  :    Havekesnestescloch  c  1200  CC,  Hauekenestiscloch  c  1240  CC. 
"  Hawksnest  clough." 


This  large  parish  stretches  from  the  Mersey  N.W.  far  into  the  hundred.  The 
ground  varies;  there  is  chiefly  level  country  along  the  Mersey  and  in  the  N., 
but  higher  land  (about  250ft.)  in  the  middle. 

1.  Great  Sankey  (W.  of  Warrington  ;  v.)  :  de  Sonchi  c  1180  Ch,  Sanki  1212  LI, 
Sonky  1243  LI,  1278  LAR,  1322  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  de  Saunky  1246  LAR,  Shonkey 


1258  LAR,  Sanky  1285  ChR,  Great  Sonky  1325ff.  LF,  1332  LI.    Gt.  Sankey  is 
bounded  on  the  S.  by  the  Mersey  and  on  the  E.  by  Sankey  Brook,  which  separates 
it  from  Little  Sankey  (in  Warrington).    The  place  was  no  doubt  named  from  the 
brook.     See  p.  94. 

2.  Penketh  (W.  of  Great  Sankey,  on  the  Mersey ;   v.) :    Penket  1243  LI,  1285 
LAR,  ChR,  etc.,  Penketh  1259  LAR,  1285  ib.,  1290  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Penkith 

1259  LAR.     This  is,  in  my  opinion,  a  British  name,  a  compound  of  the  Celtic 
words  found  in  Welsh  a,spen  "  end,"  etc.,  and  coed  "  wood  "  (Brit.  *keto-<*kaito-). 
This  is  also  suggested  by  McClure  p.  86.    The  name  is  common  in  Wales,  and  is 
found  in  Cornwall  and  Brittany  :    Pencoed,  Montg.,  Glam.  ;    Penquite,  Cornw. 
(  :  Penkuek,  Penquit  1326  OR  I.  294f.)  ;    Penhoat,  Brittany  (  :  Penhuet  1282, 
Penquoet  1325,  etc.,  Loth  224).    Cf.  also  Pencoyd,  Heref.  (  :  Pencoyt  1291,  1330 
Bannister).   The  name  no  doubt  means  in  most  cases  "  the  end  (edge)  of  the  wood." 

3.  Cuerdley  (on  the  Mersey,  N.E.  of  Widnes)  :   Kyuerlay,  de  Kyuerdeleg,  Cuner- 
cheleg  1246  LAR,  Kyuerdelegh  1275  LI  I.  240.  Keuerdeley  1282  LI,  Kynerdele  1301 
OR,  Keuerdelegh  1324  LI,  1331  Ind,  Kyu'delegh  1327  LS,  Keu'deley  1332  LS, 
Keerdelegh  1344  LF.     This  curious  name  must  be  compared  with  Cuerdale  Bl. 
The  following  suggestion  may  be  made.    Early  forms  seem  to  point  to  an  O.E. 
base  *cyfrede  or  the  like,  apparently  an  adj .    This  might  be  compared  with  Core 
in  Chipping  par.  (earlier  Couere,  Covre)  and  words  mentioned  under  this  name, 
e.g.,  O.H.G.  chubisi  "  hut,"   O.N.  kofr  "  chest,"  O.N.  kufr  "  rounded  summit," 
etc.    If  the  original  meaning  of  the  stem  was  something  like  "  round,  convex 
object,  mound  "  (cf.  Torp-Fick,  p.  47),  the  adj.  would  mean  "  rounded,  convex  " 
or  the  like.    The  ground  rises  somewhat  in  the  township,  an  altitude  of  c  65ft. 
being  attained. 

4.  Widnes  (town) :   Wydnes  c  1200  WhC  803,  Widhnes  13  cent.  ib.  805,  Wydenes 
1242  LI,  Wydnes  1251  ChR,  1255  IPM,  1271  Ind,  etc.,  Widnesse  1271  LAR. 
Widnes  stands  at  a  headland  jutting  out  into  the  Mersey.    The  elements  of  the 
name  are  O.E.  wid  "  wide,  large,"  and  O.E.  ncess  (or  O.N.  nes)  "  promontory." 
Appleton  (h.,  formerly  apparently  the  name  of  the  township)  :    Apelton  1182 
LPR,   1243  LI,   etc.,  AppeUon  1183ff.   LPR,   1332  LS,   Apilton  1246   LAR, 
1322  LI.    Cf.  -O.E.  ceppel-tun  "  orchard."    Appleton  is  a  common  place-name. 
Farnworth  (church,  formerly  chapel) :  ffarneword  1324  WhC  &15,ffarnword  1337 
WhC  817,  Farneworth  1518  LF.    O.E./eam  "  fern  "  and  worp  "  enclosure,"  etc. 
Denton  :    Denton  1272  WhC  821,  1292  PW,  de  Denton  1246  LAR,  1332  LS. 
O.E.  denu  "  valley  "  and  tun.    The  place  stands  near  a  brook. 

Upton  :  Upton  1251  ChR,  13  cent.  WhC  812,  Uptone  1292  PW,  de  Hupton  1246 
LAR,  de  Upton  1276  LAR.  O.E.  *upp-tun  "  the  upper  tun."  Upton  is  in  the 
northern  higher  part  of  the  township. 

5.  Ditton  (N.W.  of  Widnes,  on  Ditton  Brook  ;  v.) :   Litton  1194  LPR,  1212  LI, 
1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Dytton  1298  LI ;  Dutton  1202  LPR,  1327  LS,  1341  IN  ; 
de  Dithon  (Ditgthon)  1246  LAR.    No  doubt  O.E.  dictun ;   the  1246  forms  last 

rted  to  some  extent  corroborate  this.     The  occasional  form  Dutton  may  be 
to  confusion  with  Dutton,  N.W.  Ches.    The  ditch  which  gave  name  to  the 
township  seems  to  be  found  as  the  first  el.  also  of  the  next  name. 
Ditchfield  (c  1  m.  N.  of  Ditton) :   del  Dichefeld  1322  LI,  de  Dychefeld  1332  LS, 
1341  IN. 


Slynehead  (now  apparently  lost,  but  cf.  Slynehead  Farm  in  the  N.E.  corner  of 
Gt.  Sankey)  :  de  Slyneheud  1323  LI,  de  Slyneheued  1326  LCR.  Cf.  Slyne  in  Lo. 
Slyne  is  apparently  an  O.E.  *slinu  or  the  like,  meaning  "  slope  "  or  "  hill." 

6.  Bold  (N.E.  of  Widnes) :  BoUe  1204  LPR,  1212  LI,  etc.,  Bold  1257  LAR,  1340 
LF,  etc.,  Boulde  1332  LS,  Boolde  1577  Saxton.     O.E.  bold  "  dwelling,  house, 

Barrow  (Hall)  :  del  Barwe  1284  LAR,  de  Barwe  1332  LS,  del  Barowe  1332  LF. 
O.E.  bearo  (g.  bearwes)  "  grove."    The  place  stands  in  level  country. 
Cranshaw  (Hall)  :   Croncisschagh  1337  WhC  817,  Cmynsey  1587  CW  xi.    The 
first  el.  is  O.E.  cranuc,  cronuc  "  crane,"  later  replaced  by  crane. 
Holbrook  :    de  Holebrok  1332  LS,  de  Holbrok  1335  LF.     Whittle  Brook  was 
formerly  called  Holbrook  (the  Holebrok  1339  HS  XLI.  226)  "  the  hollow  brook." 
Lunt  Heath  :   ?  du  Lund  1292  LF.    O.N.  lundr  "  grove." 

Quick  (sometimes  called  a  vill ;  now  lost)  :  Quike  1202  LF,  Lawike  1212  RB, 
Lawyke  1212  LI,  de  la  Quicke,  la  Quike  a  1220  CO,  de  Quike  1276  LAR.  Cf .  Quick, 
Yks.  :  Quyk  1297,  Quike  1232  (Goodall).  I  propose  as  the  source  quick  "  a  quick- 
set hedge  "  (1456  NED).  Cf.  Cwichege  772  BCS  207. 

7.  Cronton  (N.  of  Widnes,  v.) :  Growynton  1242  LI,  Crohinton  1243  ib.,  Crouington 
1246  LAR,  Croynton  1322  LI,  1327,  1332  LS,  Croenton  13  cent.  WhC  811ff., 
Grouwenton  1333  LF,  Crounton  1346  FA ;   Crawynton  1292  PW,  Craunton  1341 
IN.   Wyld  derives  the  first  el.  from  O.E.  crdwe  "  crow,"  whereas  Sephton  suggests 
an  O.E.  pers.  n.  derived  from  crdwe.    The  early  forms  do  not  favour  these  etymo- 
logies ;  we  expect  more  early  forms  with  aw.    The  rare  Crawynton  and  the  like 
may  be  due  to  the  change  ow>aw  ;   cf.  p.  21.    The  form  Grewinton  (12  cent.) 
quoted  under  Halsnead  infra  should  probably  be  read  Growinton,  e  having  been 
miswritten  or  misread  for  o.  An  O.E.  base  *Crowinga-  or  *Croinga-tun  seems  most 
plausible.     No  O.E.  pers.  n.  from  which  a  patronymic  Cro(w)ingas  may  be 
derived  is  known,  but  we  may  perhaps  compare  Fris.  Kroyenga,  Krooyenga 

Pex  Hill  (a  hill  of  200ft.) :  Peghteshull  13  cent.  WhC  812.  Peght-  is  O.E.  Pe(o)ht 
"  Pict  "  or  a  hypochoristic  form  of  names  such  as  Peohthelm,  Peohtwine,  etc. 

8.  Rainhill  (S.  of  St.  Helens ;   v.) :    Reynhull,  -hill  1246  LAR,  Raynhull  1285 
LAR,  1346  FA,  1354  LF,  Raynull  1258  LAR,  1322  LI,  Reynhull  1301  LF,  Rayne- 
hull  1332  LS,  Raynhill  1400  LF.    The  township  occupies  the  S.  slope  of  a  hill, 
which  was  no  doubt  originally  called  Rainhill.    Lindkvist  p.  74  suggests  as  first 
el.  O.N.  rein  "  strip  of  land  forming  the  boundary  of  a  field  or  estate,"    and 
points  out  that  the  hill  forms  the  boundary  against  Eccleston.    But  it  is  doubtful 
if  rein  could  be  used  of  such  a  boundary  ;   the  fields  of  Eccleston  and  RainhiU 
hardly  met  on  the  hill.    And  we  do  not  expect  a  Scand.  word  as  the  first  efl. 
It  seems  plausible  that  Rainhill  and  Rainford  have  the  same  first  el.    The  earfy 
forms  of  the  latter  point  to  a  dissyllabic  first  oheme  (Raine-)  ;   in  Rainhill  thfe 
unstressed  vowel  would  be  dropped  early  before  the  h-,  which  was  often  silent. 
This  el.  is  very  likely  a  hypochoristic  form  (Regna)  of  O.E.  names  in  Retfn-, 
Regen- ;    Regenheah,  -here,  -pryp  are  certain  O.E.  names.    A  possible  example 
of  the  O.E.  Regna  is  found  in  Rainham,  Nrf.  (Reineham  DB,  Reynham  1302  FA) ; 
cf.   Rainton,    Yks.    (Rainincton,    Reineton    DB),   Rainton,   Durh.    (Reinun-, 
Re(n)ingtun  c  1125  Mawer),  Rennington,  Nhb.  (Reiningtun  1104-8  Mawer).   . 


Ritherope  (N.E.  of  Rainhill,  near  a  brook)  :    Rydrope  Brook  1557  DL.     O.E. 
Jiryder  "  ox,  cow  "   and  hop,  here  perhaps  in  the  sense  "  a  valley." 

9.  Whiston  (S.W.  of  St.  Helens  ;   v.) :  Quistan  1190  CO  603f.,  1252  IPM,  1332 
LS,  etc.,  de  Quicstan  1246  LAR,  Wytstan,  de  Wytston  1252  IPM,  Whislan  1272 
LAR,  1376  LF,  Quystan,   Wystane  1278  LAR,   Whystan  1284  LAR,  Quitstan 
1292  PW,  Whitstan  1341  IN.     The  name  means  "  white  stone  "  ;    there  must 
have  been  a  conspicuous  white  stone  at  the  place.    Whiston  in  Wore,  has  the 
same  etymology  ;   the  white  stone  is  in  this  case  mentioned  in  early  records. 
Halsnead  :   Grewinton  Halfsnede  12  cent.  VHL  III.  39213,  Halsnade  1246,  1256 
LAR,  Holsnade  1246  LAR,  de  Hallesnad  1257  LA_R.    Obviously  "  half  part  "  ; 
snede  means  "  a  small  piece,   morsel  "    (O.E.   snced)  ;    cf.   NED.     The  earliest 
form  indicates  that  Halsnead  originally  belonged  to  Cronton,  which  it  adjoins. 
Ridgate  :    Rudegate  1277,  Le  Ridgate  1304  Ind,  de  (la)  Ruddegate  1284  LAR, 
Ruddegate  1337  WhC  817.     This  name  means  "  the  cleared  road  "  ;    rid  vb. 
(M.E.  rudden,  ridden)  means  "  to  clear  (a  way),"  etc.    Gate  is  O.N.  gata  "  road." 
According  to  Bartholomew,  Rudgate  is  the  name  of  a  portion  of  Ermine  Street 
between  Tadcaster  and  Aldborough.    Ruddegate  in  the  example  from  WhC  817 
designates  a  road. 

10.  Prescot  (town):  Prestecota  1178  LPR,  Prestecote  1189-96,  prestecot  1189-98 
Ch,  de  Prestcote  1246  LAR,  de  Prestecote  1254  LF,  Prestecote  1329  LF,  Prestcot, 
-cott  1341  IN.    Some  of  the  examples  rather  refer  to  Prescot  parish.    Prescot 
is  a  small  township,  having  been  cut  off  from  Whiston  as  a  manor  for  the  rectory 
(VHL  III.  353).     The  name  means  "  the  rectory,  the  rector's  manor,"    O.E. 
preosta  cot»    O.E.  cot  may  here  be  used  in  the  sense  of  "  manor,"    like  O.E. 
cotllf,  on  which  see  Maitland,  Domesday  p.  334,  and  Bosworth-Toller  (Suppl.). 

11.  Eccleston  (W.  of  St.  Helens  ;  v.)  :   Ecclistona  1190  CC,  Eccliston  a  1220  CC, 
Accliston  1243  LI,  Edeston  1246  LAR,  Eccleston  1276  LAR,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc. 
First  el.  a  Brit,  form  of  Lat.  ecclesia  ;  cf.  Eccles  in  Salf.,  p.  37. 

Glest  :   Glest  a  1220  CC  606,  1333  Moore  MSS  (1075),  de  Glest  1276  LAR,  Gleast 

1602  DL.     Glest  is  in  the  N.W.  part  of  the  township.     There  seem  to  be  no 

physical  features  that  help  to  explain  the  name.    It  may  possibly  be  a  derivative 

of  the  base  glms  discussed  under  Gleaston  Lo. 

Scholes  :   Eschales  a  1190,  Scolys  1451  CC.    O.N.  skali  "  hut." 

Thatto  Heath  (partly  in  Sutton)  :    Thetwall  12  cent.  VHL  III.  358,  de  Thotewell 

1246  LAR.    Thatto  Brook  is  mentioned  in  the  deed  quoted  in  VHL.    So  Thatto 

may  have  been  originally  the  name  of  a  brook.    The  elements  of  the  name  seem 

to  be  O.E.  peote  "  waterpipe,  channel,  torrent,  cataract  "  and  wcella  "  stream." 

Wolfscroft,  -head  (now  lost ;  sometimes  called  a  vill.) :    Wolfscroft,  de  Wul- 

croftheued  1276  LAR.    "The  croft  of  Wulf"  ;   O.E.  Wulfis  a  pers.  n. 

12.  Sutton  (S.E.  of  and  partly  in   St.   Helens)  :    Sutton  1200  AP,  1246  LAR, 
1332  LS,  etc.     O.E.  sud-tun  "  south  town." 

Burtonhead  :  Burton(e)heued  a  1230  CC  597,  de  Burtonheued  1246  LAR,  Burton- 
heued  1284  LAR,  Bortonheved  1292  PW.  Burton  must  be  the  name  of  the  old 
manor  which  gave  name  to  Burtonwood,  the  township  adjoining  Sutton  on  the 
E.  Yet  Burtonhead  is  in  the  W.  part  of  Sutton.  Head  in  this  and  the  following 
names  means  "  hill." 
Eltonhead  :  Eltoneheued  a  1230  CC,  de  Eltonheued  1284  LAR,  1332  LS,  Eltonheved 


1292  PW,  de  Eltonheved  1337  LF.    The  first  el.  must  be  Elton,  the  name  of  a  lost 

place,  representing  an  O.E.  Elian  tun. 

Micklehead  :    Myckleheade  1600  RS  XII.  239.     "  The  great  hill."    O.E.  mycel 

"  great." 

Sherdley  :  de  Sherdilegh  1323  LI,  de  Sherdelegh  1332  LS,  de  Schardeley  1337  WhC 

816,  de  Sherdeley  1386  LF.    The  first  el.  appears  to  be  O.E.  sceard  "  a  gap  in  an 


Woodfall  Hall  :    Wudefal  a  1230  CO,  de  Wodefal  1321  LF,  de  Wodefall  1332  LS. 

The  name  may  mean  literally  "  wood-fall,"  i.e.,  "  place  where  trees  have  fallen 

down  "   (O.E./eB,/0&,  "  falling  "),  or  "  wood-felling,"  i.e.,  "  place  where  wood 

may  be  felled."     But  in  EDD  fall  is  given  in  the  sense  "  a  valley   hanger  " 

(W.  Yks.)  ;   cf.  also  p.  10. 

13.  Parr  (E.  of  St.  Helens)  :  Par  1246  LAR,  c  1265  CO,  1341  IN,  etc.,  de  Parre 
1298  LI,   Parr  1327,   Paar  1332   LS.     If  O.E.  pearruc  "  fence  ;    paddock  " 
(=O.H.G.  pfarrih,  pferrih)  is  a  Germanic  word  and  a  derivative  of  a  shorter 
word,  found  in  O.H.G.  pharra  "  parish,"    originally  "  district  "    or  the  like, 
then  Parr  may  be  derived  from  an  O.E.  *pearr  of  a  similar  meaning  ;    cf.  also 
M.E.  parren  "  to  enclose  ;  fold  "  (1300,  etc.),  dial,  par  "  an  enclosure  for  beasts  " 
(1819,  etc.),  according  to  NED  possibly  going  back  to  M.E.  *parre,  O.E.  *pearre. 
Parham,  Sufi,  is  supposed  by  Skeat  to  contain  parr  "  enclosure."    But  the  history 
of  O.E.  pearruc,  etc.,  is  not  sufficiently  clear.     I  find  that  Harrison  suggests  a 
meaning  "  stock-enclosure  "   (Surnames  1912). 

Laffog  or  Leafog  (old  estate)  :  Lachok  1246  LAR,  de  Laghoc  1271  LAR,  de 
Laghok(e)  1323  LI,  de  Laghok  1332  LS,  Laghoughe  16  cent.  LR  386.  This 
name  is  explained  in  VHL  III.  115  as  "  law-oak,"  referring  to  "  the  celebrated 
oak  in  Allerton,  where  the  sheriff's  tourn  may  have  been  held."  Presumably 
it  is  for  the  pers.  n.  Laghok  borne  by  land-holders  in  Woolton  that  this  etymology 
is  meant,  but  there  may  have  been  a  "  law-oak  "  also  in  Parr.  The  etymology 
is  somewhat  suspicious,  because  -ok  is  found  as  early  as  1246  ;  yet  it  may  be 
correct.  It  is  perhaps  not  without  importance  that  Broad  Oak  (Erode  oke  1589 
Walton  R)  is  the  name  of  another  estate  in  Parr.  If  Parr  comes  from  an  O.E. 
pearr  "  enclosure,"  this  may  have  meant  a  place  fenced  in  for  the  holding  of  a 
thing  (cf.  Hoops  Reallex.  I.  470),  and  the  "  law-oak  "  would  have  been  a  holy 
oak  on  the  place. 

14.  Windle  (N.  of  and  partly  in  St.  Helens)  :    Windhull  1201  LPR,  1202  LF, 
Windhill  1202  LPR,   Windul  1201  CC,   Windhul  1212  LI,   Wyndul  1243  LI, 
Wyndhill  1272  LAR,  Wyndhull  1332  LS;  1340  LF,  etc.    I  suppose  the  name  means 
literally  "  windy  hill."     Windhill  is  a  well-known  name.     One  is  in  W.  Yks. 
Cf.  Windhill  in  N.Lo.,  windbergh  891  BCS  564,  Windybank  in  W.  Yks.  (see  Goodall), 
Windy  Bank  p.  58.    A  height  of  260ft.  is  reached  in  the  township. 

Cowley  :  de  Collay  1319  SC,  1332  LS.  As  there  are  collieries  at  the  place  the 
name  seems  to  have  as  first  el.  O.E.  col  "  coal." 

Hardshaw  :  Haureteschagh  1339  VHL  III.  373,  de  Hardeschawe  1391  Moore 
MSS,  Hardshaghe  1585  DL.  The  early  forms  are  not  sufficiently  clear  to  make 
an  etymology  possible.  The  first  el.  is  perhaps  a  pers.  n.,  e.g.,  O.E.  Heahred. 
Haresfinch  (Harrfinch  O.M.  1846-51)  :  Herthefellige  1201,  Hertfellinge  1201-1220, 
de  Hertfulling  1251  CC,  de  Horfalling,  de  Herefalling  1246  LAR,  Arflynche  (sur- 


name)  1539  CO  ;   a  pers.  n.  Harflynch  is  mentioned  VHL  III.  373.    The  second 

el.  is  apparently  either  O.E.  /edging  "  fallow  land  "    (cf.  p.  10)  or  felling  vbl. 

noun  oifell.    The  first  el.  is  seemingly  O.E.  heorp  "  hearth."    The  meaning  of 

the  compound  is  not  obvious.    It  is  interesting  to  find  that  the  second  el.  seems 

to  have  had  palatalized  g.    The  loss  of  I  is  remarkable. 

St.  Helens  (town)  was  formerly  the  seat  of  a  chapel  dedicated  to  St.  Helen  : 

Set  Elyus  (!)  chap.  1577  Saxton. 

Windleshaw  :    Wyndell  Shaae  Park  1548,  Wyndleshay  1551  DL.    First  el.  the 

name  Windle. 

15.  Rainford  (N.  of  St.  Helens,  v.) :    Raineford  a  1198  Ch,  Reineford  1202  LF, 

Rayneford  1256,  1315  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Raynford  1246  LAR,  1354  LF,  etc., 

Reynford  1321  LF  ;    Reinesford  1246  LAR,  Raynesford  1262  LF,   Raynsford 

1503  LF.    Rainford  vill.  is  on  Sankey  Brook.    The  name  seems  to  mean  "  the 

ford  of  Regna  "  ;  cf.  Rainhill  p.  107.    Lindkvist  p.  133  suggests  as  first  el.  O.N. 

reyni  "  rowan-trees."     This  is  not  convincing,  as  Scand.  names  are  extremely 

rare  in  the  district. 

Forshaw  (lost)  :  de  Fourocshagh  1315  LF,  de  ffoureokshaghe  1332  LS,  Fauroshawe 

1446  LF  (surname).    The  name  means  "  four-oak-wood." 

Mossborough  :    Mossebarrowe  1516  DL,  Mosbarrow  1577   Saxton,  Mosburowe 

1600  RS  XII.    The  place  stands  on  a  piece  higher  ground  in  mossland.    Second 

el.  apparently  O.E.  beorh  "  barrow,  hill." 


A  district  S.E.  of  Liverpool,  bounded  on  the  S.  by  the  Mersey. 

1.  Hale  (W.  of  Widnes,  v.)  :    Halas  1094  Ch,  Hales  1094  LC  793,  1227  ChR, 
Hale  1201  LPR,  1276  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.     O.E.  halh  (dat.  hale)  "  a  haugh, 
river-meadow,"  or  rather  the  plural  of  the  word  (O.E.  halas).    The  village  stands 
in  a  bend  of  the  Mersey  on  low  ground. 

2.  Halewood(N.ofHale,v.):  Halewodec  1200  CO,  Halewood  1509  LF.    Obviously 
"  the  wood  belonging  to  Hale."    Halewood  was  originally  part  of  Hale. 
Halebank  :  Halebonk  1426,  -bank  1509  LF.    Halebank  is  on  the  Mersey. 

The  Hutt  :  the  Hutt  1499  Moore  MSS,  the  Hutte  1546  ib.,  Hutte  (man.)  1526  DL. 
I  suppose  the  Hutt  was  originally  a  hunting-lodge  in  Halewood,  and  that  the 
name  is  the  word  hut.  The  only  difficulty  is  that  Engl.  hut  is  not  evidenced  in 
the  NED  until  1650  and  that  the  Fr.  hutte,  from  which  it  is  usually  derived,  is 
not  found  much  earlier.  Perhaps  the  source  of  hut  is  rather  Du.  hut. 

3.  Speke  (S.E.  of  Liverpool,  on  the  Mersey  ;  v.) :  Spec  DB,  1212  LI,  Speke  1252 
IPM,  1313,  1418  ltf,Spek  1276  LAR,  Speck  1278  LAR,  Specke  1320  LF,  Speek 
1332  LS,  c  1360  OR  333.     The  vill.  of  Speke  stands  about  a  mile  from  the  Mersey 
on  slightly  rising  ground,  while  Speke  Hall  is  on  the  bank  of  the  river.    There 
is  nothing  in  the  situation  that  suggests  in  what  direction  the  etymology  should 
be  sought.    I  suppose  the  name  must  belong  to  the  stem  spek,  spak  dealt  with 
by  Torp-Fick  p.  506,  and  found  e.g.  in  M.L.G.  spak  "  dry,"   spaken  pi.  "  dry 
twigs,"  O.H.G.  spah(ho)  "  dry  brushwood,"  M.H.G.  spach  "  dry,"  Norw.  dial. 
spcek  "  chip  of  wood."     In  O.E.  we  find  spcec,  pi.  gen.  spaca  (or  rather  spcec, 
spaca}  apparently  "  a  twig,"    which  perhaps  forms  the  first  el.  of  Spetchley, 


Wore.  (Spwcleahtun  816  BCS  356,  Speclea  967  ib.  1204,  Duignan)  and  spachrycg 
814  BCS  346  (Middendorfi  s.v.  spcec}.  A  derivative  O.L.G.  speckia  "  causeway 
of  fascines  "  is  found  in  place-names  (Forstemann  834f.).  If  Speke  contains 
a  word  belonging  to  this  group,  we  have  to  start  from  an  O.E.  spcec,  spec, 
identical  with  Norw.  spcek.  The  meaning  may  have  been  "  brushwood  "  or 
the  like. 

Oglet  (h.,  by  the  Mersey)  :  Okelot  1321  VHL  III.  131,  de  Og(o)lot  1323  LI,  de 
Oglot  1324  LCR,  de  Oglet  1323  LCR.  The  second  el.  appears  to  be  O.E.  Mot 
"  portion,  share  "  (cf.  p.  13).  The  first  may  be  O.E.  dc  "  oak,"  but  the  O.E. 
pers.  n.  Oca  (or  Occa)  may  also  be  thought  of.  Somewhat  earlier  forms  are 

4.  Garston  (S.E.  of  Liverpool,  town) :   Gerstan  1094,  1142,  1155  Ch,  1212,  1226 
LI,  1246  LAR,  1265  IPM,  1332  LS,  1367  LF,  etc. ;   Gerhstan  1122,  Gerestanam 
1142  Ch,  Gerestan  1212  RB  ;  Grestan  c  1155  Ch,  1215  LPR,  de  Grestan  1325  LCR 
(104) ;   Gerstun  1297  LI,  Gerston  1202  LPR,  1324  LI.    The  early  forms  tell  us 
that  the  second  el.  is  not  O.E.  tun,  but  O.E.  stdn.    O.E.  gcers  "  grass  "  is  then 
not  a  plausible  first  el.    I  believe  Garston  is  simply  a  compound  of  O.E.  great 
"  big  "   and  stdn.    As  regards  the  loss  of  t  before  s  we  may  compare  Whiston, 
in  the  earliest  quotations  usually  Quistan,  Whistan.    Great  in  northern  dialects 
often  appears  as  gert  (14  cent.  NED).     The  earlier  metathesis  in  the  place- 
name  is  easily  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  early  shortening  of  the  vowel  must 
have  taken  place.    The  forms  with  Gere-  are  not  common  ;   the  -e-  may  be  in- 
trusive.   But  so  long  as  a  Gretstan  or  Gertstan  has  not  been  found  this  etymology 
remains  doubtful.    Gerhstan  1122  may  be  miswritten  for  Gertstan.     Gretestan 
(hundr.,  Glo.)  DB  contains  O.E.  great  and  stdn. 

Aigburth  (h.)  :  Aykeberh  c  1200  CC,  Aikeberh,  Eikeberhe  c  1250  CC,  Aykebergh, 
Aikebergh  13  cent.  WhC  559f.  O.N.  Eikiberg  from  eiki  "  oaks  "  and  berg  "  hill." 
Grassendale  (on  the  Mersey) :  parvam  Gresyndale  13  cent.  WhC  585f .  Apparently 
M.E.  gresing  "  T  sturing,  pasture-land  "  and  O.E.  dcel  or  O.N.  dalr  "  valley." 
Cf.  Gressingha:  uo.  However,  if  the  form  Gresselond  Dale  given  VHL  III. 
125  is  trustworthy,  the  first  el.  is  perhaps  rather  gres-land  "  grass-land,"  gres 
being  a  Scand.  word  for  grass. 

5.  AUerton  (a  suburb  of  Liverpool) :  Alretune  DB,  Alreton  c  1200  CC,  1241  LF, 
Alerton  1322  LI,  AUerton  1327,  1332  LS,  1418,  1441  LF.    O.E.  air  "  alder  "  and 
tun.    The  form  de  Aluerton  1276  LAR,  if  belonging  here,  would  seem  to  show  the 
same  intrusive  v  as  early  forms  of  Wycoller  p.  88. 

6.  Much  and  Little  Woolton  (townships  S.E.  of  Liverpool) :    Vluentune,  Vuetone 
DB,  Wlueton  1187  HS  LIV.  184  (orig.),  1258  LAR,  Wlvinton  1188  HS  LIV.  187 
(orig.),  Wulueton  1246  LAR,  Wolveton  1322  LI,  Wolventon  1323  LI,  Wolleton 
1403  CR  ;    Wolueton  Magna  cum  parua  1327  LS  ;    Wolueton  Magna  1332  LS, 
Magna  Wolneton  1341  IN  ;   minor  Wolueton,  inferiori  Wolueton,  parua  Wolueton 
c  1200  WhC  801-9,   Wolueton  parua  1332  LS.     The  etymology  seems   to  be 
Wulfan  tun,  though  the  preservation  of  the  n  of  the  first  el.  in  some  early  forms 
is  remarkable  (cf.  p.  22). 

Brettargh  Holt  (the  N.  part) :  Bretharue,  Bretharwe,  Bretarwe  13  cent.  WhC 
806f.,  Bretharche  1292  PW.  Second  el.  ergh  "  shieling  "  (see  p.  10) ;  the  first  is 
apparently  the  gen.  of  O.N.  Bretar  or  O.E.  Brettas  "  Britons." 


In  DB  is  mentioned  a  manor  Wibaldeslei  in  Woolton.    This  is,  of  course,  O.E. 
Wlgbaldes  leak.    Wlgbald  is  a  common  name. 

7.  ChOdwaU  (E.  of  Liverpool)  :    Cildeuuelle  DB,  Kydewelle,  Childewell  1094  Ch, 
Cheldewell  12  cent.  LC  13,  Childewell  c  1190  Ch,  1302  LI,  Childewalle  1212  LI, 
1332  LS,  1376  LF,  Childewall  1243  LI,  Childewal  1268  LAR,  Childwall  1423  LF  ; 
Chaldewall  1238  LF  ;    now  [tfilwal]  or  "  Childow  "  VHL  III.  108.     Childwall 
stands  on  Childwall  Brook.    The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  wcella  "  well  ; 
brook."     The  first  el.  is  to  be  compared  with  that  of  Chilton,  Som.  (Cildatun 
1052  CD  796,  Cildetone  DB),  Childwick,  Herts  (Childewik  1303  FA),  Hanley 
Child,  Wore.    (Childrehanle   1275   Duignan),  etc.      Skeat  looks  upon  the  first 
el.  of  Chilton  and  Childwick  as  O.E.  cilda  "  of  children."    Childwall  probably 
contains  the  same  el.    Wyld  prefers  to  derive  it  from  the  O.E.  *cild,  celd  (in 
Bapchild),  "  a  sudden  burst  of  water   from   a  hill."     This  is  not  convincing. 
O.E.  celde  "  a  spring  "  corresponds  to  O.N.  kelda,  and  no  doubt  goes  back  to  a 
base  *kaldion.    But  that  could  not  have  given  a  Lancashire  childe-.    Chilwell, 
Notts.  (Chillewell  and  the  like  in  early  sources)  probably  has  for  its  first  el.  a 
pers.  n.  (O.E.  Cilia,  Cille). 

8.  Thingwall  (E.  of  Liverpool) :    Tingwella  1177  LPR,   Tingwelle  1212  RB, 
Thingwalle  1212  LI,  Thingwell  1226  LI,  1298  LI,  Thyngwall  1262  LAR,  1322  LI, 
Tingewall  1297  LI.     O.N.  pingvollr  "  place  where  the  thing  met."     The  name 
bears  interesting  witness  to  a  Scand.  settlement,  which  must  have  had  its 
thing-place  in  Thingwall.    The  meeting-place  was  obviously  the  round,  gently 
sloping  hill  on  which  Thingwall  Hall  now  stands,  and  which  must  have  been  an 
ideal  place  for  a  thing.    The  interchange  of  -well  and  -wall  is  most  probably  due 
to  influence  from  names  in  -well  (O.E.  wcella},  which  show  a  good  deal  of  similar 
variation.     Very  likely  -well  is  simply  due  to  scribes  who  supposed  the  name 
contained  the  word  well  and  used  the  form  considered  to  be  correct.    But  -well 
may  partly  be  due  to  the  O.N.  dat.  form  -velli,  or  pi.  form  -vellir. 

9.  Wavertree  (in  E.  Liverpool)  :    Wauretreu  DB,  Wauertrea  1177  LPR,  W avertre 
1196,  1199  LPR,  1246  LAR,  1251  ChR,  etc.,  Wavertree  1201  LPR,  Wauertre 
1226  LI,  Wartre  1577  Saxton.    The  second  el.  of  the  name  is,  of  course,  O.E. 
treo  "  tree,"   a  word  common  in  place-names.     The  first  el.  is  difficult.    Skeat 
(in  Harrison)  connects  it  with  the  verb  to  waver  and  thinks  the  name  means 
"  wavering  tree,  aspen."    This  is  possible,  but  not  convincing.     O.E.  Wcerferd 
pers.  n.  (suggested  by  Wyld)  does  not  account  for  the  form  ;   in  the  Lane.  dial. 
O.E.  ce  would  appear  as  e.    I  think  the  name  must  be  compared  with  the  numerous 
names  in  Waver  found  in  different  counties,  e.g.,  Waverley,  Surr.    (WauerV 
1159  PR),  Waverton,  Warw.  (Wavertone  13  cent.),  Warton,  Shrops.,  Wharton 
p.  43.     Waver  alone  occurs  as  a  place-name;    cf.  Woore,  Ches.  (Waure  DB), 
Church  Over,  Warw.  (Wara  DB,  Waure  13  cent.),  Brownsover,  Warw.  (Gaura 
DB,  Waure,  etc.,  13  cent.).    We  must  assume  an  O.E.  word  *wcefer  or  the  like 
of  a  meaning  which  rendered  it  particularly  liable  to  be  used  in  place-names  and 
as  a  place-name.    Such  a  word  is  found  in  Low  German,  viz.,  waver  "  schwan- 
kender  wiesengrund,"  common  in  place-names    (see  Forstemann).     What   the 
exact  meaning  was  in  English  cannot  be  settled  without  special  investigation  ; 
perhaps  we  may  compare  dial,  waver  "  a  common  pond  "  (EDD). 

HUYTON  PAR.  113 


A  district  E.  of  Liverpool. 

1.  Tarbock  (N.W.  of  Widnes,  bounded  on  the  W.  by  Ditton  Brook)  :    Torboc 
DB,  1256  LAR,  Torbok  1257  ChR,  1285  LAR,  1283  Ind,  1311  IPM,  1322  LI, 
1332  LS,  1354  LF,  etc.,  Torboke,  Torbroke  1311  LI ;  Thorboc  1243  LI,  de  Thorboc, 
de  Thorbok,  de  Turbok  1246  LAR,  de  Thorebok  1252  LC  35,  de  Thorboc  1256  LAR. 
In  CC  607  (1180-1200)  is  mentioned  antiquum  Torboc  (assartum)  ;  cf.  Ol(d)torboke 
1451,  1461  CC. 

The  etymology  of  this  name  is  probably  much  simpler  than  it  looks.  No 
Celtic  source  should  be  sought  for  it.  Connection  with  tor  "  hill "  (cf.  NED) 
is  out  of  the  question  ;  the  highest  point  in  the  township  does  not  reach  much 
over  50ft.  I  believe  the  second  el.  is  O.E.  broc  "  brook."  Tarbock  Hall  stands 
on  Ochre  Brook,  a  tributary  of  Ditton  Brook  ;  Harrison  1577  calls  this  the 
Tarbocke  water.  The  loss  of  the  r  is  due  to  dissimilation.  The  first  el.  might  be 
the  Scand.  pers.  n.  Thor  or  Thori.  However,  I  am  more  inclined  to  believe  that 
it  is  O.E.  porn  "  thorn."  An  n  would  easily  be  lost  in  such  a  name  as  Thornb(r)ok. 
It  is  possible  the  original  form  is  preserved  in  the  pers.  n.  (Henrico)  de  Thorne- 
brooke  1232-56  CC  556  (witness  to  a  Garston  deed).  A  Henry  de  Torbok  is  occa- 
sionally met  with  in  documents  in  CC.  The  change  of  Th-  to  T-  is,  of  course, 
due  to  Norman  influence  ;  such  influence  may  have  contributed  also  to  the 
other  changes  in  the  name.f 

2.  Huyton-with-Roby  (on  the  upper  Alt). 

Huyton  :  Hitune  DB,  Hutona  1189-96  Ch,  Huton  1243  LI,  Button  1268  LAR, 
Huyton  1311  IPM,  1322  LI,  1332  LS,  1353f.  LF,  etc.,  Hyton  1423  LF,  de  Hyton 
1341  IN  ;  now  [haitn].  Huyton  vill.  is  less  than  half  a  mile  S.  of  the  upper  Alt. 
I  suppose  the  name  is  simply  O.E.  hyp-tun  from  hyp  "  landing-place."  In  the 
same  way  I  would  explain  Hyton,  Cumb.  (  :  HietunI)"B,  Hyton  1270,  Sedgefield). 
Hyton  is  on  Annaside  Beck.  The  Alt  near  Huyton  is  an  insignificant  stream. 
It  should  be  remembered,  however,  that  in  the  olden  days  boats  were  small, 
and  that  rivers  and  streams  were  often  deeper  than  they  are  now.  It  may  be 
objected  against  this  etymology  that  the  vowel  ought  to  have  been  shortened. 
But  so  long  as  the  word  hyp  remained  in  use  the  name  Huyton  would  be  asso- 
ciated with  it,  and  this  circumstance  would  tend  to  preserve  the  vowel  long  ; 
or,  as  it  may  be  put,  Hytton  would  be  replaced  by  Hyton.  Cf.  Layton  p.  155, 
Myton-super-Swale,  Yks.  (close  to  the  confluence  of  the  Swale  and  the  Ouse)  : 
Mytona  1147-61  YCh  793,  Mittona  1170-84  ib.  795  ;  also  Myton  in  Hull  [maitn]. 
Roby  (the  S.W.  part)  :  Rabil  DB,  Rabi  1185  LPR,  Raby  1238  LF,  1246  LAR, 
1311  IPM,  1327  LS,  Roby  1304  ChR,  1322  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.  A  Scand.  name. 
Lindkvist  p.  188f.  derives  the  first  el.  from  Scand  rd  "  landmark,  boundary 
line,"  which  is  no  doubt  correct.  Roby  is  on  the  Childwall  border.  The  name  is 
common  in  Scandinavia  (cf.  Hellquist,  Ortnamnen  pa  -by),  and  is  found  in  Ches., 
Cumb.,  Durh.  (Raby). 

Woliall  Hall  (in  Huyton  ;  on  the  Alt)  :  de  la  Wulfhal  1242  LF,  de  Wolfalle 
1285  LAR.  O.E.  Wulfa  pers.  n.  (or  possibly  wulf  "  wolf  ")  and  O.E.  halh 
"  haugh,  water-meadow." 

3.  Knowsley  (W.  of  St.  Helens  ;    v.)  :    Chenulueslei  DB,  Cnusleu  1189-96  Ch, 


Knusleia  c  1200  Ind,  Knuvesle  1199  LF,  Cnusleie  1199-1220  CO,  Knousley  1243 
LI,  Knouwesley,  Cnueslegh,  de  Cnousle  de  Knollesle  1246  LAR,  Knouselegh  1322 
LI,  1332  LS,  1376  LF,  etc.,  Knouseleye  1311  IPM.  Other  variants  occur.  Harri- 
son explains  this  aptly  as  Cenulfes  leak,  the  first  el.  being  O.E.  Cenwulf  or  Cyne- 
wulf.  Apparently  analogous  is  Kneeton,  Notts.  (Chenivetone  DB,  Knyveton 
1284  FA),  containing  O.E.  Cynegifu  (or  Cengifu). 

Bury  (in  Knowsley  Park) :  Biri  a  1220  CC.  O.E.  burh,  probably  in  the  sense 
"  fortified  place." 

Longbarrow  :  Langebarwe  ?  temp.  John  Ind.  "  The  long  grove  "  (O.E.  bearo). 
4.  Croxteth  Park  :  Crocstad  1257  LI,  Croxstath  1297  LI,  Croxtath  1323  LI, 
Crokstat,  Crokstath  1372ff.  Gaunt  R,  Crostoffe  c  1540  Leland.  Croxteth  Hall 
is  close  to  the  Alt.  Croxteth  belonged  to  the  forest  of  Derby  ;  hence  the  addition 
Park.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  Croc  pers.  n.  (from  O.N.  Krokr  or  O.Dan. 
Krok).  The  second  may  be  O.N.  stod  (O.Dan,  stath)  "  landing  place,"  or  the 
plur.  of  O.N.  stadr  (O.Dan,  stath)  "  place."  The  name  Kroksstadir  is  found  in 
Iceland.  The  situation  of  the  place  rather  tells  in  favour  of  the  first  alternative. 


This  large  parish  consists  of  two  separate  parts,  a  larger  one  N.E.  of  the 
Mersey  estuary,  S.,  E.,  and  N.  of  Liverpool,  and  a  smaller  one  on  the  sea,  N.  of 
Sefton.  The  latter,  as  the  names  of  the  townships  (Ravensmeols,  etc.)  imply, 
belongs  closely  to  North  Meols,  and  is  better  dealt  with  in  connection  with  that 
parish.  The  surface  of  the  S.  part  is  mostly  level,  except  in  the  S. 
1.  West  Derby  (old  vil.  E.  of  and  partly  in  Liverpool) :  Derbei  DB,  Derbeia  1153 
Ind,  Derby  1094  Ch,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Derbi  1169,  1206  LPR,  Westderbi 
1177  LPR,  Derebi  1202  LPR,  Westderebi  1201ff.  LPR,  West  Derebe  1226  LI, 
West  Dereby  1229  ChR,  Westderby  1250  ChR,  etc.,  West  Derbe  1278  LAR,  West 
Derby  1330  LF. 

This  name  is  apparently  identical  with  Derby  in  Derbyshire  :  Deora  by  942 
Chr.  A ;  Deoraby  917  Chr.  C,  Deorby  959-75  Grueber  (coin),  1049  Chr.  D.  The 
latter  place  was  originally  called  Northworthig,  the  name  Derby  being  given  by 
Danes.  The  two  names  Derby  must  be  explained  in  connection  with  each  other. 
As  regards  Derby  in  Derbyshire,  its  first  el.  is  usually  derived  from  the  word 
"  deer  "  (Walker,  Johnston,  Bjorkman  in  Nordisk  Tidskrift  1911).  Bugge, 
Vikingerne  II.  242,  compares  the  first  el.  with  that  of  Deorstrete,  the  name  of  a 
road  in  Northumbria,  and  that  of  Derwent  river.  Especially  the  latter  suggestion 
is  not  convincing. 

Other  possibilities  that  have  suggested  themselves  to  me  are  the  following 
two.  The  first  el.  may  be  O.N.  Dyri  pers.  name.  Or  it  may  be  O.N.  dyrr  adj. 
"  splendid  "  (O.N.  Dyraby  "  the  splendid  town  ").  In  favour  of  the  latter 
suggestion  we  may  point  to  Whitby  "  the  white  village  "  and  O.N.  Miklagardr 
"  the  large  town,"  the  old  Scand.  name  of  Constantinople.  I  should  be  inclined 
to  believe  the  second  alternative  to  be  correct  if  the  O.N.  form  Dyrabyr,  stated 
by  Bugge,  Vikingerne  II.  242,  to  be  the  O.N.  name  of  Derby,  really  exists. 
Deoraby  would  then  be  an  anglicized  form.  But  in  spite  of  diligent  search  I  have 
not  been  able  to  trace  such  a  form.  I  therefore  come  to  the  conclusion  that 

WALTON  PAR.  115 

after  all  the  old  derivation  of  the  first  el.  from  O.Scand.  diur  "  deer  "  is  correct, 
and  I  am  strengthened  in  this  belief  by  the  fact  that  Swed.  names  in  -by  very 
often  have  the  name  of  an  animal  as  first  el.  (Hellquist,  Ortnamn  pa  -by  p.  16ff.). 
It  is  really  quite  plausible  that  the  Northmen  may  have  given  Derby  its  name 
because  there  was  a  deer-park  in  the  place.  As  regards  West  Derby  there  is  the 
difficulty  that  the  O.N.  form,  which  we  expect  in  this  part  of  England,  is  generally 
dtfr  ;  yet  diur  occurs,  though  rarely,  in  Norway.  O.N.  Dyrabyr,  however,  may 
have  been  anglicized  to  Deoraby.  It  is  also  possible  that  (West)  Derby  is  really 
a  Danish  name  or  even  that  West  Derby  was  simply  named  after  the  more 
famous  Derby  in  Derbyshire. 

Ackers  Mill,  Ackers  Hall  :  del  Accres  1323  LI,  1324  LCR,  1332  LS.  O.E.  cecras 
11  acres." 

Breck  (Breck  House,  etc.) :  del  Brek  1323  LI,  del  Breck  1325  LCR.  O.N.  brekka 
"  hill." 

2.  Toxteth  Park  (S.  of  Liverpool) :  Stochestede  DB,  Tokestath  1212  LI,  (haya  de) 
Toxtathe  1221  C1R,  Toxstath  1297,  1323  LI,  Tocstath  1316  WhC  528,  Tokstqffe 
c  1540  Leland.    The  township  stands  on  the  Mersey.    Its  name  may  mean  "  the 
landing-place  (or  the  homestead)  of  Toki,"    from  ToTci,  a  chiefly  E.  Scand. 
pers.  n.,  and  O.N.  stpd  "  landing-place  "  or  stadir  from  staftr,  cf.  Croxteth  p.  114. 
Toxteth  was  included  in  the  forest  of  Derby  ;  hence  the  name  Toxteth  Park. 
Smithdown  (old  manor) :   Esmedvne  DB,  Smededon  1185,  1204  LPR,  Smethedon 
1202  LPR,  1316  WhC  528,  Smethdon  1324  LI.    "  Smooth  or  flat  down,"  O.E. 
smede  "  smooth  "  and  dun  "  down."    The  ground  in  Toxteth  township  rises  to 
c  190ft.  (VHL  III.  40). 

Dingle  :  de  Dingyll  1246  LAR.  Cf.  dingle  "  a  deep  dell  or  hollow  "  1240,  etc. 
(NED).  The  Dingle  lies  round  a  former  creek. 

3.  Everton  (N.E.  of  and  a  suburb  of  Liverpool) :    Evretonam  1094  Ch,  Everton 
1201ff.  LPR,  1251  ChR,  etc.,  Euerton  1206S.  LPR,  1332  LS,  Ouerton  1226  LI, 
Earton  1577  Saxton.    Sephton  derives  the  first  el.  from  O.E.  ofer  "  over,"  sup- 
planted by  O.N.  efri  "  upper."     As  Everton  lies  on  a  hill  in  a  commanding 
situation,  derivation  of  the  first  el.  from  O.N.  efri  is  tempting.    Yet  I  hesitate  to 
accept  it  because  most  names  in  -ton  have  an  English  first  el.,  and  as  Everton 
is  found  also  in  Beds.,  Notts.,-  Hants.     Skeat  derives  Ever-  from  O.E.  eofor 
"  boar."   This  may  be  right,  but  it  is  not  apparent  why  such  a  name  was  given. 
I  am  inclined  to  prefer  derivation  of  Ever-  from  a  pers.  n.,  in  view  of  the  absence 
of  forms  in  Evers-,  from  O.E.  *Eofora1,  corresponding  to  O.H.G.  Ebaro. 

4.  Walton  or  Walton-on-the-Hill  (N.E.  of  Liverpool,  v.) :   Waletone  DB,  Waleton 
1094  Ch,  1177ff.  LPR,  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  1252  IPM,  etc.,  Walton  1332  LS,  etc., 
Waliton  c  1140  Ch.  O.E.  Wala-tun  "  the  town  of  the  Welshmen."    The  village 
is  on  a  slight  hill. 

Spellow  :  de  Spellowe  1306  LF,  de  Spellawe  1323  LI.  I  take  the  first  el.  to  be 
O.E.  spell  "  speech,  discourse,  announcement,"  spell-hldw  meaning  a  hill  from 
which  announcements  were  made,  or  on  which  moots  were  held.  Cf .  spelstow, 

1  Forssner,  p.  63,  considers  it  uncertain  whether  Eofor-  existed  as  an  O.E.  name-element. 
But  even  if,  what  seems  very  improbable,  Eoforhwcet  and  Eoforuulf  in  LV  should  be  of  L.G. 
origin,  Eofor  and  Eofora  may  well  have  been  used.  The  name  Everingham,  in  Yks.  (Euring- 
ham,  DB)  most  probably  has  a  patronymic  derived  from  Eofor(a)  as  first  el. 


rendered  by  B-T  "  place  where  announcements  are  made  ?  "    The  place  is  on 

fairly  high  ground. 

Newsham  :    Neuhusum  1212-17  RB,  Neusun  1196  LPR,  Neusom  1212  RB, 

Neusum  1200  ChR,  1212  LI,  1292  LF,  Ewzam  1590  Walton  R.    (At)  "  the  new 

houses."    O.E.  neowe  and  the  dat.  pi.  of  hus  "  house." 

Walton  Breck  ( :  cf.  Brecksyde  1616  Walton  R)  and  Warbreck  have  as  second 

el.  O.N.  brekka  "  hill,"  etc. 

5.  Kirkdale  (on  the  Mersey,  in  N.  Liverpool) :   Chirchedele  DB,  Kirkedale  1185 
LPR,  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Kierkedala  1201  LPR,  Kirkedal  1241 
LF  ;  Kierkelade  1203f.  LPR.   O.N.  kirkia  "  church  "  and  O.N.  dalr  (or  O.E.  doel) 
"  dale."    The  name  is  probably  Scandinavian. 

6.  Bootle  (in  N.  Liverpool)  :   Boltelai  DB,  Botle  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  1257  IPM, 
Botele  1252  IPM,  Bold  1284  LAR,   Bothull  1332  LS,  Botull  1322  LI ;    Bolde 
1226  LI.    O.E.  botl  "  dwelling,  house,"  etc.  (see  p.  8).    The  same  name  is  found 
in  Cumberland. 

Linacre  (old  manor)  :  Linacre  1212  LI,  Lynacre  1327  LS,  1341  IN.   "  Flax  field." 

O.E.  lin  "  flax  "  and  cecer. 

1.  Fazakerley  (N.  of  Walton) :  Phasakyrlee  c  1250  HS  XXXV.  143,  deffasacrelegh 

1325  LCR,  Fazakerley  1509  LF.     Cf.  de  ffasacre  1325  LCR.     Fazakerley  was 

originally  one  of  the  Walton  townfields  (VHL  III.  28).    The  first  el.  of  the  name 

seems  to  be  O.E.  fees  "  border,  fringe,"  though  it  is  true  the  O.E.  word  is  only 

used  of  the  hem  of  a  garment. 

Stonebridgley  (Cf.  Stone  Bridge  in  the  E.  of  the  township)  :    de  Stonbrugelegh 

1279  Moore  MSS,  de  Stonbriglegh  1323  LI,  de  Stonbge  1324  Moore  MSS. 

8.  Kirkby  (N.E.  of  Liverpool,  E.  of  the  Alt) :  Cherchebi  DB,  Karkebi  1176  LPR, 
Kierkebi  1207  LPR,  Kyrkeby  1228  C1R,  1243  LI,  1246  LF,  1341  IN,  Kirkeby 
1311  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.    "  The  church-village,"   O.N.  kirkiu-byr. 
Aynesargh  is  a  name  often  occurring  in  Moore  MSS  :  Aynesargh  1394,  de  Aynes- 
argh  1350, 1380.    It  is  apparently  identical  with  Avanessergh  1501  (VHL  III.  54), 
stated  to  be  in  Kirkdale.    The  second  el.  is  ergh  "  a  shieling,  a  pasture  "  (cf.  p.  10). 
The  first  appears  to  be  a  pers.  n.,  possibly  identical  or  connected  with  that  in 

Ingoe  Lane  :  de  Ingeswaith  1332  LS.  In  VHL  III.  54  the  pers.  n.  de  Ingewaith 
is  mentioned.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  apparently  O.N.  Ingi  (or  O.E.  Inga, 
cf.  Ingol  Am.).  The  second  can  hardly  be  O.N.  pveit.  It  may  be  O.N.  veidr 
"  hunting,  place  for  hunting  "  ;  cf.  p.  20. 

9.  Simonswood  (N.  of  and  originally  part  of  Kirkby)  :    Simonddeswode  a  1190 
CC,  Simundeswude  1207  LPR,  Simundeswod  1297  LI,  Symondeswode  1323,  1330 
LI,  1372  Gaunt  R.    O.E.  Sigemundes  wudu. 

LIVERPOOL  (old  manor,  originally  in  Walton  par.,  a  borough  since  1207)  : 
Liuerpul  a  1194  Ch,  1208  LPR,  Liuerpol  1211  LPR,  1246,  1258,  1284  LAR, 
1297  LI,  Liverpol  1246  LAR,  1251  ChR,  etc.,  Liverpul  a  1240  CC,  Liurepol  1259 
LAR,  Lyuerpol  1259,  1284,  1285  LAR,  Lyverpol  1292  PW,  1321  LF,  [Lyuer]pull 
1332  LS,  Lyverpull  1359ff.  LF  ;  Leverepul  1229  ChR,  Leverpol  1292  PW  ;  Lieuer- 
pol  1226  LI ;  de  Litherpol  1222-26  LI,  Lythirpol  1308  Moore  MSS,  Litherpole 
(vulgo  Lirpole)  1586  Camden  ;  Lyrpole.  Lyverpoole  c  1540  Leland,  Lirepoole 

SEFTON  PAR.  117 

1577  Harr.  This  list  will  give  a  fairly  adequate  idea  of  the  relative  frequency 
of  the  different  forms  in  early  records.  Full  material  will  be  found  in  Harrison 
and  Wyld  ;  especially  the  forms  in  Lever-  are  fully  enumerated  by  Wyld  and 
those  in  Lither-  by  Harrison. 

Liverpool  was  no  doubt  the  original  name  of  the  Pool,  a  tidal  creek,  now  filled 
up,  into  which  two  streams  fell.  Of  the  two  types  of  the  name,  Liverpol  and 
Litherpol,  the  former  must  be  made  the  starting-point  for  the  etymology.  The 
form  Lither-  is  comparatively  rare  and  chiefly  found  in  late  records.  Occasional 
Lither-  in  early  records  is  probably  due  to  influence  from  Litherland. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  Liver-  may  be  liver  "  waterflag  "  or  "  bulrush," 
but  against  this  it  has  been  pointed  out  that  the  Pool  was  a  saltwater  pool, 
where  no  flags  would  grow  (Harrison  p.  28).  Besides,  it  is  extremely  doubtful 
if  an  O.E.  lifer  "  waterflag  "  existed  ;  O.E.  ealifer  means  "  liverwort."  Livers 
11  the  yellow  flag  "  in  mod.  dial,  probably  goes  back  to  O.E.  Icefer,  lefer. — Wyld 
suggests  as  first  el.  O.E.  Leofhere  pers.  n.  But  the  usual  early  form  is  Liverpol, 
etc.,  not  Leverpol.  It  is  true  O.E.  eo  sometimes  seems  to  have  become  i  in  Lane, 
place-names  ;  cf .  Rivington  p.  48.  But  the  development  has  no  doubt  been  from 
eo  to  u  [y]  (a  well-known  West  Midland  change)  and  to  i.  We  should  expect  u,  o 
by  the  side  of  i,  e,  if  the  base  had  O.E.  eo.  Besides,  it  is  curious  that  of  the  scores 
of  examples  of  the  name  Liverpool  not  one  shows  the  genitive  s  to  be  expected 
if  the  first  el.  was  Leofhere. 

I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  Liver-  is  to  be  compared  with  O.E.  lifrig  (in 
lifrig  blod),  M.E.  livered  "  coagulated,  clotted,"  as  in  pe  liuerede  se  Rob.  Gl., 
pe  liuerd  se  C.M.  "  the  Red  Sea,"  liver-sea  a  1600  "  an  imaginary  sea  in  which 
the  water  is  "  livered  "  or  "  thick "  (NED),  G.  Lebermeer,  the  same.  In 
Norway  there  is  a  stream-name  Levra,  going  back  to  Lifra,  and  probably  meaning 
"  stream  with  thick  water  "  (Rygh,  N.E.  145).  Liverpul  may  mean  "  the  pool 
with  the  thick  water."  Or  Liver  may  have  been  the  name  of  one  of  the  streams 
that  fell  into  the  pool ;  this  name  would  then  have  been  identical  with  Norw. 


The  parish  is  situated  N.  of  Walton  par.  between  the  Alt  and  the  estuary  of 
the  Mersey. 

1.  Aintree  (v. ;  on  the  Alt) :  Ayntre  a  1220  CC,  1257f.  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Aintree 
1226  LI,  de  Eyntre  1246  LAR.    Lindkvist's  suggestion  (p.  43)  that  this  is  Scand. 
ein-tre  "  tree  standing  alone  "    seems  very  plausible. 

2.  Orrell  and  Ford  (the  two  portions  are  separated  by  Litherland). 

Orrell  (on  the  border  of  Walton)  :  Orhul  1299  Moore  MSS,  Orell  1347,  1385  ib., 
Orrell  1547  LF.  Orrell  stands  at  the  foot  of  Orrell  Hill.  The  name  is  apparently 
identical  with  Orrell  in  Wigan.  I  suppose  it  means  "  ore  hill,"  but  there  does 
not  seem  to  be  any  information  as  regards  ore-mining  in  Orrell.  O.E.  ora  "  bank, 
margin  "  would  give  a  fairly  good  meaning  ;  Orrell  is  situated  on  a  brook. 
Ford  (E.  of  a  brook)  :  la  Forde  1323  LI,  the  Forde  1408  Moore  MSS,  Forde  1547 
LF.  O.E.  ford11  ford." 

3.  Litherland  or  Down-Litherland  (on  the  Mersey  ;   v.) :   Liderlant  DB,  1114-16 
Ch  (orig.),  Litherlande  1202  LF,  Litherland  1212  LI,  Lytherlond  1332  LS  ;   Dun- 


lytherlond  1298  LI,  Dounelithirlond  1392  LF.  O.N.  Hlicfarland  from  Uld  (gen. 
hliftar)  "  slope  "  and  land.  The  same  name  is  found  in  Norway  (Lindkvist  p.  12). 
Litherland  vill.  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  small  hill,  and  the  ground  slopes  away 
gently  towards  the  estuary  of  the  Mersey. 

4.  Netherton  (originally  a  hamlet  of  Sefton) :  Netherton  1576  Moore  MSS.    The 
place  was  perhaps  called  "  the  nether  town  "  in  contradistinction  to  Sefton  Town, 
which  is  c  70ft.  above  sea-level. 

5.  Sefton  (on  the  Alt) :  Sextone  DB,  Sefftun  a  1222  CC,  Ceffton  1236  C1R,  Sefton 
1298  LI,  1332  LS,  1375  LF,  etc.,  Seffton  1322  LI.    The  most  probable  etymology 
is  O.N.  *Sef-tun,  a  compound  of  sef  "  sedge  "  and  tun ;  cf .  Rushton  Sa.     Sextone 
in  DB  is  a  blunder.    The  church  stands  near  the  Alt.    The  country  along  the  Alt 
is  low  and  level,  and  the  meadows  were  formerly  covered  with  water  in  winter. 
Rushes  and  other  waterplants  are  common  in  the  Alt  and  the  ditches  and  mea- 
dows near  Sefton.    O.N.  sef  is  found  in  the  name  of  a  lake  in  Martin  NLo  and  in 
mod.  dialects  as  seave. 

6.  Lunt  (N.W.  of  Sefton  ;   on  the  Alt) :   de  Lund  1251  CC,  c  1275  CC,  del  Lunt 
1344  Moore  MSS,  Lundscofh  c  1265  CC.    O.N.  lundr  "  grove." 

7.  Thornton  (N.E.  of  Gt.  Crosby ;    v.) :    Torentun  DB,    Thorinton   1212  LI, 
a  1250  CC,  Thorneton  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  1340  LF,  etc.,  Thornton  1246  LAR, 
1322  LI,  etc.    O.E.  porn  "  thorn  "  and  tun. 

8.  Great  and  Little  Crosby  (townships  on  the  Mersey  estuary  ;    old  villages. 
Gt.  Crosby  is  now  a  town) :   Crosebi  DB,  Crossebeyam  1094  Ch,  Crossebi  1177, 
12005.  LPR,  Crosseby  1212, 1226  LI,  etc. ;  magnam  Crossly  c  1190  Ch,  Crosseby 
Magna  1332  LS,  Great  Crosseby  1246  LAR,  etc. ;   Little  Crosseby  1243  LI,  1322 
LI,  etc.,  Crosseby  parua  1332  LS.     "  The  cross  village  "  ;    O.N.  Krossabyr. 
There  are  six  crosses  in  Little  Crosby  (VHL  III.  85). 

9.  Ince  Blundell  (N.  of  Crosby ;   v.) :   Hinne  DB,  Ines  1212  LI,  1375  LF,  etc., 
Hynis  1243  LI,  Ynes  13  cent.  WhC  490,  Inis  1301  LF,  Ins  Blundell  1332  LS, 
Ines  Blundell  1357,  1397  LF.    See  Ince-in-Makerfield  p.  103.    Ince  Blundell  to 
a  great  extent  consists  of  flat,  fen  country.     Alt  Marsh  (Altemersh  13  cent. 
WhC  498)  was  here.    Ince  Blundell  Hall  and  village  are  on  slightly  higher  ground. 
No  doubt  this  portion  would  in  earlier  times  have  been  aptly  described  as  an 
"  island  "    in  the  fen  country.     The  manor  passed  into  the  possession  of  the 
Blundell  family  c  1200. 

Alt  Grange  (in  the  N.) :  grangia  de  Alte  14  cent.  WhC  489  ;  cf.  grangiarius  de 
Alte  13  cent.  WhC  504.  A  grange  belonging  to  Whalley  Abbey  near  the  Alt. 
Scholes  (now  lost) :  Scoles  13  cent.  WhC  490.  O.N.  skdli  "  hut." 


This  small  parish  contains  only  Altcar  township.  It  is  situated  N.  of  Sefton 
par.  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Alt.  The  surface  is  very  low  ;  there  is  much  old 

Altcar,  Great  and  Little  (villages)  :  Acrer  DB,  Altekar  1251  LF,  Alker  1.577  Saxton. 
"  The  carr  or  marshland  beside  the  Alt  "  ;  carr<O.N.  kiarr.  The  DB  form 
Acrer  is  probably  corrupt.  Lindkvist's  suggestion  that  the  form  represents  an 
earlier  name,  Scand.  Akrar  "  fields  "  is  not  convincing. 



A  large  inland  parish,  N.E.  of  Liverpool. 

1.  Melling  (in  the  S.  part ;    E.  of  the  Alt ;    v.)  :    Melinge  DB,  Mellinges  1194 
LPR,  1256  LF,  Melling',  Moiling  1202  LPR,  Melling  1226  LI,  1246  LAR,  1298 
LI,  etc.,  Mellyng  1332  LS,  1360  LF,  etc.    Evidently  an  O.E.  patronymic  Md- 
lingas.    Exactly  the  same  name  is  found  in  Lonsdale  as  the  name  of  a  par. ; 
very  likely  the  two  Mellings  were  founded  by  members  of  the  same  family. 
Mellingas  may  be  a  derivative  of  O.E.  Moll  (Searle),  apparently  found  also  in 
place-names,  as  Holland,  Dev.  (Mollanda  DB),  Mullacote,  Dev.  (Molecote  DB, 
Mollecote  1303  FA),  Mollington,  Ches.  (Molintone  DB).    Or  Melling  may  be  an 
*-mutated  side-form  of  Mailing,  Suss,  (eel  Mallingum  838  BCS  421,  Mellinges 
DB,  etc.)  and  Mailing,  Kent  (Meallingas,  east  meallinga  gemcere  942-6  BCS  779), 
which  are  probably  to  be  derived  from  a  pers.  n.  with  a  stem  Mall-  or  the 

Cunscough  :    Cunig(g)escofh  a   1190   CO,  Conigscofh  1190  CO.   "  The  king's 

wood,"    O.N.    konungr    (earlier    no   doubt   also    kunungr)    and    O.N.    skogr 

11  wood." 

Hengarth  (now  lost) :    Hengerth  1190  CO,  1212  LI,  Henggert,  Henggerthalaka 

a  1190  CO.    O.E.  *heng-erp  "sloping  land";    cf.  O.E.  henge-clif  " steep  cliff" 

and  ierp,  erp  "  ploughing  ;   ploughed  land." 

Thorp  (now  lost) :    Thorp  a  1190  CC.    O.N.  porp  "  viUage,  hamlet." 

Waddicar  (h.) :  de  Wadacre  1246  LAR.    Possibly  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  wad 

"  woad  "  ;   the  vowel  might  have  been  shortened  in  this  position.    Cf.  however 

Woodacre,  Am.,  which  seems  to  be  from  O.E.  weod-cecer,  but  appears  as  Wadacre 

1246  LAR.    The  second  el.  is  O.E.  cecer  "  acre." 

2.  Maghull  (N.  of  Melling ;    on  the  right  bank  of  the  Alt ;   v.) :    Magele  DB, 
Maghele  a  1190  CC,  1322  LI,  Mahale  a  1220  CC,  de  Mahale  c  1200  HS  XXXII. 
185,  1283  LI,  de  Mahhale,  de  Mahal  1255  LI ;    Maghal  1219  LAR,  1246  ib., 
1312  LI,  Maghale  1243  LI,  de  Maghale,  de  Magehal  1246  LAR,  Maghall  1278 
LAR,  etc.,  Maggehale  1328  LI,  Maghhale  1332  LS,  de  Maele  1323  LF,  Male  1501 
CC,  1514  LF.    Now  [magul,  magAl],  but  the  old  pronunciation  [me*l]  is  not  for- 

The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  obviously  O.E.  halh  "  haugh."  This  word  here 
refers  to  the  very  gently  sloping  fields  E.  of  the  old  mossland  along  the  Alt. 
The  first  el.  is  not  easy  to  explain.  It  appears  to  have  had  the  form  Magh- 
[ma3J  in  the  earliest  M.E. ;  later  [3]  became  [x]  perhaps  owing  to  assimilation 
with  the  h  of  the  second  el.,  and  disappeared.  Many  names  in  -halh  have  a 
pers.  n.  as  first  el.,  and  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  also  that  of  Maghull  is 
one.  But  there  is  no  (O.E.  or  O.N.)  pers.  n.  that  fits  the  name.  O.E.  mago 
"  son,"  only  used  in  poetry,  might  be  thought  of  (cf.  Childwall),  but  there  are 
to  my  knowledge  no  other  place-names  in  which  the  word  is  used.  But  O.E. 
*Maga  corresponding  to  O.H.Gr.  Mago  may  well  have  existed.  Another  possibility 
is  that  the  first  el.  of  Maghull,  like  that  of  Mayfield,  Suss.  (Magefeud  1260, 
Maghfeud  1274,  Maghefeld  1316,  1343;  Roberts),  is  the  Celtic  *magos  "plain" 
(Brit.  *mag,  whence  Welsh  ma  "place,"  Ir.  magh  "plain,  field,"  etc.).  This 
derivation  seems  unexceptionable  from  the  point  of  view  of  form  and  meaning. 


Brit,  mag,  i.e.,  [ma3],  would  not  have  lost  its  final  consonant  at  the  time  when 
Lancashire  was  conquered  by  the  Anglians  ;  cf .  Douglas  infra.  Maghull  occupies 
a  plateau  rising  slightly  over  the  low-lying  land  E.  and  W.  This  plateau  is  mostly 
level  and  would  be  aptly  described  as  a  plain.  If  the  etymology  suggested  is 
correct,  we  must  assume  that  the  Brit,  name  of  it  was,  or  contained,  the  word 
mag  "  plain." 

3.  Lydiate  (N.  of  Maghull,  v.) :    Leiate  DB,  Lichet  ?12  cent.  HS  XXXII.  183, 
Liddigate  1202  LF,  Lidiate  1212  LI,  a  1220  CO,  Lydiate  c  1225  CC,  Lydyathe 
1243  LI,  Lydeyate  1284  LAR,  1324  LF,  etc.,  Lydyate  1332  LS.     O.E.  hlidgeat 
"  swing-gate." 

Eggergarth  (cf.  Eggergate  Mill  O.M.  1846-51) :  Ekergert  a  1240  CC,  Egergarh 
1212  LI,  Hekergart  1243  LI,  Ekirgarth  1340,  1380  LF,  Egergarth  1322  LI.  Cf. 
Ekergart  a  1190  CC  (Preston,  Kendal).  Probably  O.N.  ekra  "  small  ploughed 
field  "  and  gar  fir  "  enclosure." 

4.  Downholland  (S.W.  of  Ormskirk ;    v.) :    Roland  DB,  Hoilanda  1194  LPR, 
Holland  1226  LI,  Holand,  de  Dunholand  1298  LI,  Dounholand  1325  LF,  1332 
LS,  etc.    O.E.  TioTi  "  projecting  ridge  of  land  "  and  land  ;  cf.  Upholland  p.  105. 
The  township  lies  on  the  slope  of  a  ridge  reaching  77ft.  above  sea-level. 
Barton  (originally  a  separate  manor  ;  v.) :   Bartune  DB,  Barton  c  1225  CC,  1246 
LAR,  etc.,  de  Barton  1332  LS  ;    Burton  1266  LAR.    O.E.  beretiin  "  barton  "  ; 
cf.  p.  38. 

Harker  (cf.  Barker's  Bridge  in  Halsall,  near  the  Downholland  boundary)  : 
Harekar  c  1225  CC.  Second  el.  carr,  O.N.  kiarr ;  first  el.  perhaps  O.E.  hara 
"  hare  "  or  hdr  "  grey  "  or  the  corresponding  O.N.  word.  Cf.  Norw.  Harekjaer 
NG  VIII,  supposed  to  have  as  first  el.  the  word  for  "  hare." 
Haskayne  (v.) :  de  Hasken  1329  LI,  de  Haskeen  1366  LS,  Haskyn  c  1540  LI  I. 
p.  50,  Hasken  1530,  Haskeyne  1598  DL,  Heskeyne  1618  CW  83.  Perhaps  the  name 
is  identical  with  Heskin  (p.  130). 

5.  Halsall  (midway  between  Ormskirk  and  Southport ;   v.)  :   Heleshale,  Herles- 
hala  DB,  Haleshale  ?12  cent.  HS  XXXII,  Halsale  1212,  1243  LI,  a  1220  CC, 
1284  LF,  1332  LS,  etc..,  de  Haleshal  1246  LAR,  Haleshale  1280  LF,  Halsall  1346 
FA.    The  early  forms  point  to  a  first  el.  with  short.  I,  and  the  DB  forms  to  O.E. 
CB  (or  ea),  i.e.,  O.E.  Hceles-.    We  may  compare  Halesworth,  SufE.  (  :  Healesuurda, 
Halesuuorda  DB),  for  which  Skeat  suggests  O.E.  *Hcel  or  *Hal  pers.  n.  as  first  el. 
Possibly  O.E.  hcele  "  hero  "   was  used  as  a  pers.  n.    The  second  el.  is  O.E.  halh 
"  haugh,"    here  referring  to  the  flat  fields  on  the  outskirts  of  the  Old  Halsall 

Renacres  :  Ruinacres  c  1200  HS  XXXII.  185,  de  Ruynacres  1246  LAR,  de 
Rynacrus  1282  LI,  de  Runacres  1284  LF,  Rowy nacres  1285  LAR,  de  Ry nacres 
1332  LS,  de  Ruynacre  1366  LS.  "  Rye-acres  "  ;  O.E.  rygen  "  of  rye  "  (as 
r.  meolo).  Cf.  Raydon  or  Reydon,  Suff.  (  :  Reinduna  DB,  Rigendun  972  BCS 
1289).  Skeat  derives  the  first  el.  of  this  from  O.E.  rygen. 

Shurlacres,  S.  Mere  (gave  name  to  a  family) :  Sir  Walacres  M(er)e  1235-49 
HS  XXXII.  186,  Shirwallacres  1476  SC,  de  Shirwalaccres  1323  LI,  1335  LF. 
Obviously  Shirwali  means  "  the  clear  well,"  O.E.  scir  and  wcella  "  well."  "  The 
acres  by  Shirwali,  or  the  clear  well."  Perhaps  Shirwali  is  preserved  in  the  name 
Shirdley  Hill. 



S.W.  of  Ormskirk. 

Aughton  (township,  v.)  :  Achetun  DB,  Actum  a  1190  CO,  Actun  a  1250  CO, 
Acton  1235  LF,  Achton  1252  IPM,  Aghton  1282,  etc.,  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Aughton 
1499  LF,  etc.  O.E.  de-tun,  i.e.,  dc  "  oak  "  and  tun. 

Uplitherland  (old  manor)  :  Literland  DB,  Liderlanda  1177  LPR,  Litherland 
(vill.)  1212  LI,  Lytherlond  1322  LF,  Lythyrlond  1384  LF  ;  Vplitherland  a  1194 
Ch,  Uplittherland  1207  ChR,  Uplitherland  1292  PW.  Up-  was  added  for  dis- 
tinction from  Downlitherland.  O.N.  Hlidarland  "  land  on  the  slope."  There 
is  a  hilly  ridge  in  the  W.  part  of  the  township  ;  Litherland  is  situated  on  its 
N.W.  slope. 

Mickering  Farm  :  Mykeringe  1581  DL.    Looks  like  O.N.  mykiar-eng  "  manured 
meadow  "  ;    O.N.  mykr  "  manure  "    and  eng  "  meadow." 
Moor  Hall  :    Morehall  1429  TI.    Cf.  le  Mor  a  1250  CO,  de  la  More  1282  LF. 
Named  from  a  moor,  not  from  a  family. 


A  large  inland  par.,  W.  of  the  river  Douglas.  To  the  N.  was  formerly  Martin 

1.  Ormskirk  (town)  :   Ormeschirche  a  1196  Ch,  1286  ChR,  (Orm  de)  Ormeskierk 
1203  LPR,  Ormiskyrke  1286  Ind,  Ormeschurche  c  1300  SC,  Ormeschurch  1317 
LC  443.     "  Orm's  church  "  (O.N.  Ormr  pers.  n.  and  O.N.  kirkia  "  church  "). 
There  is  in  early  sources  some  vacillation  between  the  native  form  church  and 
the  Scand.  kirk.    Ormskirk  seems  to  have  been  a  rectory  manor  (VHL  III.  262). 

2.  Bickerstaffe  (S.E.  of  Ormskirk) :   Bikerstad  a  1190  CC,  Bikerstath  1226  LI, 
1246  LAR,  1268-1320  CC,  de  Bikerstat  1246  LAR,  Bykerstat  1285  LAR,  Byker- 
stath  1298  LI,  1331  LF,  etc.,  Bykirstath  1322  LI,  Bykarstath  1332  LS  ;   Bikerstaff 
1267  LAR  ;    Bekerstat  1261  LAR,  Bijkirstach  1280  HS  XL.  157,  Bickerstathe 
1577  Saxton ;   occasional  forms  are :    Birkestad,  Birkerstat,  de  Birkestade  1246 
LAR,  Birkyrstath  1418  LF.    It  seems  we  must  start  from  an  early  M.E.  form 
Bikerstath.    The  situation  of  the  place  gives  no  indication  as  to  the  etymology 
of  the  name.    The  church  stands  on  a  slight  ridge  ;   there  is  no  stream  of  im- 
portance, but  there  are  two  small  brooks,  one  called  Bickerstaffe  Brook. 

The  immense  preponderance  of  forms  in  -i-  in  early  sources  renders  derivation 
of  the  first  el.  of  the  name  from  O.N.  bekkiar,  the  gen.  of  bekkr  "  brook,"  im- 
possible. Moreover,  Biker-  occurs  in  various  other  names,  some  of  which  cannot 
contain  bekkiar  :  Bickershaw,  Wigan  (p.  102)  ;  Bickerton,  Yks.  (on  a  slope)  : 
Bichretone  DB,  Bykerton  1226,  etc.  (Moorman)  ;  Bickerton,  Nhb.  (on  a  brook)  : 
Bykerton  1245  (Mawer)  ;  Bickerton,  Ches.  (on  the  slope  of  a  hill  of  695ft.)  : 
Bicretone  DB ;  Bickerton,  Heref.  :  Bicretune  DB  ;  Bycardyke,  Notts.  : 
Bikeresdic  1189,  Bikerisdik  1278  (Mutschmann) ;  Bixton,  Norf. :  Bicherstuna 
DB.  But  Bicker,  Line.  (Bichere  DB),  Byker,  Nhb.  (Byker  1249  PR)  very 
likely  contain  O.N.  kiarr  "  marsh."  Bicker  is  near  Bicker  Fen.  Byker  adjoins 
Walker,  which  is  near  Wallsend  and  clearly  has  the  word  wall  as  first  el.  ;  both 
are  on  the  low  shore  of  the  Tyne  (cf.  on  these  names  Mawer).  I  think  Bicker 


and  Byker  go  back  to  O.Scand.  by-kiarr  "  village-marsh."  Or  by-  may  mean 
"  by  "  ;  cf.  Bywater  "  by  the  water  "  and  the  like.  These  two  names  are 
probably  to  be  disregarded  in  trying  to  account  for  Bicker-  in  Bickerstaffe,  etc. 

The  common  occurrence  of  the  element  tells  us  that  Bikre-,  Biker-  must 
represent  some  common  noun  or  pers.  name,  probably  of  Engl.  origin.  It  can 
hardly  be  O.N.  bikarr  "  bowl,"  as  no  topographical  use  of  this  word  is  known, 
and  a  meaning  "  hollow  "  hardly  suits  all  the  names.  Nor  can  Biker-  well  be  the 
O.E.  word  corresponding  to  O.Sax.  bikar  "  bee-hive  "  from  which  O.E.  beocere 
"  apiarius  "  is  derived. 

I  believe  Bikre,  Biker  is  a  pers.  name,  perhaps  related  to  O.E.  Bic(c)a.  This 
name  might  belong  to  O.N.  bikkja  "  to  overturn  "  (Norw.  dial,  bikka  "  to  rock, 
to  fall,"  etc.),  L.G.  bikken,  O.H.Gr.  bicchan  "  to  prod,  to  thrust."  To  this  group, 
I  suppose,  belong  M.E.  biker  "  skirmish,"  bikeren  "to  skirmish,"  which  show  the 
r  of  Bicre-.  O.E.  *Bic(e)ra  might  be  derived  from  an  adj. ;  cf.  e.g.  O.E.  slidor, 
slipor,  swifor,  stamor,  M.E.  fliker,  etc.  But  it  may  also  be  O.E.  *Bic(e)ra  is  an 
extension  of  Bica.  There  are  some  apparently  analogous  cases.  Thus  O.E.  has 
Tepra  by  the  side  of  Teppa.  Hothersall  in  Bl.  seems  to  have  as  first  el.  a  side- 
form  with  -r-  suffix  of  O.E.  Huda.  Certain  place-names  in  -ing  may  be  explained 
in  a  similar  way :  Beckering,  Line.  (cf.  O.E.  Beac,  Becca),  Pickering,  Yks. 
(cf.  O.E.  Piccinga  wurth),  Peppering,  earlier  Piperinges  (cf.  O.E.  Pippa).  A 
number  of  rather  doubtful  German  names  with  r-suffix  are  given  by  Forstemann 
1199.  Very  likely  the  names  adduced  are  not  all  to  be  judged  of  in  the  same 
way  ;  some  may  e.g.  be  O.E.  names  in  -here.-f 

The  second  el.  may  be  O.N.  stod  "  landing-place  "  or  stadir  "  homestead." 
Barrow  Nook  :  de(l)  Barwe  1332,  1366  LS.    O.E.  bearo  "  grove." 
Mossock  (or  Moss  Oak)  Hall :   de  Mosok  1366  LS,  1418  LF.    Probably  "  mossy 

3.  Skelmersdale   (S.E.   of  Ormskirk ;    v.)  :    Schelmeresdele  DB,   Skelmersdale, 
Skelmaresden,   Skelmeresden   1202   LF,   Skelmardal   1246   LAR,   Skelmarisdale 
1278  LAR,  1346  LF,  Skelmaresdale  1300  LF,  Skelmersdale  1332  LS.    The  first 
el.  of  the  name  is  obviously  a  pers.  n.  identical  with  that  of  Skelsmergh,  Wml.  : 
Skelmeres(h)ergh  1278,  etc.  (Sedgefield),  and  of  Skelmanthorpe,  Yks.  :  Scelmertorp 
DB.  Bjorkman  derives  it  from  O.N.  *Skialdmarr  =  O.Dan.  Skielmerus,  Skelmerus. 
Second  el.  O.N.  dalr  "  valley,"    perhaps  referring  to  the  valley  of  the  Tawd 
(called  Skelmere  by  Harrison,  1577). 

4.  Lathom  (E.  of  Ormskirk,  on  the  Douglas)  :   Latvne  DB,  Lathum  a  1196  Ch, 
1201f.  LPR?  1202  LF,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Lathom  1224  LF,  1268  LAR,  etc.,  Latham 
1276  LAR,  c  1540  Leland,  Lathu  1332  LS.    O.N.  hlaoum  "  (at)  the  barns,"  from 
O.N.  hlafa  "  barn." 

Alton  (name  now  lost) :  Altona  c  1190  Ch,  Altunegate  c  1225  CC,  de  Olton  1366 
LS.  "  The  old  town."  New  Park  seems  to  have  taken  its  place. 
Blythe  Hall  :  de  Blythe  1366  LS,  1398  SC,  de  Blyth  1401  ib.  Blythe  Hall  stands 
near  Ellerbeck.  Blythe  is  a  well-known  river-name,  no  doubt  a  derivative  of 
the  adj.  O.E.  blifte  "  mild,"  etc.  One  in  Northampton  is  mentioned  in  O.E. 
charters  :  blide,  on  blidan  944  BCS  792  (orig.),  etc.  Blyth  is  a  river  in  Nhb. 
I  suppose  Eller  Beck  was  formerly  called  Blithe  and  that  it  gave  name  to  the 


Hoscar  Moss  :  de  Horsecarr  1340  CC,  de  Horscar  1366  LS.  The  name  is  self- 
explaining  :  "  horse-carr." 

Newburgh  (v.  near  the  Douglas) :  Neweburgh  (vil.)  1431  Moore  MSS,  Newburgh 
1529  LF,  Newborow  (vil.)  c  1540  Leland.  The  place  was  once  a  borough 
(VHL  iii.  256).  "  The  new  borough." 

Scarth  Hill  (h.)  :  Scarth  c  1190  Ch.  The  hamlet  is  situated  on  an  eminence 
(254ft.  above  sea-level)  S.E.  of  Ormskirk.  Scarth  in  the  above  quotation  denotes 
a  natural  feature.  The  name  is  O.N.  skard  "  notch,  cleft,  mountain  pass."  Cf. 
le  Skarth  WhC  334,  an  "  intersectio  "  in  Crow  Hill,  Bl. 

Tawdbridge,  formerly  Taldeford  (on  the  Tawd)  :  de  Taneldeford,  de  Taneletford 
1246  LAR,  de  Taldeford  1282  LI,  1285  LAR,  1332  LS,  1341  IN.  The  original 
name  apparently  means  "  the  old  ford."  The  1246  forms,  though  partly  corrupt, 
seem  to  go  back  to  O.E.  cet  pon  aldanforda.  Taldeford  is  perhaps  from  a  reduced 
form  of  this  :  atte  aldeford,  which  was  wrongly  divided  as  at  Taldeford.  The 
river-name  Tawd  is  an  obvious  back-formation,  and  Tawdbridge  is  a  new  name 
formed  with  the  river-name.  There  is  a  Tawd  Bridge  on  the  Tawd  also  in 

Westhead  (h.) :  Westhefd  c  1190  Ch,  Le  Westheued,  del  Westheued  1366  LS. 
Westhead  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  ridge,  on  the  top  of  which  is  Scarth  Hill.  On 
O.E.  teafod  "  ridge,"  see  p.  12. 

Wirples  Moss  (or  Warper's  Moss) :  Wirplesmos  c  1190  Ch.  Cf.  Wirpeslid  in 
Tatham,  Lo.  (1205-25  CC  930),  Werplesburrf,  Suss.  HR,  and  Worplesdon,  Surr. 
(Werplesdon  1312  AP  313),  Warpsgrove,  Oxf.  (Werplesgrave  DB).  The  first  el. 
is  apparently  a  derivative  of  O.E.  weorpan  "  to  throw,"  either  an  agent- noun 
*wirpel,  *weorpel,  meaning  e.g.  "  a  moldwarp,"  perhaps  used  as  a  pers.  n.  (Alex- 
ander), or  rather  a  derivative  with  -isla  meaning  "  something  thrown  "  ;  cf. 
Norw.  vcersl  "  a  cairn."  O.E.  *werpels  may  be  the  source  of  dial,  wapple  "  a 
bridle  way  "  (also  worple,  worples],  the  original  meaning  being  perhaps  "  road 
formed  by  stones  thrown  down  "  (e.g.,  over  a  marsh),  "  stepping-stones."  This 
might  be  the  meaning  here. 

Wolmoor  (now  lost)  :  Wolvemor  1202  LF,  de  Wluemor  c  1240  CC,  de  Wulvemor 
(Wulwemore,  Wulmore)  1246  LAR.  O.E.  wulfamor,  or  Wulfan  mor,  "  the  moor 
of  the  wolves,"  or  "  the  moor  of  Wulfa." 

5.  Burscough  (N.W.  of  Ormskirk  ;  v.,  formerly  the  site  of  a  priory)  :  burgechou 
c  1190  Ch,  Burscogh  c  1190  Ch,  1327  LS,  etc.,  Buresscoch  1212  LI,  Burchisscoh 
c  1225  CC,  Burschou  c  1270  LPD  II.  198,  205,  Burscho  1286  ChR  ;  Birscogh, 
Birscow  1246  LAR,  Burskou,  de  Birskou  1276  ib.,  Birskeouk  1278  LAR.  The 
name  means  "  the  wood  belonging  to  Burh"  or  "  the  wood  by  the  (old)  burh" 
The  second  el.  is  O.N.  skogr  "  wood."  The  name  tells  us  that  there  was  formerly 
a  burh  in  Burscough.  Other  forms  of  the  name  are  :  Burgastud  c  1190  Ch, 
Burgchestude  a  1216  LPD  II.  197,  Bourchestude,  Burgestude  a  1264  ib.  199,  202. 
These  represent  another  type,  viz..  O.E.  burh-styde  "  the  site  of  the  burh." 
Greetby  (cf.  Greetby  Hill) :  Grittebi  c  1190  Ch,  de  Greteby  1246  LAR,  Gretby 
a  1264  LPD  II.  205,  de  Gretteby  1398  SC.  Perhaps  the  first  el.  is  the  O.N.  pers.  n. 
Grettir ;  if  so,  the  earliest  form  is  miswritten.  But  the  modern  form  with  ee 
is  curious,  and  perhaps  O.N.  griot  "  stone(s)  "  is  rather  to  be  assumed  as  the 
first  el.  :  O.N.  Griotby  or  Griotaby. 


Marton  or  Martin  (old  manor) :  Merretun  DB,  Mertona  c  1190  Ch,  a  1264  LPD 
II.  199,  Marton  1235  LF.  O.E.  meretun  "  the  tun  by  the  mere."  Marton  was 
situated  at  the  now  drained  lake  of  Martin  Mere  (  :  Merton  Mere  1396  SC,  Marton 
Mere  1546  LF,  Merton  meere  1577  Harr.). 

Tarlscough  (h.)  :  Tharlescogh  c  1190  Ch,  Terlesco  wood  1577  Saxton.  "  The 
wood  (O.N.  skogr)  oiparaldr."  paraldr  is  a  side-form  of  poraldr,  an  O.N.  name 
(cf.  Bjorkman).  The  same  form  is  found  in  Tarlton,  Leyl.  ;  cf.  Tharoldstube 
(in  Scarisbrick)  1398  SC,  Thoraldestub  1303  SC  (orig.). 

6.  Scarisbrick  (S.E.  of  Southport,  v.)  :  Scharisbrec  c  1200  SC,  Scaresbrek  c 
1240  HS  XXXV.  142,  1326  LF,  etc.,  de  Skaresbrek  1238  LF,  Scarisbrek  13  cent. 
HS  XXXII.  188,  de  Scarisbrec  (Scharesbek)  1246  LAR,  Scaresbrec  c  1270  SC, 
Skaresbrek  1322  LI,  1332  LS  ;  now  [ske-zbrik].  The  township  is  on  the  whole 
low  and  flat,  but  the  part  where  Scarisbrick  Hall  is  situated  rises  to  about 
50ft.  above  sea-level,  the  ground  sloping  away  to  the  W.  The  village  is  on  the 
slope.  The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  obviously  O.N.  brekka  "  slope."  The  first 
el.,  as  shown  by  the  regular  early  a,  cannot  be  O.N.  sker.  It  is  no  doubt  a  pers.  n. 
of  Scand.  origin  ;  cf.  0.  Dan.  Skar  in  Scarstorp,  Skarsholm  (Nielsen). 
Harleton  or  Hurlston  (old  manor) :  Hirletun  DB,  vrltonam  c  1190  Ch,  Hurltona 
1190  CC,  Hurlton  1200-46  CC,  c  1286  SC  (orig.),  Hurleton  1246  LAR,  1298  LI, 
1326  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Hurilton  c  1280  SC  (orig.).  Occasional  are  Hurdilton, 
Hurdleton  1468  SC,  Hirdylton  1451  CC.  It  is  difficult  to  give  a  definite  etymology, 
as  the  early  forms  may  go  back  to  various  O.E.  bases.  I  am  inclined  to  believe 
that  the  first  el.  is  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  *Heorla,  a  derivative  of  Heor-  in  Heorwulf, 
etc.  O.E.  eo  appears  in  Lane,  names  sometimes  as  M.E.  u,  i  ;  cf.  Rivington,  Sa. 
(p.  48).  The  different  forms  of  the  name  are  well  accounted  for  by  such  a  base. 
Aspinwall  or  Asmall  :  de  Aspenewell  1246  LAR,  Aspinwalle  c  1280  SC,  de 
Aspenwall  1332  LS.  Now  [asmal].  O.E.  cespen  adj.  "aspen"  and  wcella 
"  well,  brook." 

Bescar  (h.) :  Birchecar  1331,  1359  SC,  Birchcarre  1546  LF.  O.E.  birce  "  birch  " 
and  carr  from  O.N.  kiarr. 

Drummersdale  :  Drombulsdale  1546  LF.  Bjorkman,  E.St.  44,  253,  suggests 
as  first  el.  a  Scand.  nickname  corresponding  to  Swed.  drummel  "  lout  "  and 
compares  e.g.  O.N.  drumbr  "  a  log,"  drumbi  a  nickname,  and  Icel.  Drymbilsrud. 
This  seems  to  be  right. 

Gorsuch  :  Gosfordesich  c  1200  SC  (orig.),  Gosefordesiche  c  1280  SC  (orig.),  de 
Gosefordesiche  1283  LI,  de  Gosefordsik  1332  LS,  Gorsiche  1519  DL.  Numerous 
other  examples  are  found  in  SC.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  sic  "  water-course." 
Gosford  means  "  goose-ford  "  ;  cf.  de  Gosford  1367  Moore  MSS. 
Snape  (h.) :  Snape  1200-46  CC,  c  1270  SC  (orig.),  1341  IN,  1546  LF.  Cf.  the 
Withinesnape  (in  Harleton)  c  1280  SC  (orig.).  M.E.  snape  "  pasture"  (see p.  17). 
Whams  Farm  (N.  of  Scarisbrick) :  IQuassum  c  1240,  Quassam  c  1300.  W hassum 
1338,  1386,  Whassomheyes  1492  SC.  This  must  have  been  close  to  Martin  Mere  ; 
Mere  Hall  (cf.  del  Mere  1361  SC)  is  close  by.  Whassum  recalls  O.Swed.  hwas 
(Swed.  vass)  "  reed."  At  "  the  reeds  "  seems  a  suitable  name. 
Wyke  House  :  Wik  c  1180  SC,  Wyk  1276  LAR,  the  Wyke  1440,  Longe  Wik  1577 
SC,  the  Wyke,  Long  Wyke,  the  High  Wyke  1503  LP  I.  21,  23.  O.N.  vik  "  bay." 
The  place  was  no  doubt  named  from  a  bay  in  Martin  Mere. 


FORMBY  CHAPELRY  (of  Walton) 

This  detached  portion  of  Walton,  situated  S.  of  Southport,  must  have  been 
formerly  connected  with  the  adjoining  par.  of  North  Meols.  Formby  and  North 
Meols  are  situated  along  the  sea,  and  much  of  the  ground  consists  of  sandhills. 
Formby  (v.)  :  Fornebei  DB,  Fornebia  1177  LPR,  Fornebi  1203H  LPR,  Forneby 
1252  IPM,  1298  LI,  etc.,  fforneby  1332  LS,  Formby  1509  LF.  This  may  be 
"  the  byr  of  Forni,"  as  suggested  by  Wyld  and  assumed  by  Bjorkman  (Forni  is  a 
known  O.N.  name),  or  "  the  old  byr  "  from  O.N.  forn  "  old  "  (Harrison).  In 
favour  of  the  latter  alternative  it  may  be  pointed  out  that  Fornaby  "  the  old 
by  "  is  a  common  Swed.  name  (Hellquist,  Ortnamnen  pa  -by  p.  51).  An  old 
village  may  have  been  so  named  in  contradistinction  to  new  settlements  made 
by  Scand.  immigrants. 

Ravensmeols  (old  manor,  now  partly  washed  away  by  the  sea)  :  Mele  DB, 
Molas  1094  Ch,  Ravenesmeles  1190-4  Ch,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  -mueles  1232  LAR, 
-moles  1246  LAR,  -moeles  1284  ChR,  Rauenesmdis  c  1200  CC;  -meles  1269  LAR, 
RauenesmeV  1332  LS,  Ravenmeles  1468  LF  ;  now  [re-vn  mrlz].  First  el.  O.N. 
Hrafn  pers.  n.  ;  second  el.  O.N.  melr  "  sandbank,  sandhill."  The  forms 
-moeles,  -moles,  -mueles  are  Norman  spellings,  probably  pointing  to  e,  which 
is  due  to  compensation-length,  an  h  having  disappeared  after  I  (cf.  Noreen, 
Aisl.  Gr.  §  119,  2). 

Ainsdale  (old  manor,  v.)  :  Einulvesdel  DB,  Ainuluesdale  c  1190  Ch,  Aynuluis- 
dale  c  1200  CC,  Aymulvedale  1295  ChR,  de  Haynuldisdal  (Aynuluesderi)  1246 
LAR,  Aynolsdale  1451  CC.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  O.E.  Mgenwulf 
(Searle)  or  a  hypothetical  O.N.  Einulfr.  The  former  is  the  opinion  of  Bjorkman, 
the  latter  that  of  Wyld.  I  am  inclined  to  decide  in  favour  of  the  latter  alterna- 
tive, because  the  names  of  this  district  are  preponderatingly  Scandinavian. 
O.N.  Einulfr  is  not  found,  but  the  analogous  O.N.  Einbiorn  is,  and  Enbiorn  is 
a  common  O.Swed.  name. 


The  district  of  Southport,  on  the  sea. 

1.  Birkdale  (S.  of  Southport)  :   Birkedale  c  1200  CC,  1305  Lacy  C,  etc.,  Berkdale 
1311  IPM  ;   Birkedene  c  1200  CC.    O.N.  birki  "  birch-copse  "  and  dak  "  dale." 
Birkdale  was  formerly  a  part  of  Argarmeles. 

Argarmeles  :  Erengermeles  DB,  Argarmelis  1243  LI,  Agermoles  1246  LAR, 
Argarmel  1249  IPM,  Argaremeles  1254  IPM,  Argarmeles  1255  IPM,  Arkmell 
1330  LI,  Argarmelys  in  Byckedale  16  cent.  DL.  The  name  has  disappeared  ; 
most  of  Argarmeles  has  been  washed  away  by  the  sea.  In  1503  John  Shirlok, 
aged  80  years,  deposed  that  he  never  knew  of  any  place  called  Argarmelys,  but 
that  he  had  heard  that  there  once  were  such  lands,  which  had  been  drowned  in 
the  sea.  The  place  of  them  was  unknown  to  him  (LP  I.  24). 

2.  North  Meols  :  Otegrimele,  Otringemele  DB  ,   Moles  a  1149-Ch,  Moeles  1153-60 
Ch  (orig.),  de  Molis  1229  LAR,  Molis  1242  LI,  Mels  1311  IPM  ;    Normalas 
c  1190  Ch,  Nor  Muelis  1229  LAR,  Nortmelis  1243  LI,  Nortmoles  1246  LAR, 
North  Meles  1312  LI,  Northmeles  1229  LAR,  1322  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.    The  original 


name  was  M eles  or  a  compound  with  a  pers.  n.  as  first  el.  This  pers.  n.  is  corrupt 
in  the  only  extant  forms.  O.N.  Oddgrimr  may  have  existed,  though  it  is  not 
evidenced.  But  probably  it  is  O.N.  Audgrimr,  often  found  in  England  as 
Oudgrim,  Odgrim,  etc.  (Bjorkman,  Personennamen).  Later  the  old  name  was 
supplanted  by  North  Meols. 

Crossens  (v. ;  near  a  slight  head-land) :  Crossenes  c  1250  Farrer,  Hist.  N.  Meols, 
de  Crossenes  1323  LCR,  Crosnes  1327  LS,  1341  IN,  Crossons  1550  Farrer  op.  cit. 
32.  "  The  ness  with  the  cross  or  crosses." 

Blowick  (near  Southport)  is  presumably  O.N.  Ud-vik  "  the  dark  bay."  Wyke 
in  North  Meols  is  mentioned  in  early  documents :  le  Wyk  1354,  le  Wike  1460 
Farrer,  Hist.  N.  Meols,  le  Wyk  in  Northmeles  (a  certain  water,  parcel  of  Merton 
Mere)  1503  ib.  116.  Cf.  Wyke  in  Scarisbrick. 


Lailand  hvnd'  DB,  (de)  Lailand  Wapentachio  1188  LPR,  Serjanteria  de  Leiland 
1200  LPR,  W apentake  of  Leiland  1229  ChR,  Lailondesire  1226  LI,  Leylandesire 
1243  LI,  Leylaundschyre,  etc.,  1246  LAR,  Leilondshire  1327  LS,  Wapentach'  de 
Leylondshir'  1332  LS. 

Leyland  hundred,  the  smallest  in  Lancashire,  occupies  the  district  S.  of  the 
mouth  of  the  Ribble.  The  surface  is  level  and  low  in  the  W.,  but  rises  in  the 
E.,  where  an  altitude  of  c  1,200ft.  is  reached  at  Great  Hill  ( :  Grethull  LPR  375). 

Names  of  Rivers 

Douglas  (joins  the  Ribble  near  its  estuary) :  Duglis  a  1220,  Dugeles  a  1232, 
Duggles  a  1233  CC,  14  cent.  Higden,  Dugles  a  1235  CO,  Duggils,  Bugles,  pron. 
Duggels  c  1540  Leland,  the  Duglesse  1577  Harr.,  Dowles  1577  Saxton.  Hogan 
gives  from  an  Ir.  source  the  form  Dubh  glaisi  (g.  sg.).  The  name  is  British  and 
means  "the  black  stream";  it  is  a  compound  of  *dubo-  "black  "  (Welsh  du, 
etc.),  and  a  word  for  "  stream  "  corresponding  to  Welsh  glais,  Ir.  glais  "  stream." 
The  name  is  common  in  Wales  and  Ireland  :  Douglas,  Irel.  ;  Dulas,  Wales 
(Angles.,  Grlam.,  Montg.,  etc.).  Early  Welsh  forms  are  dubleis  LL  198,  dibleis 
ib.  191  (Monm.),  dubleis,  dugleis  ib.  78  (Cam.). 

Asland  (the  name  of  the  lower  course  of  the  Douglas) :  Asklone  a  1217  CC, 
Ascalon  1223  LF,  Askelon,  Eskelon  a  1250  CC,  Asteland  1550  DL,  Astland  c  1555 
DL,  Oslande  1590  Burghley.  The  name  is  a  compound  of  O.N.  askr  "  ash  " 
(and  eski  "  ash-trees  ")  and  lon(e),  identical  with  Sc.  dial,  lane  "  the  hollow 
course  of  a  large  rivulet  in  meadow-land  ;  a  brook  whose  movement  is  scarcely 
perceptible  ;  the  smooth,  slowly  moving  part  of  a  river."  This  lane  is  supposed 
in  NED  to  be  perhaps  a  different  word  from  lane  "  road  "  ;  but  cf.  e.g.  Swed. 
pad  "  road,  path  ;  ^ilso  river  valley  "  NoB  I.  119ff.  The  same  word  is  perhaps 
found  in  (aquam  de)  Hangelan,  Hangelon  c  1200  CC  (Ainsdale).  The  river  Asland 
is  a  "  lane  "  in  the  sense  given  above. 
Perburn  (earlier  name  of  Buckow  Brook,  a  trib.  of  the  Douglas)  :  Perburne 


c  1200  CO,  Perburn(e)  c  1250  LPD  II.  200.  Per-  is  probably  O.E.  peru  "  pear," 
in  M.E.  also  "  pear-tree." 

Yarrow  (a  trib.  of  the  Douglas)  :  Yarwe  c  1190  CO,  Earwe  1203  LF,  Yarewe 
1246  LAR,  Yarugh  1276  IM,  Yaro  c  1540  Leland,  the  Yarowe  1577  Harr.  The 
Yarrow  is  a  fairly  important  river,  whose  name  may  with  probability  be  looked 
upon  as  British.  An  O.E.  Gearwe  or  the  like  we  may  derive  from  Celt.  *garwo- 
"  rough  "  (Welsh  garw,  Ir.  garbh,  etc.  ;  cf.  Garw,  Glam.).  The  upper  part  of  the 
river  seems  to  be  rapid.  With  an  O.E.  Earwe  we  may  compare  the  Gaul,  river 
name  Arva  (Stokes  19)  and  Arrow,  the  name  of  a  place  and  river  in  Warw. 
(  :  Arne  for  Ante  710  BCS  127,  Arve  DB).  Cf.  Yarrow,  Sc. 
Lostock  (a  trib.  of  the  Yarrow)  :  Lostoc  c  1200  CC,  Lostok  13  cent.  WhC  860ff. 
Cf .  Lostock  in  Salford,  p.  39.  Lostock  can  hardly  be  an  old  river-name.  I  suppose 
a  place  so  called  was  once  situated  on  the  river,  which  came  to  be  called  Lostock 
Water  or  the  like  and  finally  Lostock.  Lostock  Hall  in  Walton-le-Dale  may  be 
the  place,  but  the  name  is  apparently  not  evidenced  until  the  14th  cent.  (VHL 
VI.  295). 

Wymott  Brook  (a  trib.  of  the  Lostock) :  (aqua  de)  Wimoth  c  1215  CC,  (Molen- 
dinum  de)  Wimode  c  1225  CC,  (aqua  de)  Wimode  c  1250  CC,  Wymote  (r.)  1547 
LP  III.  16.  This  name  possibly  contains  O.E.  mupa  "  mouth  of  a  river  " 
and  must  then  originally  have  denoted  the  confluence  of  the  brook  with  the 
Lostock.  If  we  may  assume  such  a  small  brook  to  have  a  Brit,  name,  I  suggest  that 
Wi-  is  identical  with  the  obviously  Celtic  river-name  Wye  in  Bucks,  Kent,  Heref . 
Sid  Brook  (joins  the  Yarrow  from  the  S.,  near  Croston)  :  Suthebroc  c  1190, 
c  1200  CC.  "  The  southern  brook."  The  sound  development  is  curious. 
Chor  (brook  in  Chorley).  A  back-formation  from  Chorley.  Harrison  1577  calls 
it  Ceorle. 

Warth  Brook  or  Warthe  Dean  (between  Heapey  and  Anglezark) :  Worddeyn 
LPR  375.  O.E.  worp  "  enclosure,"  etc.,  and  denu  "  valley." 


A  district  N.W.  of  Wigan  and  the  Douglas.    It  is  on  the  slopes  of  Harrock 
Hill,  the  elevation  being  382ft.  at  Standish. 

1.  Standish- with-Langtree  (in  a  bend  of  the  Douglas  ;  near  Wigan). 
Standish  (v.) :  Stanesdis  1178  LPR,  Stanidis  c  1190  Ch,  Stanedis  1207  LPR, 
1212  BF,  Stanedich  1213  LPR,  de  Stanediss  1245  LAR,  Stanediss  (de  Stanedis, 
Stanidiss,  Stonidis)  1246  LAR,  Stanedisch  1253  LAR,  Stanedisse  1276  LAR, 
Staunedesse,  Stanedis  1276  IM ;  Standische  1288  IPM,  Standissh  1304  LF,  1327, 
1332  LS:  Standish  1330  LF,  Standich  c  1540  Leland.  O.E.  stdn  "  stone  "  and  edisc 
"  park  or  enclosed  pasture  for  cattle  "  (Wyld).  Cf.  Standish,  Glo.  (Stanedis 
872  BCS  535,  late  copy),  Farndish,  Beds,  (fearn  edisc  824  BCS  378  ;  incorrectly 
explained  by  Skeat),  Cavendish,  Brundish,  SufE.,  which  show  the  same  loss  of  the 
first  vowel  of  edisc  as  Standish. 

Langtree  (old  manor)  :  Longetre  c  1190  Ch,  c  1200  CC,  1330  LF,  Langetre  1206 
LF,  c  1250  LPD  II.  201,  1288  IPM,  1292  PW ;  Langtre  1258  LAR,  1311  IPM, 
Longetr'  1332  LS.  "  The  long  (high)  tree  "  (O.E.  lang  and  treo).  Cf.  Langtree 
(hundred),  Glo. 


Birley  Wood  :  de  Birlegh  1332  LS.    O.E.  byre  "  byre  "  and  leak. 

2.  Shevington  (W.  of  Standish  ;    h.)  :   Shefinton  c  1225  CO,  Sewinton  1243  LI, 
Schevinton  1288  IPM,  Shevynton  1322  LI,  1324  LCR,  1328  LF,  etc.,  Sheuinton 
1332  LS  ;   Shevyngton  1312  LI,  1372  Gaunt  R,  1420  LF,  Scyvyngton  1324  LI, 
Sheuyngton  1327  LS. 

The  same  first  el.  is  found  in  Schevynlegh  1329,  and  Shevynhulldiche  1362  in 
Charters  and  Deeds  relative  to  the  Standish  family  (ed.  J.  P.  Earwaker).  Both 
names  denote  places  in  or  on  the  border  of  Shevington.  They  tell  us  that  the 
first  el.  of  Shevington  cannot  be  a  word  with  the  suffix  -ing  and  also  render  it 
extremely  improbable  that  Shevin-  is  the  gen.  of  the  (somewhat  doubtful)  O.E. 
pers.  n.  Sceafa.  Preservation  of  the  n  in  all  three  names  would  be  highly  remark- 
able. The  name  Shevinhull,  which  probably  designates  the  hill  on  the  slope  of 
which  Shevington  village  stands  (Shevington  Moor),  perhaps  suggests  that 
Shevin  is  an  old  hill-name,  but  a  definite  etymology  of  such  a  name  cannot  be 
given  without  more  illustrative  material.  Somewhat  similar  names  are  Shaving- 
ton,  Shr.  (Scevintone  DB)  and  Shavington,  Ches.  These  places  cannot  have  been 
named  from  hills. j" 

Crook  (h.)  :   del  Crok  1324  LCR.    The  hamlet  stands  at  a  bend  of  the  Douglas. 
The  name  is  M.E.  crok,  probably  from  O.N.  krokr  "  bend,  hook." 
Gathurst  (on  the  Douglas)  :    Gatehurst  a  1547  DL.    First  el.  perhaps  O.E.  geat 
"  gate." 

3.  Worthington  (S.  of  Chorley,  on  the  Douglas)  :    Wrthinton  c  1225  CC,  de 
Worthinton  1243  LI,  de  Wyrthinton  (Wurthington,   Wurtheton)  1246  LAR,  de 
Wurthyncton  1276  LAR,  Wrthinton',  de  Wrthinton  1276  IM,  Worthington  1292 
PW,  1318  LF,  1327  LS,  etc.,  Worthinton  1320  LF,  1332  LS.    There  is  a  Worthing- 
ton also  in  Leic.  :    Wrthinton  1276  HR.     Worthington  may  very  well  contain 
O.E.  wordign  (=wordig)  "  enclosure,"  etc.,  or  O.E.  wyrding  "  cultivated  field  "  ? 
(B-T.).     On  the  other  hand,  the  names  Worston  and  Worsthorne  in  Bl.  very 
likely  contain  an  O.E.  pers.  n.,  of  which  Worthing-  may  represent  a  patronymic. 
Cf.  p.  78. 

4.  Adlington  (on  the  Douglas,  S.  of  Chorley ;   v.)  :    Edeluinton    a  1190  CC,  de 
Hedelintona  c  1190  Ch,  Adelventon  (de  Aldeventon)  1202  LF,  Adelminton  1204 
LPR,  Adelinton  (de  Athelington)  1246  LAR;  Adlington  1288  IPM,  Adlinton  1332 
LS.    O.E.  *Eadwylfinga  or  *Eadwulfinga  tun',   Eadwylfingas  is  a  patronymic 
from    Eadwulf.     Cf.  O.E.    Eadulfingtune,   Thorpe,   p.   549 ;    Adlington,  Ches. 
(Adelvinton  1248  IPM),  Edlingham,  Nhb.  (Eadulfingaham  Sim.  Durh.  68). 

5.  Anderton  (S.E.  of  Chorley)  :    Anderton  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  1327  LS,  etc., 
de  Andirton  1282  LI,  Andreton  1332  LS.     Anderton  stands  on  the  Douglas, 
called  here  Anderton  water  by  Leland  (c  1540).    The  name  is  no  doubt  identical 
with  Anderton  in  Ches.  (  :  Anderton  1303-4  RS  59).    I  suppose  the  name  has  as 
first  el.  O.E.  Eanred  pers.  n.    Between  n  and  r  a  d  would  develop  at  an  early 
date,  and  the  long  diphthong  would  be  shortened.    Andersfield,  Som.  (Andredes- 
feld  1187  PR)  seems  to  contain  the  same  first  el. 

Roscoe  Low  (hill  525ft.)  :  (rivulum  de)  Rascahae  a  1190  CC,  ?  de  Rascok,  de 
Rachecok  1246  LAR.  Roscoe  seems  to  go  back  to  an  O.N.  rd-skogr  meaning 
either  "  roe  wood  "  or  possibly  "  boundary  wood."  Rascahae  is  apparently 
an  anglicized  form. 


6.  Heath  Charnock  (on  both  sides  of  the  Yarrow,  N.  of  Adlington  and  Anderton)  : 
Chernoc  a  1190  CO,  Hethechernoce  1270  LAR,  Hetchernok  1288  IPM,  HethechernocJce 
1322  LI,  Hethchernok  1327  LS,  1353  LF,  Heth  Chernok  1332  LS  ;    Heghchernot 
1341  IN  ;   Estcherinok  1278  LAR.    The  township  is  also  called  Charnock  Gogard 
(Chernock  Gogard  1284  LAR)  from  a  family  of  the  name.    The  surface  reaches 
650ft.  above  sea-level ;   presumably  the  ground  was  partly  heath. 

The  name  is  identical  (minus  the  distinctive  addition)  with  Charnock  Richard. 
Charnock  Richard  and  Heath  Charnock,  both  on  the  Yarrow,  are  separated  by 
Duxbury  township.  Either  we  must  assume  that  Charnock  was  once  a  larger 
district,  which  included  also  Duxbury,  or  that  Charnock  is  an  old  name  of  the 
river  Yarrow,  which  was  applied  to  two  places  situated  on  the  river.  The  river 
may  have  had  different  names  in  different  parts  of  its  course.  Thus  Ock  in 
Berks,  seems  also  to  have  had  the  name  (O.E.)  Cern  (cf.  Skeat,  Place-names  of 
Berks.,  s.v.  Charney).  I  have  no  doubt  the  name  is  Celtic.  If  Charnock  is  an 
old  river-name,  we  may  compare  Cerniog,  the  name  of  an  affluent  to  the  river 
Carno  (Montgomerysh.,  Wales).  If  it  is  a  derivative  of  a  river-name,  this  may 
have  been  identical  with  the  O.E.  Cern  just  mentioned  ;  and  the  suffix  is  the 
well-known  Celtic  ending  -dko  (W.  -og,  etc.). 

Limbrick  (h.,  on  an  elevation).   Perhaps  O.N.  lind-brekka  "  lime-tree  slope." 
Street  :  del  Strete  1284  LAR,  1323  LCR,  1332  LS,  de  Strata  1270  LAR.    The  place 
was  probably  named  from  a  Roman  road  (O.E.  street,  stret),  or  some  other  ancient 

7.  Duxbury  (S.  of  Chorley,  traversed  by  the  Yarrow) :    Deukesbiri  1202  LF, 
Dukesbiri  1227  LF,  Dokesbiri  1246  LAR,  Dokesburi  1288  IPM,  Dokesbury  1321 
LF,  1327  LS,  etc.,  Dokesbur'  1332  LS,  Duxbury  1506  LF.    I  suppose  the  first  el. 
is  a  pers.  n.  identical  with  that  of  Duxford,  Cambr.  (Dochesuuorde  DB,  Dukes- 
worth  1286  FA)  ;   Skeat  suggests  an  O.E.  *Duc. 

Burgh  (on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Yarrow)  :  de  le  Burg'  1276  IM,  de  Burgh  1288  LI, 
del  Burgh  1332  LS,  Burghe  1577  Harr.  I  suppose  there  was  once  a  burh  in  the 
place,  which  would  have  been  very  suitable  for  the  purpose.  Possibly  this 
burh  also  gave  name  to  Duxbury  ;  Duxbury  Hall,  however,  is  on  the  other 
bank  of  the  river. 

8.  Coppull  (S.  of  the  Yarrow,  S.W.  of  Chorley)  :   Cophill  1218  LAR,  de  Cophull 
1243, 1254  LI,  1246  LAR,  Coppd  1276  LAR,  Cophull  1322  LF,  etc.,  CoppuU  1386 
LF,  etc.  ;  Coppehull  1332  LS.    Cop  means  "  top  "   (especially  of  a  hill),  "  heap, 
mound,    tumulus  "    (NED)  ;    in   dialects  also  "  hill,  peak."     The   name  pre- 
sumably means  "  peaked  hill."    The  hill  which  gave  the  place  its  name  is  prob- 
ably Coppull  Hill  (300ft.)  S.  of  Coppull  Hall. 

Blainscough  :  de  Bleynescowe  1281  VHL  VI.  227,  Blaynscow  1538  LP  II.  95. 
The  forms  are  too  late  to  allow  of  a  definite  etymology.  O.N.  Blceingr  pers.  n. 
may  be  the  first  el.  The  second  is  O.N.  skogr  "  wood." 

Chisnall  Hall  :  Chisinhalli  a  1220  CC,  de  Chysenhale  1285  LAR,  de  Chisenhall 
1324  AP,  de  Chisenhale  1332,  1342  LF.  I  think  Wyld  correctly  identifies  the 
first  el.  with  an  adj.  risen  from  ris  "  gravel  "  (cf.  Chesham,  p.  61).  The  second 
is  O.E.  halh  "  haugh."  Chisnall  Hall  stands  near  a  brook  on  level  ground. 

9.  Welch  Whittle  (S.W.  of  Chorley)  :    Withull  1221  LF,  Quitul  c  1210  CC,  Wal- 
sewythull  1243  LI,  Walschewythull  1288  IPM,  Whalshequithull  1324  LI,  Whithull 


Waleys  1332  LS.  The  distinguishing  addition  is  the  family  name  Waleys  (Walsh), 
literally  "  Welsh."  Whittle  is  "  white  hill."  There  are  several  heights  in  the 
township,  one  of  which  must  have  been  called  "  the  white  hill." 
10.  Charnock  Richard  (S.W.  of  Chorley,  in  a  bend  of  the  Yarrow) :  Chernoch 
1194  LPR,  de  Chernoc  1243  LI,  (Richard)  de  Chernok  1246  LAR,  Chernok  Ricard 
1288  IPM,  Ricardeschernok  1292  PW,  Chernok  Richard  1324  LF,  Chernok  Rich't 
1332  LS.  See  Heath  Charnock.  The  epithet  Richard  seems  to  be  derived  from 
Richard  de  Charnock,  just  mentioned. 


A  district  W.  of  Chorley  and  Standish,  bounded  on  the  S.  by  the  Douglas. 

1.  Parbold  (on  the  Douglas  ;   v.) :   Iperbolt  1195  LF,  Perebold  1202  LF,  Perbold 
1212  LI,  a  1233  CC,  PereboU  1202-30  LPD II.  202,  Parbold  1243  LI,  etc.,  de  Perbald 
1246  LAR,  Perbald  1332  LS,  etc.    The  variation  in  the  early  forms  is  remarkable, 
yet  I  suppose  the  name  is  simply  a  compound  of  O.E.  peru  "  pear  "   (or  rather 
"  pear-tree  ")  and  bold  "  homestead,"  etc.  ;  cf.  Appleton,  Plumpton,  Plumstead, 
and  the  like.    Iperbolt  must  be  corrupt.    The  form  -bald  may  partly  be  due  to 
change  of  o  to  a  in  a  weakly  stressed  syllable,  partly  to  inverted  spelling,  the 
change  of  a  to  o  being  common  in  Lancashire  before  I.     The  early  a  in  the  first 
syllable  is  possibly  due  to  Norman  influence. 

2.  Wrightington  (W.  of  Standish) :    Wrstincton  1195  LF,  Wrichtington  1202  LF, 
Wrictinton  1212  LI,  Urittington  1246  LAR,  Wrytinton  1256  LF,  Wrightyngton 
1314  LF,  etc.,  Wrightinton  1327,  1332  LS.    This  is  probably  O.E.  Wyrhtena  tun 
"  the  town  of  the  wrights  "  (Wyld);  ci.para  wyrhtena  land  944  BCS  795  (Wilts.) 
and  Smeaton,  Yks.,  apparently  "  the  smiths'  town." 

Appley  Bridge,  Moor  (on  the  Douglas) :  (boscus  de)  Appellae,  Appelleie,  Appeleye 

13  cent.  CC.    "  Apple  lea." 

Dwerryhouse  (E.  of  Harrock  Hill) :    de  Dwerihouse  1332  LS.     Cf.  Dwariden, 

Yks.    The  first  el.  is  O.E.  dweorh,  M.E.  dwery,  etc.,  "  dwarf,"  here  possibly  a 

pers.  n. 

Fairhurst  :   Fayrhurste  1539  CC.    Self-explaining. 

Harrock  Hall,  Harrock  Hill :  Harakiskar  c  1260  CC,  Harrok-hyll  1501  CC,  Harrok- 

hill  1539  CC.     O.E.  hdr  "  hoary  "   and  dc  "  oak."    Harrock  Hill,  on  which  is 

Harrock  Hall  (estate),  reaches  over  400  ft.     I  suppose  the  hill  was  named  from 

a  place  at  which  there  was  a  "  hoar  oak." 

Hunger  Hill  (h.).    A  common  place-name,  no  doubt  meaning  literally  "  hunger 

hill,"  a  hill  where  nothing  grows.    Cf.  Hungercroft  1200-35  CC  (in  Worthington). 

Tunley  :    Tunleg  (vill)  1246  LAR,  de  Tunlegh  1332  LS.     O.E.  tun  and  leah. 

Cf.  Towneley  in  Bl.  (p.  84). 

3.  Heskin  (N.  of  Wrightington,  W.  of  Chorley) :   Heskyn  (surname)  1257  LAR, 
de  Eskin  1260  LAR,  Heskyn  1301,  1388  LF,   1332  LS,  de  Hefkyn  1341  IN, 
Heskin  1497  LF.    The  township  lies  on  the  N.  slope  of  the  Wrightington  hills  ; 
Heskin  Hall  and  Heskin  Green  (h.)  stand  near  Sid  Brook.    A  satisfactory  ety- 
mology of  this  curious  name  is  offered  by  a  word  appearing  in  various  Celtic 
languages  :    Welsh  hesgen  "  sedge,  rush,"    O.Corn.  heschen  "  canna,  arundo," 
O.Ir.  sescenn  "  marsh."  The  sense  "  marsh  "   is  probably  that  of  early  Welsh 


hesgen  in  place-names,  as  hescenn  iudie  LL  143  (iudic  is  a  pers.  n.),  Hesgyndv 
(dv=du  "  black  ")  Rec.  Cam.  200,  Penheskyn  ib.  103,  Cwmhesgyn  ib.  200.  Heskin 
(Denbigh)  is  Heskyn  1334  Surv.  Denbigh.  The  township  does  not  now  seem  to 
be  marshy,  but  very  likely  there  were  formerly  marshes  along  Sid  Brook. 
Barmskin  Hall  (S.  of  Heskin  Hall).  The  name  has  not  been  found  in  early 
sources.  It  seems  to  contain  the  name  Heskin. 

4.  Eccleston  (on  both  sides  of  the  Yarrow,  W.  of  Chorley  ;  v.)  :  Aydeton  1094 
Ch,  Ecclestun  c  1180  SO,  Etcheleston  c  1190  Ch,  Ekeleston  1203  LF,  Echeleston 
c  1200  LC,  Eccliston,  Ecclestun  a  1212  CO,  Ecliston  1252  LI,  Ecleston  1288  IPM, 
Eccleston  1301  LF,  1327  LS,  Eccliston  1332  LS,  Egelston  1577  Harr.  Cf.  Eccles, 
Sa.  p.  37.  Eccles-  is  probably  from  a  Brit,  form  of  Lat.  ecclesia.  A  church  in 
Eccleston  is  mentioned  as  early  as  1094. 

Sarscow  :  Saferscohe  CC  494,  Sarescogh  1401  VHL  VI.  164.  Bjorkman  Namen- 
kunde,  suggests  as  first  member  of  Safrebi,  Line.  O.N.  Scefari  pers.  n.  This  is 
evidently  the  source  of  Safara,  Sefar(e)  on  coins  of  William  the  Conqueror 
(Brooke,  Catalogue  of  English  Coins,  1916),  and  may  be  the  first  el.  of  Sarscow, 
whose  second  el.  is  O.N.  skogr  "  wood." 

Tingreave  or  Ingrave  :  Tynedgreve  1393  VHL  VI.  163,  Tyngreyff  1433  TI, 
Tyngreue  1505  LF.  O.E.  tyned  from  tynan  "  to  fence,  enclose  "  and  grcef 
"  grove."  The  form  Ingrave  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  definite  article  in  Lane, 
is  often  t  (<  that],  which  caused  the  initial  T-  to  be  mistaken  for  the  article. 


A  district  N.  of  Wigan,  in  a  bend  of  the  Yarrow.  The  surface  is  hilly.  There 
is  only  one  township. 

Chorley  (town)  :  Cherleg  1246  LAR,  Cherle  1252  LF,  de  Cherlyhe  1254  LI,  Cherlag 
1276  LAR,  Cherlegh  1278  LAR ;  Chorley  1257  LI,  1278  LAR,  1288  IPM,  etc., 
Chorlegh  1332  LS,  etc.  Chorley  is  probably  O.E.  ceorla  leak  ;  cf.  Chorlton  p.  32. 
The  same  name  is  found  in  Ches.  and  Herts. 

Bagganley  (on  Bagganley  Brook)  :    cf.  bagan  brooke  1564  Chorley  R,  Bagen 
brooke  1577  Harr.    Etymology  obscure. 
Eaves  :  de(l)  Euese  1288  LI.    O.E.  efes  "  border  of  a  wood." 
Healey  :   Hell[ey]  1202,  Helei  1215  LPR,   Heley-cliffe  LPR  376,  Helegh  (park) 
1314,  1324  LI.    "  The  high  lea."    Higher  Healey  is  on  the  slope  of  Healey  Nab, 
a  conspicuous  hill  (682ft.). 

Kingsley  (h.) :  de  Kingesle  1246  LAR,  Kyngele  1535  DL.  Presumably  "  the 
king's  lea." 

Knowley  :  Knolhale  1288  LI,  1314  OR.  O.E.  cnoll  "  knoll  "  and  halh  "  haugh." 
Little  Knowley  is  near  the  Blackbrook  and  Knowley  Top,  which  stands  at  the 
foot  of  a  knoll. 


A  large  district  N.  of  Chorley.  In  the  east  an  elevation  of  c  1,250ft.  is  attained 
on  Withnell  Moor.  The  ground  slopes  away  gradually,  until  in  the  W.  a  level 
of  c  50ft.  is  reached. 

The  eastern,  hilly  part  was  formerly  called  Gunnolf Js  Moors  (embracing  the 


townships  of  Hoghton,  Withnell,  Wheelton,  and  Whittle-le- Woods) :  Gunnolues- 
mores  1212  LI,  Gonolfemore  13  cent.  WhC  848ff.  1309  ib.  851,  Gonolfemores  1329 
ib.  269,  Gunnolfmores  1311  IPM.  Gunnolf  is  an  O.N.  pers.  n.  (O.N.  Gunnulfr). 

1.  Withnell  (N.E.  of  Chorley)  :    Withinhull  c  1160  Ch,  Whithen-,  Whythen(e)-, 
Withenhull  1246  LAR,  Wytenhulle  1276  LAR,  Wythenul  1313  LF,  Wythinhull 
1332  LS,  Wynnell  1580  DL.    "  Willow  hill,"   dial,  withen  (O.E.  wpig)  and  hyll. 
The  church  stands  on  the  slope  of  Pike  Lowe  (720ft.).    This  is  very  likely  the 
hill  that  gave  the  place  its  name. 

Brinscall  (h.) :   Brendescoles  c  1200  WhC  835,  de  Brendescoles  13  cent.  WhC  118, 

de  Brendeschales  (Bradeschales)  1246  LAR.     "  The  burnt  huts/'    from  M.E. 

brend  "  burnt  "   and  scale  "  hut  "  (O.N.  skdli). 

OUerton  :   de  Alreton  1240,  1246  LAR,  Alreton  1269,  1276  LAR,  Allerton  1278 

LAR,  Olreton  13  cent.  WhC  848.    O.E.  alor  "  alder  "  and  tun. 

Roddlesworth  (on  the  N.E.  slope  of  Great  Hill,  h.)  :  Rodtholfeswrtha  c  1160  Ch, 

de  Rotholueswurth  (Roteleswurt)  1246  LAR,  Rothelesworth  1327,  1332  LS.  "  The 

worp  of  Hrodwulf"    Hrofiwulfis  a  well-known  O.E.  pers.  n.    The  same  pers.  n. 

appears  to  enter  into  a  name  in  the  neighbouring  Hoghton  :   Rothelisden  13  cent. 

WhC  859,  Routhelesden  13  cent.  ib.  836.    The  change  of  [5]  to  [d]  is  due  to  the 

following  I. 

Stanworth  (h.  ;    on  a  hill  side,  near  Roddlesworth  river)  :    Stanword,  -le  c  1200 

WhC  831,  835,  Stanworthe,  Stanworthele,  Stanworle  1276  LAR,  de  Staneworth 

1263  LAR.    "  Stone  enclosure."    O.E.  stdn-worp  ;  -le  is  O.E.  leak. 

2.  Hoghton  (S.W.  of  Blackburn,  W.  of  the  Darwen)  :    Hoctonam  c  1160  Ch, 
de  Houton  1227f.   LAR,  Hocton  1241  LF,  Hutun  (de  Hocton,  Hothon)  1246  LAR, 
Houaton  1276  LAR,  Hoghton  1278  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Howghton  1577  Harr.  ; 
now  [(h)o'tn].    It  is  not  always  easy  to  distinguish  the  forms  of  Hoghton  from 
those  of  Hutton.    The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  O.E.  hoh  "  spur  of  hill, 
ridge."    The  early  forms  may  seem  to  point  to  original  Hoc-,  but  c  may  very  well 
be  a  spelling  for  h.    The  most  striking  physical  feature  of  the  township  is  a  steep 
hill  or  short  ridge,  on  which  is  Hoghton  Tower  (over  500ft.  above  sea-level). 
The  hill  answers  perfectly  the  description  of  a  hoe  or  heugh  in  NED. 
Brimmicroft  (h.)  :    de  Bromicroft  1246  LAR,  de  Bromycroft  13  cent.  WhC  839, 
Bromcroft  1497  LF.    Self-explaining.    For  the  change  of  o  to  i  cf.  [briam]  for 
broom  in  N.  Lane.  (Wright),  de  Brimyhurst  (Broomhurst)  1277  LAR. 

3.  Wheelton  (N.E.  of  Chorley,  on  the  Lostock  ;    v.)  :    Weltonam  c  1160  Ch, 
Whelton  c  1200  WhC  835,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Wylton,  Welton  1276  LAR,  Quelton 
1276  LAR,  1288  IPM,  etc.,  Weleton  1278  LAR,  Quilton  1313  LF.    I  suppose  the 
first  el.  is  O.E.  hweol  "  wheel  "  ;   the  same  word  is  found  in  the  name  Whelcroft 
13  cent.  WhC  839ff.  (in  Wheelton).     As  Wheelton  vill.  is  on  the  Lostock,  it  may 
have  been  named  from  a  water-wheel,  or  wheel  may  have  had  such  a  meaning 
as  "  whirlpool."    But  wheel  was  used  formerly  in  the  sense  of  "  a  circle,"  as  in 
the  following  instance  from  RSB  :    "a  quibusdam  circulis  qui  vocantur  le 
Wheles  juxta  Harashowe"  (p.  487).    Circles  made  of  stones  may  be  meant.    A 
place  called  Hjol  (lit.  "  wheel  ")  in  Norway  is  thought  (NG  II.  5)  to  have  been 
named  from  something  rounded  about  the  situation  of  the  place,  e.g.,  a  round 
hill.  Wheldale  in  Yks.  (Queldale,  Weldale  DB,  etc.)  seems  to  contain  O.E.  hweol. 
Burton  Brook  :   Burton  brok,  Burtonbrok  13  cent.  WhC  839f.     The  name  seems 


to  point  to  a  lost  place  Burton,  which,  however,  need  not  have  been  just  in 
Wheelton  township. 

4.  Heapey  (N.  of  Chorley  ;   h.)  :  de  Hepeie  1219  LAR,  de  Hepay  (Hepethe)  1246 
LAR,  de  Hophay  1246,  1249  LAR,  de  Hephay  1248  LAR,  de  Hopay  1251  LAR, 
de  Heppay  1285  LAR,  Hepay  1332  LS,  etc.,  Hepey  1497  LF.    The  forms  seem  to 
point  to  O.E.  heope  "  hip  "  and  hege  "  hey  "  as  the  elements  of  the  name.     But 
a  first  el.  heap  "  hill  "    would  also  be  suitable,  as  Heapey  is  on  a  fairly  con- 
spicuous hill. 

Shackerley  (on  Warth  Brook)  :  deShakerlegh  1332  LS.  Cf.  the  same  name,  p.  101. 

5.  Whittle-le- Woods  (N.  of  Chorley,  traversed  by  the  Lostock  ;    v.)  :    Witul 
c  1160  Ch,  Whithill  in  the  Wood  1311  IPM,  Whithull  in  bosco  1327,  1332  LS, 
Whithull  in  the  Wodes  1381  LF,  Whitle  in  le  Woods  1565  Chorley  R  ;  now  [witli 
wudz].     "  The  white  hill."     The  village  is  on  the  slope  of  a  hill  called  Whittle 
Hills  in  O.M.  1846-51. 

Copthurst  :    Coppildhirst  LPR  375.     "  Peaked  hill  "  ;    cf.  p.  51.     The  place 
stands  at  a  hill.    Coppild-  is  no  doubt  miswritten  for  Coppid-  or  the  like. 
Crook  :  del  Crok  1332  LS,  del  Crooke  1400  LF.    The  place  stands  on  the  Lostock, 
which  makes  many  turns.    But  Old  Crooke  is  nearer  Bryning  Brook,  which  makes 
a  turn  at  this  very  place.    Cf.  Crook,  p.  128. 

6.  Euxton  (N.W.  of  Chorley,  N.  of  the  Yarrow  ;    v.)  :    Eueceston  1187  LPR, 
Euekeston  1188  ib.,  Euckeston  1212  LI,  1242  LAR,  Eukeston  1243  LI,  1246 
LAR,  1332  LS5  etc.,  Eukestan  1246  LAR,  Hevkeston,  Heukestone  1277  LAR. 
The  modern  pronunciation  is  said  to  be  Exton  ;    cf.  Extonbrugh  1577  Saxton. 
The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  a  pers.  n.,  perhaps  O.E.  ^Efic,  Efic  (Redin). 
Armetridding  (on  the  Yarrow)  :   de  Armetheriding  1246  LAR,  de(l)  Ermetridinge 
1332  LS.     M.E.  ermite,  armite  "  hermit "    and  ridding  "  a  clearing  "  (p.  16). 
Cf.  "  Cloch  ubi  heremita  sedit  "  (Caton)  CC  840. 

7.  Leyland  (S.  of  Preston,  on  both  sides  of  the  Lostock ;   town)  :   Lailand  DB, 
1212  LI,  Leilandia.  Lailanda  c  1160  Ch  (orig.),  Leiland  1212  LI,  Leyland  1243 
LI,  1391  LF,  etc.,  Leylond  1246  LAR,  1321  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Laylond  1284  LAR, 
1327  LS,  etc.    I  take  the  name  to  be  simply  M.E.  ley-land  (leland)  "  fallow  land, 
land  *  laid  down  '  to  grass  ";  first  el.  lea,  ley,  lay  "  fallow,  unploughed,"   O.E.  lag 
(cf.  O.N.  Idgr  "  low,"    O.Fris.  lech)   found   in   Iceghrycg   (NED  s.v.  lea-land). 
If  this  is  right,  the  name  may  be  compared  with  Fallowfield,  p.  30.    The  first  el. 
is  hardly  O.E.  lean  ;  this  ought  to  have  given  early  M.E.  *Lehland  or  *Leland. 
Blacklache  House  :    Blakelache  c  1250  LPD  II.  201,  del  Blakelache  1332  LS. 
"  Black  letch  "   or  "  pool  "  ;   cf.  p.  15. 

Earnshaw  Bridge  (h. ,   on  the  flat  bank  of  the  Lostock)  :    Erneshalgh  14  cent. 

PC.    "  The  haugh  of  Earn  or  Earne  "  (cf.  Redin). 

Midge  Hall :  Miggehalgh  1390  LF.   The  name  means  "  haugh  infested  by  midges  "; 

cf.  the  same  name  in  Am.     The  place  stands  on  the  outskirts  of  Leyland  Moss. 

Snubsnape  :  Snubsnape  1372,  Snopsnape  1549,  Snobbesnape  1596  VHL  VI.  14f. 

On  snape  "  pasture  "   see  p.  17.    The  first  el.  may  be  compared  with  E.  snub 

"  a  snag  or  stub  "  (1590  Spenser),  snub  vb.  "  to  crop;  to  eat  close  "  (EDD), 

Icel.  snubbottr  "  stumpy." 

Worden  (S.  of  Leyland  town,  sometimes  called  a  vill)  :   W erdenebroc,  (riuulo  de) 

Werden  a  1250  CC  ;   Werthen,  de  Werden  1246  LAR,  Wereden  1524  DL.    Worden 


Hall  is  on  Worden  Brook.  Supposing  W erthen  to  be  a  later  form  of  Werden, 
we  may  take  the  name  to  be  a  compound  containing  O.E.  denu  "  valley."  The 
first  el.  may  be  O.E.  wer  "  weir  "  or  possibly  an  old  river-name  ;  cf.  Wear, 
Durh.  (a  Celtic  name). 

8.  Clayton-le-Woods  (E.  of  Leyland) :   Claiton  c  1200  CO,  1212  LI,  1227  LAR, 
1327, 1332  LS,  Cleyton  c  1200  CC,  etc.,  Clayton  1246  LAR.  O.E.  d&g-tun ;  cf.  p.  70. 

9.  Cuerden  (S.E.  of  Preston,  in  a  bend  of  the  Lostock) :   Kerden,  Aide  Kerden 
c  1200  CO,  Kerden  1243  LI,  1246, 1285  LAR,  1327, 1332  LS,  etc.,  Kirden  1212  LI, 
Keredyn  1278  LAR,  Kerdyn  1285  LAR,  Kerdon,  Kerden  1292  PW,  Kyrden 
1451  CC ;    now  [kjiradn].     Occasional   spellings  such  as  Keverden  1554  LF 
show  influence  from  Cuerdale,  Cuerdley.    The  name  cannot  be  a  compound  of 
can  (O.N.  kiarr)  and  O.E.  denu,  for  if  so  we  should  expect  Mod.  Garden.    Cf. 
e.g.,  Carr  House  (Bretherton) :    CarreJwws  1451  CC,  del  Car  1332  LS.     The 
absence  of  the  change  e>a  indicates  that  the  vowel  of  the  first  el.  was  long. 
The  name  is  perhaps  British ;  cf .  Cerdyn,  the  name  of  a  river  in  Cardigan  (Wales), 
Kerthen  (Cornwall) :  Kerthyn  1306 IPM.    This  is  no  doubt  Welsh  cerddin  (dd  =  d), 
Corn,  kerden  "  mountain  ash."    As  regards  [d]  instead  of  [5],  Haydock  p.  99 
may  be  compared.    But  the  name  may  be  a  compound  containing  O.E.  denu. 
If  so,  the  first  el.  is  possibly  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Ccer  found  in  Cceresige  972  BCS 
1289,  now  Kersey,  Suff.    Or  it  may  be  an  old  river-name  of  Brit,  origin  identical 
with  Keer  in  Lonsdale.    Lostock  is  no  doubt  an  English  name,  and  an  earlier 
Brit,  name  must  have  existed. 

Faldworthings  (name  lost,  but  common  in  early  sources) :  de  Faldworthyng  1278 
LAR,  de  Faldworthinges  1322  LI,  deffaldeworthinges  1332  LS.  First  el.  O.E./a/od 
"  fold."  The  second  may  be  O.E.  wyrding  "  cultivated  field  "  or  worftign 
"  enclosure  "  ;  cf.  p.  21. 


A  hilly  district  E.  of  Leyland,  S.E.  of  Preston.  It  contains  only  Brindle 
township  :  Brumhull  1203,  1204  LPR,  de  Burhull  1204  LPR,  Burnhull  1206 
LPR,  1246  LAR,  etc. ;  Burnhulle  1212  RB,  1292  PW,  Burnul  1212  LI,  de 
Burnhul  1226  LI,  de  Burnul  1246  LAR,  1251  LI,  de  Burnhil  1246  LF,  de  Brunhull 
1254  LF,  Burnehill  1332  LS,  Birnehill  1448  DL,  Brynhill  1480  Ind,  Bryndill 
1509  DL,  1511  LF,  Bryndhyll  1548  LP  III.  32,  Brenhull  1556  LF,  Brinhill  1558 
Brindle  R. 

The  place  was  named  from  a  hill,  very  likely  the  conspicuous  Hough  Hill 
S.  of  the  church.  The  modern  and  late  M.E.  forms  seem  to  point  to  a  first  el. 
Bryn-  or  Byrn-,  though  the  absence  of  early  spellings  with  i,  y  is  remarkable. 
Brimhill  1227  LF  has  probably  been  misread  for  Brunhitt.  If  Burn-  in  early 
sources  stands  for  a  pronunciation  [byrn]  it  might  represent  a  Brit,  word  corres- 
ponding to  W.  bryn  "  hill  "  (cf.  Brynn,  p.  100).  But  I  am  more  inclined  to 
believe  that  the  base  had  a  u  and  is  simply  O.E.  burna  "  brook."  Late  Bryn-, 
Brin-  may  be  compared  with  Brynley  for  Burnley  (Brunley)  1574  DL.  An 
etymology  "  Burnhill  "  (O.E.  burna  "  brook  "  and  hyll)  would  suit  the  locality, 
for  Lostock  Brook  rises  N.  of  Hough  Hill  and  flows  round  it. 
Denham  Hall  (near  the  Lostock)  :  de  Deneholm  1332  LS,  Denham  1591  Brindle  R. 
Apparently  O.E.  denu  "  valley  "  and  O.N.  holmr  "  island,"  etc. 



A  mostly  low  and  level  district  S.  of  Preston  and  the  Ribble. 

1.  Farington  (N.  of  Leyland  on  the  upper  Lostock  ;   v.)  :    Farinton  a  1149  Ch, 
1212  LI,  1242  LF,  Farintund  1153-60  Ch  (orig.),  Farington  1246  LF>  1341  IN, 
etc.,  de  Farenton  1246  LAR,  ffarington  1327,  1332  LS.     Though  all  the  early 
forms  show  a  vowel  between  r  and  n,  I  believe  this  is  O.E.  fearn-tun  (fearn 
"  fern  ").     Cf.  Farringdon,  Berks.  (O.E.  Fearndun,  but  Farendone  Rob.  Gl., 
Ferendone  DB,  Farindon  HR  ;   cf.  Skeat).    But  an  O.E.  Faringa  tun  (Faringas 
being  derived  from  a  pers.  n.  Fara  or  the  like  ;  cf.  Farleton,  Lo)  is  also  possible. 

2.  Penwortham  (v.  ;   head  of  a  barony)  :   Peneverdant  DB,  Penitertham  a  1149 
Ch,  1212  LI,  1212  RB,  Penuerdham  1153-60  Ch  (orig.),  penewerha,  penuerhd 
a  1160  Ch  (orig.),  Penfordiham  c  1190  Ch,  Pendrecham  1200  LPR,  Penwertham  1205 
ib.,  1205  Ch,  1322  LI,  Penwrtham  1204f.  LPR,  Pentfortham  1204  LPR,  Pen- 
wortham 1210  AP,  1215  CC,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Penwirtham  1242  OR,  Penw(o)rham 
1242  LI,  Penwurtham  1246  LAR,  Penwrtham  1255  IPM,  Penworttham  1279  C1R, 
Pennewortham  1294  ChR,  Penwardine  c  1540  Leland  ;    now  [penwaSam]. 

The  final  el.  of  the  name  seems  to  be  O.E.  ham  or  hamm.  The  middle  el.  is 
most  probably  O.E.  worp  "  enclosure,  homestead."  The  first  might  be  O.E. 
penn  "  a  fold,"  but  this  does  not  seem  very  probable.  A  combination  of  the 
elements  penn,  worp,  and  ham  (or  hamm)  is  not  what  we  should  expect.  The 
Brit,  penn  "  a  hill,"  etc.  (cf.  Pendleton,  Pendle,  etc.)  is  formally  unexceptionable, 
and  I  am  inclined  to  believe  it  is  really  the  first  el.  of  the  name.  It  is  known  that 
there  was  a  Brit,  settlement  at  Penwortham.  The  place  stands  on  a  plateau 
reaching  100ft.  above  sea-level.  It  may  seem  doubtful  if  such  a  slight  elevation 
could  have  been  called  a  penn  (i.e.,  "  hill  "),  but  the  surface  falls  away  sharply 
and  the  surrounding  country  is  very  low.  The  hill  or  ridge  is  really  much  more 
conspicuous  than  one  would  expect.  Besides,  the  Celtic  word  might  here  mean 
"  end  ;  promontory."  If  the  first  el.  is  Brit,  penn,  the  rest  of  the  name  may  be 
O.E.  *worphdm  or  *worphamm,  "  enclosed  homestead  "  (cf.  Wortham  in  Suff.). 
But  it  is  quite  possible  only  the  el.  -ham  is  English,  the  rest  being  an  adaptation 
of  a  Brit.  name.  For  the  matter  of  that,  the  whole  name  may  be  British.  Dr. 
Bradley,  EHR  26,  p.  822,  thinks  some  early  forms  recall  Welsh  pen-y-werddon 
"  head  of  the  green." 

Blasher  (or  Blashaw)  Farm  :   Blakesawe  a  1096  PC,  Blacshaghe  1305  Lacy  C, 
Blakeshagh  1324  LI.    "  Black  shaw." 

Middleforth  Green  :   Middelforde  1296  Lacy  C,  Middilford  1324  LI,  Mydlefurth 
1546  LP  III.  12.    "  The  middle  ford."    The  place  is  on  a  brook. 

3.  Howick  (S.W.  of  Penwortham,  on  the  Ribble  ;    h.)  :    HocwiJce  a  1096  PC, 
Hokewike  a   1122  Ch,  Hocwica  1149  Ch,  Hocwik  1202  LF,  de  Hocvic  1257  LI, 
Hocwick  c  1230  CC  ;   Houwyk  1246  LAR,  Hoghwyk  1276  LAR,  1317  LF,  1327 
LS,  etc.,  de  Hohwyk  1314  LI,  Howyk  1285  LAR,  Hoghwike  1332  LS.    It  is  difficult 
to  determine  if  this  was  originally  Hocwic  or  Hohwlc.    The  early  forms  seem  to 
point  to  the  former,  and  the  change  from  Hocwic  to  Howick  would  have  an  exact 
parallel  in  Win  wick  (p.  98).    Yet  c  may  very  well  be  a  Norman  spelling  for  the 
voiceless  guttural  spirant  (h).    If  Hocwic  is  the  correct  form,  the  first  el.  would 
seem  to  be  O.E.  Hoc  pers.  n. ;    if  Hohwic  be  given  the  preference,  it  is  O.E. 


hoh  as  in  Hutton.    Howick  vil.  stands  on  a  piece  of  land  (50ft.)  jutting  out  into 
the  Kibble  estuary.    Second  el.  O.E.  wlc  "  homestead,"  etc. 
Nutshaw  Hall  :  de  Noteschaw  1285  LAR,  de  Noteshaghe  1332  LS. 

4.  Hutton  (on  the  Ribble  estuary,  S.W.  of  Penwortham  ;    v.)  :    Hotun  a  1180 
Ch,  Hoton  c  1200  CO,  1276  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Hotton  1461  CO.  First  member 
O.E.  hoh,  probably  in  the  plural  form  (g.  pi.  ho).    The  ground  is  low  near  the  river, 
less  than  25ft.  above  sea-level.    The  village  is  on  somewhat  higher  land  (above 
50ft.)  and  from  this  spurs  of  fairly  high  ground  jut  out  into  the  low  country. 
These  spurs  of  land  I  suppose  were  the  hoh's  that  gave  name  to  Hutton.    The 
Canons  of  Cockersand  had  a  grange  in  Hutton  (now  Old  Grange  ;   cf.  Grangia 
de  Hoton  1273  CO),  situated  at  a  place  called  Hohum  1215  ib.  393f.  ;  cf.  Hohum 
Kar  ib.,  Howin  (for  Houm)  ib.  423fE.    Hohum  is  the  dat.  pi.  of  O.E.  hoh  ;  so  the 
grange  was  situated  at  the  hoh's.    Old  Grange  stands  at  the  extremity  of  a  slight 
spur  of  land  reaching  38ft.  above  sea-level. 

A  now  lost  chapel  is  mentioned  in  Cockersand  Ch  :  capella  de  Ulvedene 
a  1246  CC  420  (also  Ulvesdale  ib.),  Ulvesdale  a  1246  ib.  411.  "  The  valley  of 
Ulf."  Ulfr  is  a  common  O.N.  name. 

5.  Longton  (S.W.  of  Penwortham,  bounded  on  the  W.  by  the  Douglas  ;    v.)  : 
Longetuna,  Langetuna,  Langetona  1153-60  Ch  (orig.),  Langeton  1178  LPR,  1205 
LPR,  1212  LI,  Longeton  1243  LI,  1288  Ind,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Longton  1391  LF,  etc. 
"  The  long  village."     The  township  is  long  and  narrow  (4  miles  in  length  by 
1  across),  and  the  village  "  straggles  along  for  over  2i  miles  "  along  a  road 
(VHL  VI.  69). 

CROSTON  PAR.    (ancient) 

A  district  on  the  Douglas.  Formerly  the  parish  included  the  parishes  of 
Hoole,  Rufford,  Tarleton,  and  Hesketh-with-Becconsall.  These  are  all  dealt  with 
under  Croston.  The  surface  of  the  par.  is  mostly  low  and  level. 

1.  Bispham  (in  the  S.,  on  the  Douglas)  :    Bispam  1219  LAR,  Bispaimhakh 
a  1268  CC,  Bispeham  1288  IPM,  1327  LS,  Bispham  1332  LS,  1382  LF,  etc.    O.E. 
*Biscop-hdm  "  the  bishop's  manor."    Cf.  M.E.  bisp  "  bishop."    The  occasional 
-(h)aim  is  due  to  Scand.  influence. 

2.  Mawdesley  (on  the  Douglas ;    v.)  :    de  Madesle  1219  LAR,  Moudesley  1269 
LAR,  1288  IPM,  Moudeslegh  1327, 1332  LS,  Maudeslegh  1382  LF,  etc.,  Maudesley 
1398,  1500  LF,  etc.    Wyld  is  no  doubt  right  in  identifying  the  first  el.  of  the 
name  with  the  name  Maud  (<O.F.  Mahaut,  etc.)  ;   the  form  Maldislei  of  1295 
given  by  Wyld  is  especially  valuable.     The  name  is  common  in  early  M.E. 
documents  in  forms  such  as  Mahald,  Maald,  Maid  (Forssner). 

3.  Croston  (on  the  Douglas  and  Yarrow  ;   v.)  :    Croston  1094,  c  1190  Ch,  1212 
LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Crostona  1153-60  Ch  (orig.).    Named  from  a  cross ;  in  VHL 
VI.  91  it  is  stated  that  part  of  the  market  cross  remains.    The  name  is  probably 

Finney  (on  the  Douglas)  :  The  Fynny  1559  DL,  Fynney  1594  DL.  The  second 
el.  seems  to  be  O.E.  eg  "  island  ;  water-meadow."  The  first  is  doubtful. 
Engl.  dial,  fin  "  rest-harrow  "  might  be  thought  of. 

4.  Ulnes  Walton  (N.E.  of  Croston,  on  both  sides  of  the  Lostock)  :    Waleton 
1203  LF,  Walton  1341  IN  ;    Ulneswalton  1285  LAR,  1321  LF,  etc.,  Vlneswalton 


1327  LS,  Vines  Walton  1332  LS,  Oveswalton  1362  OR,  Oneswalton  1361  Gaunt  R, 
Ulueswalton  1543  LF,  Vlswalton  1663,  Ouswalton  1666  Croston  R.  The  dis- 
tinguishing epithet  seems  to  have  been  originally  Ulves  gen.  sg.  of  Ulf  pers.  n. 
(O.N.  Ulfr) ;  Ulf  de  Walton  lived  c  1160.  Later  u  in  Vines  was  misread  as  n, 
and  as  early  as  1331  Vines-  appears  to  have  been  considered  the  correct  form 
(VHL  VI.  108).  Yet  the  old  form  long  survived  in  pronunciation.  On  Walton 
"  the  tun  of  the  Welshmen,"  see  p.  224. 

Barbers  Moor  (h.) :  BarUismor  c  1200  CO,  Barbars-more  1639  Croston  R.  Ety- 
mology obscure. 

5.  Bretherton  (N.W.  of  Croston,  on  the  Douglas ;   v.) :    Bretherton  a  1190  CC, 
1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.  ;    Brethirton  1320  LF,  Brotherton  1577  Saxton,  1645 
Croston  R.     The  first  el.  is  a  form  with  i-mutation  of  O.E.  broder  or  O.N.  brodir 
"  brother."     The  most  natural  explanation  is  "  the  tun  of  the  brothers,"   the 
township  having  been  in  the  joint  ownership  of  two  or  more  brothers.     An 
analogous  name  is  O.N.  Brcedragardr  NG  II.  408.     O.E.  *bredra-tun  or  perhaps 
more  probably  O.N.  *brcedratun  may  be  the  base.     Forms  with  i-mutation  of 
O.E.  broder  are  rare,  and  M.E.  brether,  etc.,  may  be  at  least  partly  of  Scand. 
origin.    But  it  is  also  possible  that  Brether-  represents  the  O.N.  gen.  sg.  brcedr. 
Falk  shows  NG  V.  262  that  certain  Norw.  names,  such  as  Brodre-Aas  (Buskerud), 
Brorby  (Kristians  Amt)  contain  this  form.    In  the  case  of  Brodre-Aas  the  name 
was  given  because  the  place  was  a  part  of  an  estate  handed  over  by  its  owner 
to  a  younger  brother. 

Bank  Hall  (on  the  bank  of  the  Douglas) :  de  banca  1251  CC,  Bankehall  1577  Harr. 
Thorp  (old  v.  or  h. ;  now  lost)  :  Torp  1177f.  LPR,  Thorp  a  1190  CC,  1212  LI, 
1288  IPM,  1323  LI.  O.N.  porp  (see  p.  19). 

6.  Hoole  (E.  of  the  Douglas,  S.W.  of  Preston.    There  are  two  townships  :  Much 
and  Little  Hoole.    Great  Hoole  is  a  village.    Hoole  is  now  a  parish)  :  Hull,  de  la 
Hulle  1204  LF,  Hole  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  Holes  1223  LF,  Hulle  1241  LF,  de 
Hola,  de  Hull  1246  LAR,  Hoole  1508  LF,  How  1577  Harr.,  Howie  1577  Saxton  ; 
Magna  Hole  c  1235  CC,  1296  Ind,  1327  LS,  Much  Hole  1260  LF,  Great  Hoole 
1320  LF,  Hole  Magna  1332  LS  ;   Litlehola  c  1200  CC,  parva  Hola  a  1220  CC, 
Parva  Hole  a  1251  CC,  Parua  Hole  1327,  1332  LS,  Little  Hoole  1423  LF.    The 
forms  Hulle,  Hull  show  that  we  have  to  start  from  an  old  form  with  u,  and  the 
later  oo  tells  us  that  the  I  must  have  been  short.    The  most  probable  etymology 
is  O.E.   hulu  "  husk,"  in  M.E.  also  "  a  hut  or  hovel."     0. Scand.  hula  "  a 
hollow  "  would  do  phonetically,  but  does  not  seem  to  suit  the  situation  of  the 

Walmer  Bridge  (in  Little  Hoole) :    Waldemurebruge  a  1251  CC.     The  hamlet 

stands  on  a  brook.     Walmer  appears  as  Waldemure,  Waldesmure  a  1251  CC, 

Waldemurfeld,   Walde[s]murfurlong  ib.     Waldemure  may  contain  O.E.   Walda 

pers.  n.  or  wold  "  wold,"  i.e.  "  forest,"  and  mire,  O.N.  myrr. 

1.  Rufford  (W.  of  the  Douglas,  E.  of  Southport,  v.  ;  now  a  separate  parish)  : 

Ruchford  1212  LI,  Roughford  1318  LF,  Rughford  1327,  1332  LS  ;   Rufford  c  1200 

CC,    1293,    1323   LF,   etc.     "  The   rough  ford."     The  village  stands  near  the 


Holmes  Wood  (v.)  :  Holmes  wood  1571  DL.    The  place  occupies  a  slight  elevation 

over  the  low  general  level ;  it  was  formerly  close  to  Martin  Mere,  whose  name  is 


preserved  in  Mere  Side  S.  of  Holmes  Wood.  The  name  means  "  the  islands  " 
(from  O.N.  holmr). 

8.  Tarleton  (N.  of  RufEord,  v. ;  now  a  separate  parish)  :   Tarleton  c  1200  CO  469, 
1298  LF,  1327,  1332  LS,  Tarilton  c  1212  CO,  Tarlton  c  1225  CO,  de  Tarleton 
1246  LAR,  Tharleton  1539  CC.     O.N.  paraldr  (=porvaldr)  pers.  n.  and  tun. 
Cf.  Tarlscough  p.  124,  Tharlesthorpe,  Yks.  :    Tarlestorp  1188  YCh  1364  (orig.). 
The  surface  of  the  district  is  very  low,  and  the  ground  is  partly  moss-land. 
Martin  Mere  adjoined  the  township  on  the  W.    Tarleton  is  on  slightly  higher 

Holmes  (h. ;    on  a  slight  elevation) :    Holmes  juxta  Maram  de  Tarlton,  tolas 

holmasjuxta  Maram  de  Tarlton  c  1210  CO,  Holmez  1554  LF.    Cf.  Holmes  Wood 


Mere  Brow  (S.E.  of  Holmes  ;  h.)  took  its  name  from  Martin  Mere. 

Sollom  (h. ;   S.  of  Tarleton  near  the  Douglas)  :   Solayn-,  Salaynpull,  Solaynpul 

c  1200  CC,  de  Solame  1372  LF,  Solem  hey  1451,  Sullam  1539  CC,  Solom  1554  LF. 

Solaynpull  is  a  "  pool  "   or  brook  that  falls  into  the  Douglas  (cf.  CC  464).    The 

early  forms  show  that  Sollom  goes  back  to  earlier  Solayn,  the  m  having  developed 

from  n  before  -pull.    The  name  cannot  therefore  be  identical  with  Sollom  (mosse) 

CWNS  XIV.  148  (Cumb.) ;  cf.  Solom  1282  IPM  (prob.  the  dat.  pi.  of  sol  "  mire  "). 

Derivation  from  solein  adj.  "  lonely  "  (a  Fr.  word)  is  hardly  probable.    It  seems 

more  likely  that  the  name  is  an  old  compound  of  O.E.  sol  "  mire,  muddy  place  " 

and  M.E.  hain  "  enclosure,  park  "  (<  O.Scand.,  O.Swed.  haghn,  etc.),  or  rather 

an  O.N.  *Sol-hlein  "  sunny  slope."  The  hamlet  stands  on  the  S.  slope  of  a  slight 

ridge,  near  the  low  bank  of  the  Douglas. 

Wignall  (near  Holmes)  :  de  Wygnale  1323  LI,  Wygnall  (surname)  1451,  1461  CC. 

First  el.  probably  O.E.  Wicga  pers.  n. ;  the  second  is  O.E.  Tialh. 

Wilshers  (VHL  VI.  116) :    Wlfschahe  c  1250  CC.    The  first  el.  is  perhaps  O.E. 

wylf"  she-wolf."    If  it  is  wulf  or  Wulf  pers.  n.  the  development  of  the  vowel 

may  be  compared  with  that  of  Sid  Brook,   p.  127.     Second  el.   O.E.  scaga 

"  shaw." 

9.  Hesketh-with-Becconsall  (N.  of  Tarleton  between  the  Ribble  and  the  Douglas  ; 
now  a  separate  parish). 

Hesketh  [Bank]  (v.) :  de  Heschath  1288  LI,  de  Heskayth  1298,  1304  LF,  de 
Heskeyth  1293  LF,  Heskaith  1327  LS,  Heskeith  1332  LS,  Hesketh  1323  LI,  Hesket 
1577  Harr.  See  further  Lindkvist  p.  64.  who  gives  earlier  examples  of  Hesketh 
in  Yks.  (  :  Hestesk'eith,  -scaith  12  cent.).  The  correct  etymology  (O.N.  hestaskeid 
"race-course")  is  given  by  Wyld  (and  Lindkvist).  Presumably  the  race-course 
was  on  the  level  shore  of  the  Ribble  (Hesketh  Sands). 

Becconsall  :  Bekaneshou  1208  LF,  1292  PW,  1341  IN,  Bekaneshow  1212  BF, 
Bekanesho  1246  LAR,  Bekanshowe  1327  LS,  Becanshou  1332  LS.  The  name  is  a 
compound  of  O.N.  Bekan  (from  O.Ir.  Beccdn  pers.  n.)  and  O.N.  haugr  "  hill." 
Cf.  Beacons  Gill  in  Furness.  Becconsall  Hall  stands  on  a  ridge,  which  reaches 
54ft.  above  sea-level  and  falls  away  sharply  to  the  low  land  on  the  shore  of  the 



A[g]hemundesnes  ?  930  YCh  (genuine  ?),  Agemvndrenesse  DB,  Agmundernesia, 
Amondernesia  1094  Ch,  Agmundernes  c  1130  Sim.  Durh.,  Aumodernesse  1166 
RB,  Hamundernes  1189-93,  Agmundernesse  1194  Ch,  Agmundernes  (Wapentake) 
1206,  1207,  1208  LPR,  Aumundirnes  1212  LI,  Amundernes  1215  LPR,  1246 
LAR,  Augmonderness  1226  LI,  Aumondernesse  1284  LAR,  Amoundrenesse  1332 
LS,  Acmundrenes,  Andernes,  Aundernesse  c  1540  Leland.  Further  material  in 
Lindkvist,  p.  1. 

O.N.  Agmundar-nes  "  the  ness  of  Agmundr  (Qgmundr)"  In  the  sources 
Amounderness  is  always  used  of  the  hundred  or  deanery  of  Amounderness. 
This  is  apparently  the  case  also  in  the  example  of  c  930,  if  that  may  be  looked 
upon  as  genuine.  What  ness  the  name  originally  referred  to  it  is  impossible  to 
say.  It  might  be  an  old  name  of  Rossall  Point,  near  which  there  must  have  been 
important  Scand.  colonies.  But  Amounderness  as  a  whole  forms  a  ness,  and  it 
may  well  be  the  name  was  from  the  first  applied  to  the  whole  district. 

Amounderness  was  originally  the  district  roughly  between  the  Ribble  and 
the  Cocker,  the  E.  boundary  being  formed  by  the  fells  on  the  Yorkshire  border. 
I  here  reckon  to  Amounderness  the  parts  that  originally  belonged  to  it,  though 
they  are  now  in  Blackburn  or  Lonsdale  hundreds. 

The  W.  part  of  the  hundred  is  flat  and  is  called  the  Fylde  :  The  File  pro 
Fetid  1586  Camden ;  cf.  del  Filde  1246  LAR,  del  Fylde  1293  LI,  delffilde  1325 
LCR,  1332  LS.  See  Fieldplumpton,  p.  151.  This  is  O.E.  gefilde  "  plain."  The 
E.  part  is  on  the  slope  of  fells,  and  reaches  over  1,600ft.  on  the  Yorkshire  border. 

Names  of  Rivers 

Hodder  (a  trib.  of  the  Ribble)  :  Hodder  ?  930  YCh  (genuine  ?),  (aq.  de)  Hoder 
c  1240  Kirkstall  C,  Hoder  1483  Whit.  I.  329,  Oder  c  1540  Leland,  the  Odder  1577 
Harr.  The  name  is  no  doubt  British.  Etymology  obscure.  The  second  el.  is 
very  likely  Celt.  *dubron  "  water  "  ;  cf.  Calder,  p.  66. 

Loud  (a  trib.  of  the  Hodder)  :   Lude  1246,  1262  LF,  Loude  c  1350  LPR,  1409 
AD  V.    FromO.E.  hlud  "loud."   Cf.  O.E.  hludeburnan  956  BCS  982,  and  O.E. 
Hlyde  (river-name),  e.g.,  956  BCS  945,  972  BCS  1282  (orig.). 
Swill  Brook  (between  Preston  and  Fishwick).    The  name  belongs  to  O.E.  swilian 
"  to  wash  "  and  probably  means  "  the  brook  where  clothes  were  washed." 
Savick  or  Savock  Brook  (falls  into  the  Ribble  W.  of  Preston)  :  Savoch  a  1190  CC, 
c  1230  CC,  Savock  c  1200  CC,  SafoJc  a  1268  CC,  Savok  1252  ChR,  Sauoke  1338 
LPR,  Savok  c  1540  Leland.     Probably  a  British  name.     The  stems  in  Gaul. 
Sabis,  Sabatus  or  in  Samara,  Samina  (Holder)  may  be  thought  of. 
Wyre  (falls  into  Morecambe  Bay)  :    Wir  a  1184,  etc.,  CC,  1194-99  Ch  (orig.), 
c  1230  FC  II.  (orig.),  Wyr  c  1210  CC,  Wyir  c  1230  FC  II.    The  name  is  doubtless 
British.    I  suppose  it  is  identical  with  Wear,  Durh.  (  :  Uiuri  g.  sg.  Bede,  in  the 
O.E.  translation  Wiire,  Wire).    This  has  been  convincingly  identified  by  Chad- 
wick,  in  Essays  and  Studies  presented  to  W.  Ridgeway,  with  the  G.  river-name 
Weser.    A  stem  *wisur-  is  to  be  assumed.     The  cognate  Welsh  gwyar  means 


"  gore,  blood."  It  is  perhaps  worthy  of  notice  that  the  Wyre  has  red-brown 

Skippool  (formed  by  Woodplumpton  and  Blundell  Brooks,  which  join  near 
Poulton)  :  (ulteran)  Skippoles  1330  LC  471,  the  Skipton  1577  Harr.  ;  cf.  le  Polk 
LC  403.  Clearly  "  ship-pool,"  from  O.N.  skip  "  ship  "  and  pool  in  the  sense 
"stream."  Skippool  was  formerly  an  important  harbour  (VHL  VII.  226).  The 
stream  gave  name  to  Skippool :  Skippull  1593  Poulton  R.| 
Brock  (joins  the  Wyre  W.  of  Catterall)  :  Brock,  Broc  c  1200  CO,  Brok,  Broc 
1228  C1R,  Broc,  Brocke,  Broke  c  1250  CO,  etc.,  Broke  1338  LPR,  Brok  c  1540 
Leland,  the  Brooke  rill  1577  Harr.  I  suppose  this  is  simply  O.E.  broc  "  brook." 
Colder  (joins  the  Wyre  at  Catterall) :  Caldre,  Colder  1228  C1R,  Caldre  a  1230  CC, 
Kaldir  1324  LI,  (pasture  of)  Caldre  1314,  1324  LI ;  now  [kolda].  Cf.  Calder, 
p.  66. 

Pilling  :  Pylin  1246  CC,  13  cent.  CC.  Cf.  Pilling  township,  p.  165.  The  ety- 
mology of  the  name  is  doubtful,  but  we  may  compare  pill,  a  name  on  both  sides 
of  the  Severn  and  in  Cornwall  for  a  tidal  creek  on  the  coast,  or  a  pool  in  a  creek 
at  the  confluence  of  a  tributary  pool  (NED).  The  Pilling  may  be  accurately 
described  as  a  pill.  The  word  appears  in  O.E.  as  pyll,  and  in  early  Welsh  as 
pill  (LL  188,  etc.).  A  Yks.  instance  of  the  word  is  adduced  by  Lindkvist,  p.  71, 
Larpool :  Lairpel  c  1146,  etc.  If  the  name  is  Celtic,  as  seems  probable,  it  may 
contain  the  Welsh  suffix  -yn,  originally  no  doubt  diminutive,  but  in  Welsh 
usually  singulative  (Pedersen  II.  57f.). 

Wrampool  :  Wrangepul  1230  CC.  O.N.  (v)rangr  "  crooked  "  and  O.E.  pol, 
pull,  "  pool." 

Names  of  Hills 

Longridge  Fell  (in  the  S.E.) :  Langrig  1246  LF,  Longerige  1409  AD  V,  Longridge 
hill  1577  Saxton.  The  fell  gave  name  to  Longridge  chapel  (and  town)  :  Chapel 
of  Langgrige  1521  LP  I.  90,  Longerydche  chap.  1554  DL.  Longridge  is  a  long 

Parlick  (1,416ft. ;  in  Bleasdale) :  (caput  de)  Pirloc  1228  C1R,  Perlak  1228  WhC 
371,  Pireloke  1338  LPR,  Pyrelok  pyke  c  1350  ib.  The  name  cannot  mean  "  pear 
orchard  "  as  Wyld  suggests.  But  the  etymology  may  be  correct  with  a  slight 
amendment.  O.E.  loc  means  "  fold  for  sheep  or  goats."  A  sheep  fold  at  which 
grew  a  peartree  (O.E.  pyrige)  may  very  well  have  been  at  the  foot  of  or  on  the 
slope  of  the  hill ;  this  may  have  been  called  Parlick  (Pirloc)  and  have  given  the 
hill  its  name.  For  a  probable  earlier  name  see  under  Core,  p.  143. 

MITTON  PAR.  (part) 

Aighton,  Bailey,  and  Chaigley  (N.  of  the  Ribble,  bounded  on  the  N.  and  E.  by 
the  Hodder).  In  the  township  is  Longridge  Fell  (1.149ft.). 
Aighton  (the  S.E.  part)  :  Actun  DB,  Achintona,  Alton  1102  Ch,  Aghton,  Haghton 
c  1140  Ch,  Acton  1246,  1259  LAR,  etc.,  Achton  1277  LAR,  Aghton  1292 
LF,  1332  LS,  1335  LF,  etc.  O.E.  dctun  "  oak  town."  Cf.  Aughton  in  De 
and  Lo. 

MITTON  PAR.  (PART)  141 

Hurst  Green  (h.) :  Hurst  c  1200  WhC  22,  del  Hurst  1278  C1R,  del  Hirst  1335 
LF.  O.E.  hyrst.  The  place  stands  at  a  small  hill. 

Stonyhurst  :  del  Stanyhurst  1358  LF,  Stonyhirst  1577  Harr.,  Stonyhurst  1577 
Saxton.  O.E.  hyrst  in  this  and  the  preceding  name  apparently  means  "  hill." 
Stonyhurst  is  in  a  commanding  situation. 

Winkley  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Hodder  and  the  Ribble)  :  de  Wynketley  1243 
LI,  Wynkedeley  1292  PW,  de  Winkedeleg  (Wynkedele,  Wynkydele,  Wynkithelay, 
Wynkythele,  Wikedele)  1246  LAR,  de  Winkedelegh  1257  LI,  de  Winkedeley  1258 
LI,  de  Winkedeleye  1293  LI.  This  name  recalls  Dinckley  (p.  70)  and  Worsley 
(p.  40).  Like  these  it  has  as  last  el.  O.E.  leah  and  a  middle  el.  -ket-,  -ked-  and 
the  like.  It  is  possible  that  Winkley  contains  an  old  Brit,  name  composed  of 
Celt.  *vindo-  "  white  "  (Welsh  gwyn,  etc.)  and  *kaito-  "  wood  "  (Welsh  coed,  etc.) ; 
cf.  Lichfield,  whose  first  el.  (Celt.  Letocetum)  means  "  grey  wood,"  and  E.  Whit- 
wood.  There  is  also  a  Brit.  pers.  n.  which  might  possibly  be  thought  of.  O.W. 
Guencat  LL,  Mid.  Welsh  Gwyngat,  M.Bret.  Guengat  (Loth  195). 
Davyscoles  (now  lost)  :  de  Daniscole  (Daniscales)  1246  LAR,  de  Dany  scales 
1296,  David  Scales  1305  Lacy  C,  Danyscoles  1311  IPM,  Davidscoles  1324  LI. 
The  first  el.  is  perhaps  the  pers.  n.  David.  The  second  is  scale  "  hut  "  from 
O.N.  skaU. 

Bailey  (the  S.W.  part)  :  de  Baillee  1204  LF,  Beyley  1246  LAR,  de  Bailegh  1257 
LI,  Bayley  1284  LF,  Bayleghe  1292  PW,  Baylegh  1298  WhC  1059,  Bailleye  1338 
LF.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  leah  "  lea."  The  first  may  be  identical  with  that  of 
Bayworth,  Berks,  (bcegan  wyrde  956  BCS  924),  Beyton,  SufL  (Begatona  DB, 
Beyton  IPM),  Baywell,  Wore,  (bceganwellan  718  BCS  139).  These  latter  no  doubt 
contain  a  pers.  n.  O.E.  *Bcega  or  *Bcege  from  the  W.  Germ,  stem  *bag-  found  in 
O.H.G.  bdga  f.  "  fight,  conflict."  Baildon,  Yks.  may  have  as  first  theme  an 
Z-derivative  of  this  stem  (O.E.  *Bcegel),  and  such  a  name  is  possible  also  in 
Bailey.  But  the  first  el.  of  Bailey  may  also  be  O.E.  beg  "  berry." 
Chaigley  (the  N.  part):  Chadelegh,  Chaddesl,  Cheydesleg,  de  Cheydesle  1246  LAR  ; 
Chadgeley  1391  TI,  1537  DL,  Chaddesley  1410  CR,  Chawgeley  1437  DL,  Chageley 
1514'DL,  1529  DL,  1539  LF,  Chadesley,  Chadysley  1553  LF,  Chadesley  1564  DL, 
Chardgeley  1611  Chipping  R  ;  now  [tfe'dzli]. 

Two  alternative  explanations  of  the  name  seem  possible.  The  first  el.  may 
be  O.E.  Ceadd(a)  (cf.  Chaddesley,  Wore.  :  Ceaddesleage  816  BCS  357).  This 
became  Chadgeley  in  the  same  way  as  Quedgeley,  Glo.  developed  from  Quedesley 
(c  1142,  etc.,  Baddeley).  A  [dz]  has  in  this  case  been  substituted  for  [dz].  Or 
the  first  el.  may  be  identical  with  that  of  Chailey,  Suss.  (Chegley  1268,  Chagelegh 
1284,  etc.,  Roberts),  i.e.,  apparently,  an  O.E.  CcBgg(a).  If  so,  the  forms  with 
d  show  substitution  of  [dz]  for  [dz].  Cf.  Badsberry,  p.  148,  Pled  wick,  Yks. 
(Plegwyke  1275,  etc.,  Pledewyk  1534  Goodall).  I  am  inclined  to  prefer  the 
second  alternative,  as  spellings  like  Cheydesle  do  not  go  well  with  a  base  Ceaddes- 
leah.  Some  of  the  early  forms  may  represent  Norman  attempts  at  spelling  the 
difficult  name,  while  some  may  be  due  to  association  with  Chadswell,  the  name 
of  a  place  in  Chaigley.  Chadswell  perhaps  contains  O.E.  Ceadd(a). 


WHALLEY  PAR.  (part) 

Bowland-with-Leagram  (a  hilly  district  on  the  Yks.  border,  bounded  on  the 
E.  by  the  Hodder). 

Bowland  (the  N.  part) :  Boelandam  1102  Ch,  Bouland  c  1140  Ch,  1258  IPM, 
c  1540  Leland,  Bochlande  a  1194,  Bochland  1211-32  Kirkstall  C,  Bowelande 
a  1240  ib.,  Bogh-,  Boughland  Percy  C  478f.,  Bowland  1311  IPM,  Boghland  chace 
1330  PatR,  Bowelond  1375  Gaunt  R  ;  now  [bolan(d)].  The  forest  of  Bowland  is 
the  name  of  a  large  district,  the  greater  part  of  which  is  in  Yorkshire.  Several 
of  the  examples  given  refer  to  the  Yks.  part.  Some  8  or  9  miles  E.  of  the  Lane, 
border,  on  the  Ribble,  is  Bolton-by-Bowland  :  Boulton  in  Bouland  1254  Percy  C 
83,  Boulton  in  Bougland  1315  IPM.  The  early  forms  tell  us  that  the  first  el.  is 
a  word  with  original//  (Bog-).  It  may  be  O.E.  boga  or  O.N.  bogi  "  bow  ;  arch," 
etc.,  or  one  of  the  relatives  of  these,  e.g.,  O.N.  bugr  "  bend,"  O.Swed.  bugh 
11  bend,"  abugh  "  bend  of  a  river."  There  were  no  doubt  by-forms  of  these 
with  o  ;  Norw.  bog  "  bow  "  is  actually  found.  In  M.E.  bowe  is  found  in  this 
sense  :  pe  bowe  of  the  ryuer  of  Number  Trev. ;  but  O.N.  bugr  may  be  the  source 
(NED).  I  suggest  that  Bowland  means  "  the  land  by  the  bend,"  the  bend 
being  that  made  by  the  Ribble  c  1  mile  S.  of  Bolton-by-Bowland.  Close  to  this 
is  Bow  Laithe ;  cf.  Bogh  1306,  "  the  great  bowe  next  Rible  "  1659  (lands  in 
Bolton)  PD  183,  283.  Bogh  (bowe)  is  clearly  a  word  meaning  "bend  of  a 

Dinckling  Green  :  Denglegrene  1462  Whit.  I.  345,  Dynkeler  Graue  1527  OCR, 
the  Inckl&ngreene  1616  Chipping  R.  The  earliest  example  perhaps  points  to  the 
word  dingle  as  first  el.  ;  the  place  is  in  a  valley. 

Greystoneley  :  Graystonlegh  1462  Whit.  I.  345,  Grayston  Lee  1527  CCR.  "  The 
lea  or  pasture  by  the  grey  stone." 

Lickhurst  :  Lekehirste  1462  Whit.  I.  345,  Lykehurst  1527  CCR.  O.E.  leac  "  leek  " 
and  hyrst  "  copse  "  or  "  hill."  The  place  is  on  a  hill  slope. 
Loud  Mytham  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Loud  and  the  Hodder) :  Lowdmytho 
1614,  Lowd  Mytham  1677  Chipping  R.  The  name  means  "  the  mouth  of  the 
Loud."  Mytham  is  the  dat.  of  O.E.  gemypu  "  junction  of  streams."  The  same 
name  is  found  in  Mytholme  Lodge  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Glazebrook  and  the 
Mersey).  Cf.  Trouden  Mithum  1356  CR  332  (in  Trawden),  le  Muthom  (Altham) 
1413-22  WhC  305,  the  Mythome  1551,  le  Mytham  1558  CCR  (Wolfenden). 
Leagram  (the  S.  part) :  Lathegrim  1282  VHL  VI.  379,  Lathegrym  1425  CR, 
Laythgryme  Park  1349,  Laithgryme  Park  1362  Hist,  of  Leagram  (CSNS  72),  Laythe- 
gryme  1377  CCR,  Laythgryme  1462  Whit.  I.  346.  In  Scandinavians,  p.  45, 
I  explain  the  name  as  a  combination  of  O.N.  hlada  "  barn  "  and  Grimr,  pers.  n., 
the  order  between  the  elements  being  due  to  Celtic  influence.  However,  I  am 
now  more  doubtful  about  the  name.  As  pointed  out  in  the  place  referred  to, 
there  was  a  similar  name  in  Bolton-le-Sands  :  Laithgryme  (cultura)  1230-46 
FC  II.  As  I  now  find,  the  same  name  occurs  in  Li.  Asby  (WmU  :  Laythgrym 
1314  CWNS  XX.  73.  These  names  cannot  well  all  be  compounds  with  the  pers.  n. 
Grimr  as  second  el.,  and  I  now  believe  at  least  Laithgryme  (Bolton)  and  Laythgrym 
(Li.  Asby)  represent  O.N.  leid  "  road  "  and  Scand.  grim,  -a,  -e  "  a  blaze," 
"  a  mark  made  on  a  tree  to  indicate  a  boundary."  Laythgrym  would  mean 


"  a  blaze  made  to  indicate  a  road."  Whether  Leagram  should  be  explained  in 
the  same  way  or  has  as  first  el.  O.N.  hlada  must  remain  doubtful  in  absence  of 
sufficiently  early  forms. 


A  small  parish  on  both  sides  of  the  Loud,  N.  of  Longridge.  The  country 
is  hilly,  Longridge  Fell  being  to  the  S.,  Parlick  and  Fairsnape  Fell  to  the  N. 
The  district  was  formerly  called  Chippingdale  :  Chipinden  DB,  Cepndela  1102 
Ch,  Chippendal  1256,  1258  LAR,  Chependall  1256  LAR,  Chipindale  1258  IPM, 
Chippingdale  1296  LI. 

1.  Chipping  (N.  of  the  Loud) :  Chypping  1241  AP,  Chipping  1242  LI,  Chepin 
1244  IPM,  1246  LAR,  Chippin  1246  LAR,  Chipin  1258  IPM,  1332  LS,  etc., 
Chypyn  1274  LI,  Chepyn  1322  LI,  Schipen,  Schypen  1311  IPM.  Chipping  is 
identical  in  origin  with  Chipping  in  Herts.,  Glo.,  Ess.,  etc.,  and  goes  back  to 
O.E.  ceping  "  market."  The  frequent  -in  instead  of  -ing  in  early  forms  is  due  to 
the  influence  of  Chippin(g)dale,  where  n  developed  owing  to  assimilation.  The 
usual  i  instead  of  e  (O.E.  e)  is  due  to  the  palatal  c  ;  cf.  Biilbring,  Ae.  Elementar- 
buch  §  292,  Luick,  Hist.  Gr.  §  194,  2,  note  1. 

Core  :  Couere  1228  C1R,  de  Gome  1314  LI,  de  Couer  1323  LF,  1371  LF,  de  Coure 
1332  LS.  Cf.  Couerhill  1284  LAR.  Higher  and  Lower  Core  are  situated  on  the 
lower  slope  of  Parlick.  This  name  I  take  to  be  related  to  O.E.  cofa  "  room," 
O.N.  kofi  "  room,"  O.H.G.  chubisi  "  hut,"  M.H.G.  kober  "  basket,"  O.N.  kofr 
"  chest,"  kofri  "  hood,  cap."  It  may  be  a  native  or  a  Scand.  name.  The  mean- 
ing may  have  been  "  hut."  But  I  think  it  very  likely  that  Core  is  really  an  old 
name  of  Parlick  Point.  The  name  Couerhill  of  1284  rather  tells  in  favour  of  this 
hypothesis.  If  so,  the  name  is  very  likely  derived  from  O.N.  kofri  "  a  hood, 
cap."  The  fine  hill  of  Parlick  has  a  very  characteristic  shape.  Seen  from  the 
W.  it  looks  rather  like  a  slightly  oblique  pyramid  ;  from  the  S.  it  presents  a 
more  rounded  outline.  It  seems  quite  probable  that  it  may  have  been  thought 
to  resemble  a  primitive  cap  or  hood.1  Or  there  may  have  been  an  old  word  mean- 
ing "  hill  "  or  the  like  belonging  to  the  group  of  words  under  discussion  ;  cf. 
O.N.  kufr  "  rounded  summit,"  Du.  kuif  "  top  of  a  tree,"  etc.  (Torp-Fick  p.  47). 
It  is  doubtful  if  Cover  in  Coverham,  Coverley,  etc.  (Yks.)  is  related  to  Core. 
Elmridge  (at  a  ridge  of  500ft.) :  Helme  Ridge  1557  DL,  Elmeridge  1602  Chipping 
R.  The  name  does  not  contain  the  word  elm,  but  an  earlier  place-name  Helme  : 
Logagia  de  Helme  13  cent.  Smith,  Hist,  of  Chipping,  p.  8,  de  Helm'  1332  LS, 
de  Helm  1377  LF,  Helme  1553  LF,  identical  with  helm  "  a  roofed  shelter  for 
cattle  "  (1501,  etc.,  NED).  Cf.  Helmshore  p.  91.  Later  H-  was  dropped,  as 
it  is  often  in  Lane.,  and  the  first  el.  was  associated  with  elm. 
Wblfhall  (according  to  VHL  VII.  26,  formerly  Wolfhouse)  :  Wolffehall  1600 
RS  XII.,  Wool/hall  17  cent.  Whit.  I.  330.  Wolf  Fell  is  not  far  North.  The 
name  may  have  been  originally  Wolf  Fell  House. 

1  This  guess  is  confirmed  by  the  fact  that  Kofri  (<  kofri  "  a  cap")  is  the  name  of  "  a 
characteristic,  beehive-shaped  peak  "  in  Iceland  (Bugge,  Vesterlandenes  Indflydelse,  p.  364). 
Bugge's  suggestion  that  Kofri  is  a  Romance  word  (belonging  to  Fr.  couvrir)  is  disproved  by 
the  circumstance  that  Kofri  is  found  early  as  a  pers.  n.  in  Norway  and  Sweden,  also  in 
early  place-names  (Lind,  Lundgren-Brate). 


2.  Thoraley-with-Wheatley  (S.  of  the  Loud). 

Thornley:   Thorenteleg  1202  LF,  de  Thornideley  (Thornythele,   Tornelay)  1246 

LAR  ;    Thorndeley  1258  IPM,   Thorndele  1277  LAR,  1323  LCR,   Thornedleye 

1278  LAR,  Thorndeleghe  1302  LI,  Thorndelegh  1332  LS,  Thornley  1327  LS,  etc. 

Probably  "  the  thorny  lea."    The  first  el.  is  a  derivative  of  O.E.  porn,  probably 

*pornede  adj.  (cf.  hoferede:  hofer,  etc.)  or,  if  the  form  Thornythele  be  trustworthy, 

possibly  pornihte  "  thorny  "   or  a  noun  with  a  p-  suffix  meaning  "  thorn-brake  " 

and  analogous  to  Frant,  Suss,  (cetfyrnpan  956  BCS  961,  orig.),  which  I  take  to 

be  a  derivative  of  fern  ;    cf.  O.H.G.  Thurnithi  (Forstemann). 

Wheatley  (old  manor) :    Watelei  DB,   Whetelegh  1227  LF,  1332  LS,   Wetelay, 

de  Wheteleg  1246  LAR,  Queteley  1258  IPM,  Weteley  1258,  1278  LAR.    "  Wheat 

lea  "  ;    cf.  the  same  name  p.  81. 

Bradley  :   de  Bradeleg  1202  LF,  Bradeley,  Bradelaybroke  1246  LF,  de  Bradelegh 

1332  LS,  Braidley  1602  Chipping  R.    "  The  broad  lea." 

Studley  :  de  Stodleg  1260  LAR,  Studdeley  1510  LF.    O.E.  stod  "  stud  "  and  O.E. 



A  district  N.  of  the  Ribble  N.E.  of  Preston.    The  ground  slopes  from  Long- 
ridge  Fell  down  to  the  Ribble. 

1.  Button  (the  E.  part) :    Dotona  1102  Ch,  Dutton  1258  IPM,  1292  PW,  1338 
LF,  etc.,  Dueton  13  cent.  Ind,  ?  Dighton  1311  IPM,  Dytton  1341  IN.    I  take  the 
occasional  spellings  Dytton,  Dueton,  etc.,  to  be  corruptions  and  derive  the  first  el. 
from  O.E.  Dudda  or  Dudd  pers.  n.    This  is  corroborated  by  the  name  Duddel. 
Duddel  Brook  is  another  name  for  Dutton  Brook  ;  Duddel  Hill  is  a  hill  reaching 
c  410ft.    Early  forms  of  the  name  Duddel  are  :  de  Dodehill  1324  LCR,  de  Dodehull 
1332  LS,  1357  LF,  Duddill  1590  DL. 

Stidd  (old  chapelry)  :  de  Stede  1276  LAR,  Camera  Sancti  Salvatoris  vocata  Le 
Stede  1338  Whit.  II.  464,  (parish,  manor  of)  Stede  1543  ib.  The  source  of  the  name 
is  O.E.  styde,  stede  "  place,"  later  also  "  farm,  estate  in  land/'  etc.  Possibly 
the  meaning  is  here  "  place  of  worship."  The  chapel  dates  from  the  12th  cent. 
In  Church  Lawford  (Warw.)  Stude  is  a  place  where  there  was  a  chapel  (Duignan). 
Cf.  however  (vaccary  del)  Stede  (in  Skipton)  1299  Whitaker,  Hist,  of  Craven3, 
p.  457. 

Hay  Hurst  :  de  Hayhurst  1246  LAR,  1355  LF,  de  Haihurst  1262  LAR.  O.E. 
hege  "  hedge,  enclosure,"  or  heg  "  hay  "  and  hyrst,  probably  in  the  sense  "  a  hill." 
Huntingdon  (Hall)  :  Huntingdenebroc  13  cent.  Whit.  II.  467,  de  Huntingdon 
(Huntindene)  1277  LAR,  de  Huntyngdon  1341  IN.  It  is  difficult  to  determine  if 
the  first  el.  is  simply  hunting  sb.  or  O.E.  huntena  g.  pi.  of  hunta  "  a  hunter."  The 
second  is  O.E.  denu  "  valley." 

Ragden  Wood  (near  Starling  Clough) :  Rakedene  klouh  13  cent.  Whit.  II.  467, 
Ragden  Clough  1550  DL.  The  first  el.  may  be  rake  "  a  way,  path  "  ;  esp.  "  a 
narrow  path  up  a  cleft  or  ravine  "  (<O.N.  rdk)  ;  but  O.E.  racu  "  bed  of  a  stream, 
water-course  "  (in  ea-,  streamracu)  or  hrace  "  throat  "  are  also  possible. 

2.  Ribchester  (v.) :  Ribekastre  DB,  Ribbecestre  1202  LF,  1246  LAR  etc.,  Ribbelcestre 
1215  LPR,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  Ribbikestre  1258  IPM,  Ribbechestre  1246  LAR, 
Ribbikhastre  1335,  1355  LF,  Ribikhaster  1358  LF,  Riblechastre  1362  CR  343, 


Ribbechastre  1373  LF.  Ribchester  stands  on  the  Ribble.  It  was  the  seat  of  a 
Roman  station  (Bremetonaci  in  Ant.  It.).  O.E.  ceaster  means  "  a  city  or  walled 
town,"  originally  one  that  had  a  Roman  station.  The  loss  of  I  may  be  compared 
with  that  in  such  (O.E.  swilc],  etc. 

Knowl  Green  (h.)  :  de  Cnolle  (Knolle)  1246  LAR,  de  Knol  1262  LF,  1274  LI ; 
now  [noul  gri'n].  O.E.  cnoll  "  knoll,  hillock." 

3.  Dilworth  (N.  of  Ribchester)  :    Bileuurde  DB,  Dileworth  1227  LF,  Dillewrthe 
a  1240  CC,  Dillesworth  1246  LAR,  Dilleswrth  1256  LAR,  Dilwort  1279  C1R, 
Dylleword  1292  PW,  Dilleworth  1303  LF.    I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  this  is 
simply  O.E.  dile  "  dill  "  and  worp.    The  forms  with  -s-  (Dilleswrth,  etc.)  to  some 
extent  tell  against  this  etymology,  but  the  s  may  be  intrusive. 

4.  Alston-with-Hothersall  (W.  of  Ribchester). 

Alston  (the  W.  part) :  Alston  1226, 1257  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  de  Alleston  (Halueston, 
Halfiston,  Halleston)  1246  LAR  ;  now  [olstn].  In  view  of  the  1246  forms  the 
first  el.  of  the  name  seems  to  be  some  name  in  O.E.  jElf-,  perhaps  jElfsige  as  in 
Alston,  Wore.  :  Mfsiges  tun  c  1050  CD  805,  Alsostone,  Alstone  1275  (Duignan). 
Hothersall  (the  E.  part) :  Hudereshal'  1199  ChR,  Hudereshal  1201  LPR,  1226  LI, 
Huddeshal  1206  LPR,  Hudersale  1212  LI,  de  Hodersale  1251  LI,  de  Hudeshale 
1252  LI,  Hudereshale  1257  IPM,  Hodresal  1258  LAR,  Hudresal  1259  LAR,  de 
Hudirsale  1279  C1R,  Hodersale  1297  LI,  1332  LS  ;  now  [O&OSQ  ;  oSasl].  The  first 
el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  a  pers.  n.,  identical  with  that  in  Huddersfield: 
Oderesfeld  DB,  Hodersfeld  1280,  Hudresfeld  a  1297,  Huderesfeld  1131  etc. 
(Goodall,  Moorman).  But  it  is  not  easy  to  explain  such  a  name.  The  O.E. 
Huthhere  ( <\j  Hythhere)  found  once  does  not  account  well  for  the  regular  d  of  the 
early  forms.  The  change  [5]  to  [d]  before  r  in  rudder  (O.E.  rodor),  spider  is 
evidenced  a  good  deal  later  than  in  the  names  Hothersall  and  Huddersfield. 
It  may  be  a  derivative  of  O.E.  Hud(d)a  with  an  r-  suffix  ;  cf.  Bickerstafie,  p.  121f. 
The  second  el.  is  O.E.  halh  "  haugh."  Hothersall  Hall  stands  in  a  piece  of  level 
ground  in  a  bend  of  the  Ribble. 


A  large  district  N.  of  the  Ribble.    The  surface  is  low  in  the  S.  and  W.,  but 
rises  in  the  N.  and  E. 

1.  Elston  (N.E.  of  Preston,  on  the  Ribble) :    Etheliston  1212  LI,  1259  LAR, 
1332  LS,  de  Etheleston  (Etheliston,  Ethelaston,  Ethereston)  1246  LAR,  Elleston 
1446  LF.    The  first  el.  is  an  O.E.  name  in  Edel-  (a  Northumbrian  side-form  of 
Mdel-  ;  cf.  Chad  wick,  Studies  in  Old  English,  p.  176).    Elswick  seems  to  contain 
O.E.  Eftelsige,  and  this  seems  more  plausible  than  dSdelwulf  (suggested  by  Wyld) 
also  in  the  case  of  Elston.    The  second  el.  is  O.E.  wic  "  dwelling,"   etc. 

2.  Grimsargh-with-Brockholes  (N.E.  of  Preston,  W.  of  Elston). 

Grimsargh  (the  N.  half)  :   Grimesarge  DB,  Grimesherham  1189  Ch,  de  Grimesargh 

1246  LAR,  Grimesargh  1262  LI,  1341  IN,  etc.,  Grymesargh  1324  LI,  Greymesargh 

1301  LF  ;    now  [grimza].    "  The  ergh  (or  pasture)  of  Grim."    On  ergh  see  p.  10. 

Grimr  is  a  well-known  O.N.  pers.  name.    The  land  of  the  township  is  chiefly  in 


Brockholes  (the  S.  part ;  in  a  bend  of  the  Ribble)  :  Brochole  1212  LI,  de  Brocholes 


1244  LI,  Brochol,  Brokhol  1246  LAR,  Brocholes  1290  IPM,  Brokholes  1319  LF, 
1332  LS,  etc.  O.E.  brocc  "  badger  "  and  hoi  "  hole,  burrow."  Cf.  Brockhall, 
p.  71. 

3.  Ribbleton  (v. ;  near  the  Ribble)  :  Ribleton  1201, 1206  LPR,  1354  LF,  Ribbelton 
1226  LI,  1327  LS,  de  Ribelton,  de  Ribbeton  1246  LAR,  Ribbilton  1297  LI,  Rybbelton 
1332  LS.    "  The  tun  on  the  Ribble." 

Scales  :   Ribelton  Scales  1252  ChR.    O.N.  skdli  "  hut." 

4.  Fishwick  (E.  of  and  now  part  of  Preston) :   Fiscuic  DB,  de  Fiskwic  1202  LF, 
Fiswich  1203f.  LPR,  Fyswic  1216-22  LI,  Fissewyk,  Fiskewik  1247-51  LI,  Fiswyke 
1252  IPM,  Fischewik  1269  LAR,  Fixwyk,  Fyssewyk  1297f.  LI,  Fisshewyk  1326 
l$,ffisshwik  1332  LS.   I  believe  (with  Sephton)  that  this  is  simply  O.E.  *fisc-wic, 
which  I  take  to  mean  "  place  (village)  where  fish  is  sold  "  ;  cf.  especially  saltwic 
"  place  where  salt  is  sold  "  (B-T).    Or  it  might  be  "  village  where  fish  is  caught." 
Fishwick  is  on  the  Ribble,  and  the  ancient  highway  from  Preston  to  the  S.  passes 
through  the  township.    Fishwick  is  also  the  name  of  an  old  parish  in  Berwickshire 
near  the  Tweed. 

5.  Preston  (town) :    Prestvne   DB,  Prestonam  1094  Ch,  Prestona  1153-60  Ch 
(orig.),  1169  LPR,  Prestone  1166  RB,  Preston  1176fL  LPR,  1196  LF,  1212  LI, 
1332  LS,  etc.,  Presteton  1180ff.  LPR.    O.E.  preosta  tun  "  the  priest's  manor." 
Preston  must  have  been  an  old  rectory  manor. 

Avenham  Park  :  Avenham  1591  DL.  The  name  is  identical  with  Avenham  or 
Enam  in  Singleton,  with  Avenames  (Newton)  1212-42  CO,  Auenam  de  Farlton 
(Westmorl.)  1208-49  ib.  M.E.  avenam  is  clearly  a  Scand.  word  ;  cf.  O.Swed. 
afnam  "  land  severed  from  an  estate."  In  a  note  to  Guisb.  C  II.  442  ovenam 
is  explained  as  "  land  taken  up  from,  or  out  of,  a  larger  tract  unappropriated 
and  unenclosed,"  i.e.,  "  a  purpresture,  encroachment,  or  intak."  That  may  be 
the  exact  meaning  also  of  avenam. 
Deepdale  :  Dupedale  1228  C1R,  de  Depedale  1354  LF.  "  The  deep  valley." 

6.  Lea,  Ashton,  Ingol,  and  Cottam  (on  the  Ribble,  W.  of  Preston). 

Ashton  (the  S.E.  part,  now  partly  urban) :  Estun  DB,  Astuna  1153-60  Ch  (orig.), 
Estona  1169  LPR,  Eston  1201  LPR,  1212  LI,  Assheton  1326  LF,  Asshton  1327, 
1332  LS.  O.E.  cesc-tun  "  ash  town." 

Tulketh:  Tulket  c  1130  Sim.  Durh.,  1199  ChR,  (villa  de)  Tukhut  a  1250  CC, 
Tulkid  1252  ChR,  Magnum  Tulket  a  1255  CC,  Tulkut,  Tulchut,  (Kar  de)  Tulkut 
a  1268  CC,  Tulketh  1292  PW,  de  Tulkith  1293  LI,  Tulcood,  Tokyth  1545  DL. 
This  is,  in  my  opinion,  a  Brit,  name,  to  be  compared  with  M.Bret.  Toulgoet 
(Loth  234),  Bret.  Toulhoet,  a  fairly  common  name  ;  also  with  Twll-cod  (Llandaff , 
Wales)  :  tollcoit,  Tvll  Coit  LL  188,  (fontis)  tollcoit  ib.  189.  The  first  el.  is  Bret. 
toul  "  trou,"  Corn,  toll,  Welsh  twll  "  hole,  pit,"  the  second  Bret,  koat,  O.Corn. 
cuit,  Welsh  coed  "  wood."  Toulguet  means  "  le  bois  troue."  Toulhoet, 
and  probably  Welsh  Twll-cod,  mean  "  le  trou  du  bois."  This  is  probably 
also  the  meaning  of  Tulketh.  The  quotation  Kar  de  Tulkut  is  especially  to  be 
noticed.  A  place  called  Hole  House  is  (or  was)  near  Tulketh. 
Lea  (the  S.W.  part) :  Lea  DB,  Lehe  a  1190  CC,  Le  1212  LI,  Legh  1246  LAR,  Lee 
1284  ChR,  1297  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.  O.E.  leah  "  lea."  The  Savick  Brook  divides 
Lea  into  two  parts,  formerly  called  French  Lea  and  English  Lea.  French  Lea 
was  given  a  1189  to  Warine  de  Lancaster,  a  Norman. 


French  Lea  :  Le  Franceisa,  1194  Ch,  Le  Franceis  1207  ChR,  Lee  Francia  CC  209, 

Lee  Fraunceis  (Frauncheys)  1259  LAR,  Le  Gallicana  a  1268  CC,  Lee  Gallica  1377 

LF,  1422  CR,  La  Lee  Fraunceys  1334  LF  ;   Frenkesslee  1278  LAR. 

English  Lea  (now  Lea  Town) :    EnglesM[ea]  1201  LPR,  Le  Engleis  1207  ChR, 

Englesshelee  1385  LF,  Lee  Anglicana  1422  CR. 

Greaves  :  del  Greues  1246  LAR,  del  Grevys  1334  LF.    O.E.  grcef  "  grove." 

Sidgreaves  :  Sidegreves,  Side  Greves  c  1230  CC,  de  Sydegreues  1246  LAR.    First 

el.  O.E.  sid  "  wide,  large." 

Cottam  (the  N.W.  part) :  Cotun  a  1230  CC,  de  Cotun  1227  LF,  Cotum  c  1230  CC, 

1246,  1284  LAR,  Kotum,  Cotton  1246  LAR,  Cotam  1292  PW,  Gotham  1577  Hair. 

O.E.  cotum  dat.  pi.  of  cot  "  cottage,"  (often)  "  sheep-cote." 

Ingol  (the  N.E.  part) :   Ingole  1200  ChR,  1314  LI,  Igole,  Ingool  (Yngole,  Yngoil) 

1199-1206  Ch  (orig.),  Ingol  1246, 1284  LAR,  de  Ingoles  1246  LAR,  Ingel  1257  ib., 

Inghoo  1558  LF.     The  second  el.  is  O.E.  holh  (or  O.N.  hoi)  "  hole  ;    hollow, 

valley."    The  first  is  presumably  a  pers.  name.    O.E.  Inga  (Searle)  may  be 

English  or  Scandinavian  (Bjorkman).    The  occurrence  of  the  name  in  Inkpen, 

Berks,  indicates  that  it  is  at  least  partly  native. 

7.  Broughton  (N.  of  Preston)  :    Broctun  DB,  Broctona  a  1160  Ch,  Brocton  1201 
LPR,  1212,  1226  LI,  Broucton  1262  LF,  Brouton  1269  LAR,  Broghton  1303  LF, 
1332  LS,  Broughton  1490  LF.    O.E.  broc-tun  "  the  tun  on  the  brook."     Blundel 
Brook  flows  through  the  township. 

Fernyhalgh  :  Fernehalgh  1500  DL,  Fernyhalgh  (Chap.)  1516  DL.  "  Ferny  haugh." 
Ingolhead  (adjoining  Ingol) :  de  Thyncoleheued  1246  LAR,  de  Ingolheued  1310 
LI,  de  Ingolhed  1332  LS,  de  Ingolfheved  1341  IN,  Ingolheved  1380  LF.  The  first 
el.  is  no  doubt  the  place-name  Ingol.  Ingolf-  shows  transition  of  -h  into  -/.  The 
second  el.  is  O.E.  heafod,  whose  sense  is  here  not  very  clear ;  perhaps  "  upper 
end."  There  does  not  seem  to  be  any  hill  at  Ingolhead. 

Sharoe  (h.) :  Sharoo,  Shayrawe,  Sharow  1502  DL,  Sharoe  1513  ib.,  Sharowe 
1558  LF.  Perhaps  the  CharaudhoJce  (Sharoe  oak  ?)  1338  LPR  425  contains  the 
name.  Sharoe  is  on  slightly  rising  ground  between  Sharoe  Brook  and  a  brook 
that  forms  the  boundary  between  Broughton  and  Fulwood.  We  may  compare 
Sharow,  Yks.  :  Scharhow  1285-1316,  Scharhowe,  -hou  1303,  etc.  (Moorman). 
The  elements  may  be  O.E.  scaru  "  boundary  "  (in  landscaru,  landscarhlinc)  and 
O.N.  haugr  "  hill,"  or  O.E.  hoh  "  ridge."  Charaudhoke  is  one  of  the  bounders 
of  Fulwood.  But  the  early  forms  are  not  sufficiently  clear. 
Urton  or  Durton  (near  Broughton  Hall) :  Overton  1502  DL  1. 12,  Durton  al.  Urton 
al.  Overtowne  1567  DL  (VHL  VII.  119),  Urton  1544  LF,  Vrton  1591  RW  247. 
The  name  may  be  O.E.  ofertun  "  shore  town  "  or  rather  ofertun  "  upper  town," 
as  the  place  does  not  stand  close  to  a  stream.  D-  is  perhaps  the  Fr.  prep,  de, 
added  when  the  name  was  used  as  a  family  name. 

8.  Haighton    (N.E.  of  Preston,  S.  of  Blundel  Brook) :    Haktun  DB,  Aulton 
1201  LPR,  Halicton  1212  LI,  Halechton  1226  LI,  Halton  a  1268  CC,  Haighton 
1327,  1332  LS.    O.E.  halh  "  haugh  "   and  tun.    Haighton  Hall  and  Haighton 
House  stand  on  level  ground  near  Savick  Brook. 

New  Chingle  Hall  :  Chynglethall  1501  LF,  Shynglehatt  1516  DL.  "  The  hall 
covered  with  shingles."  Chingle  is  a  side-form  of  shingle,  "  thin  piece  of  wood 
used  as  a  house-tile  "  (c  1200  NED)  ;  cf.  Singleton,  p.  154. 


9.  Barton  (N.  of  Preston  and  Broughton)  :   Bartun  DB,  a  1220  CC,  Barton  1212 

LI,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Berton  1226  LI.    O.E.  bcertun,  beretun  "  barton  "  ;   cf. 

Barton  in  Eccles,  p.  38. 

Newsham  (h. ;  formerly  in  Goosnargh)  :  Neuhuse  DB,  Newesum,  Neusum  1246 

LAR,  Nusum  1249  IPM,  Neusom  1252  IPM,  1332  LS;  de  Neusum  c  1260  CC, 

Newesum  1312  LI,  Neusum  1327  LS.    "  (At)  the  new  houses." 

Hollowforth  (in  Newsham ;    h.)  :    de  Holughford  1332  LS,  Holoforth  1558  LF. 

"  The  hollow  ford,"  or  "  the  ford  in  the  hollow."    The  place  is  on  Barton  Brook. 

LANCASTER  PAR.  (detached  portions) 

1.  Fulwood    (N.   of  Preston,    now    partly  suburban)  :    ful(e)wude  1228   C1R, 
Fuluuode  1252  ChR,  Fulwode  1297  LI,  Folewode  1323  LI.    O.E.  ful  "  rotten  " 
or  "  dirty  "  and  wudu  "  wood."    Fulwood  belonged  to  the  forest  of  Lancaster. 
Cadley  :  Cadileisahe  1228  C1R,  Cadilegh  1314,  1324  LI,  1338  LPR.    Apparently 
O.E.  Cadan  leak.    But  the  regular  i  in  the  second  syllable  is  curious. 

Hyde  Park  (name  lost)  :  hyda  1256-8  LI,  park  of  Hyde,  Hide  1323f.  LI,  parco  de 

Hyde  1323  LC  449,  de  Hide  1332  LS,  Hydeschaghbroke  1338  LPR.     O.E.  hid 

"  hide."    I  suppose  Hyde  is  the  name  of  a  lost  village  or  farm  ;  Hyde  is  a  common 


Killinsough  :    Kelangeshalgh,   Kelandeshagh   1324   LI,   Kylaneshalgh   1363   M. 

The  first  el.  may  be  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Kylan  from  Ir.  Cuilen.    The  second  el.  is 

O.E.  halh  "  haugh."    K.  stands  between  the  Savock  and  a  tributary  brook. 

2.  Myerscough  (N.W.  of  Preston  and  Barton) :    de  Mirscho(h)  1246  LAR,  de 
Miresco  1265  LI,  Mirescowe  1297  LI,  Mirescogh  1323  LI,  1323  LC,  Merscow 
G  1540  Leland.    O.N.  myrr  "  bog  "  (>E.  mire)  and  skogr  "  wood."    The  ground 
of  the  township  is  low  and  level  and  traversed  by  several  streams  (the  Brock  and 

Aschebi  DB  is  thought  to  be  a  lost  vill.  in  Myerscough.  Aschebi  no  doubt  stands 
for  Askebi,  the  first  el.  being  O.N.  askr  "  ash  "  ;  cf.  O.Swed.  Askby  and  Askaby. 
Badsberry  :  Baggerburgh  1363M,  Badgerburgh  1430  LC  577,  Baggesburgh  1496  DL. 
Evidently  "  badger-burrow  "  ;  cf.  p.  8.  A  late  name  ;  badger  is  a  Fr.  loanword. 
The  development  of  [dz]  to  [dz]  is  remarkable  ;  cf.  Chaigley,  p.  141. 
Midghalgh  or  Midge  Hall  :  Migehalghlegh  1314  LI,  Migelhalgh  1324  LI,  Migel-, 
Migehalgh  1326  LC  454f.  Cf.  Mugehalc  (Ashton,  Preston)  a  1268  CC  and  Midge 
Hall,  p.  133.  O.E.  mycg  "  midge  "  and  halh  "  haugh."  The  place  stands  a 
few  hundred  yards  from  Barton  Brook  ;  the  intervening  ground  is  low  and  level. 
Stansacre  :  Stannesacre  1553  DL.  Earlier  material  is  needed.  The  first  el.  may 
be  O.N.  Steinn  pers.  n. 


This  large  parish  consists  of  two  parts,  separated  from  each  other  by  the 
parishes  of  St.  Michael's  and  Preston.  The  chief  portion  is  W.  of  the  said 
parishes,  and  stretches  from  the  Ribble  in  the  S.  to  the  Wyre  in  the  N.,  with 
Hambleton  N.  of  the  Wyre.  This  portion  is  in  the  Fylde.  The  smaller  portion 
(Goosnargh  Chapelry,  comprising  Goosnargh  and  Whittingham  townships)  is 
on  the  border  of  Chipping  and  on  the  lower  slope  of  Longridge  Hill. 


1.  Whittingham  (N.E.  of  Preston,  N.  of  Blundel  Brook)  :    Witingheham  DB, 
Whitingham  1200f.  LPR,  1246  LAR,  Witingheham,  Witingeheim,  Whitingeheim 
1202  LF,   Witingeham,  Whitingeham,  de  Wytinghaym  1246  LAR,  Whitingham 
1332  LS,  Whetyngham  1310  LI.    O.E.  Hwitinga  ham,  Hwitingas  being  a  patrony- 
mic from  O.E.  Hwita.    The  forms  in  -haym  are  due  to  Scand.  influence. 
Ashley  :  de  Esseleye  a  1250  CO,  de  Ashelegh  1323  LI.    O.E.  cesc  "  ash  "  and  leak. 
Chingle  HaU  (estate)  :    The  Chyngle  Hall  1530  RW  268,  Shinglehall  1546  DL, 
Synglehall  1571  DL.    See  New  Chingle  Hall,  p.  147. 

Comberhalgh  :  de  Cumberhalgh  1310  LI,  Cumberall  1497  LF.  The  place  was 
apparently  on  Blundel  Brook.  The  name  is  preserved  in  Cumeragh  Lane,  which 
crosses  Blundel  Brook.  The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  halh  "  haugh."  The 
first  may  be  O.E.  Cumbra  pers.  n.  or  Cumbra  "  Briton."  The  only  objection 
against  this  etymology  is  the  fact  that  the  same  name  is  found  also  in  Cronton 
(Combral  1337  WhC  817)  and  in  Houghton,  De.  (Cumbrall  VHL  IV.  167),  which 
would  seem  to  indicate  that  the  first  el.  is  rather  a  common  noun.  There  are  a 
M.H.G.  kumber  "rubbish,"  Norw.  dial,  kumar  "bud,"  Swed.  dial,  kummer, 
kumber  the  same.  There  may  have  been  an  O.E.  word  of  similar  form  and 
Duxendean  :  Duxenden  1587  DL.  Etymology  obscure. 

2.  Goosnargh  (N.E.   of  Preston)  :    Gusansarghe  DB,   Gunanesarg  1206  LPR, 
Gosenharegh,  Gosenargh,  Gosenarch,  Gusenhach  1246  LAR,  Gosenhar'  1257  IPM, 
Gosnarhe,  Gosenarwe,  Gosenarewe  1269  LAR,  Gosenarch  1277  LAR,  Gosenargh 
1284  LAR,  1306  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Gosnargh  1297  LI ;  now  [gu'zna].    Second  el. 
ergh,  argh  "  shieling  "  (p.  10).    The  first  is  apparently  a  pers.  n.  Gosan  or  Gusan 
from  Ir.  Gosan,  Gusan  (see  Hogan,  p.  81,  693). 

Barker  :   Barker  1513,  1514  DL.    The  second  el.  of  the  name  may  well  be  ergh 

"  a  shieling  "  ;    the  first  being  O.N.  borkr  "  bark  "   or  Borkr  pers.  n.    Higher 

and  Lower  Barker  are  in  a  remote  situation  on  a  hill-side. 

Beesley  :  de  Beselaye  c  1200  CC,  Beysleye  c  1210  CC,  de  Biseligh  (Besleg]  1246 

LAR,  de  Byseleye  (Byssley)  1277  LAR,  de  Beseley  1332  LS.     Probably  O.E. 

Bisi  pers.  n.  (Searle)  and  leah.    Cf.  Bisley  (Glo.). 

Blake  HaU  :   Blakhall  c  1450  HS  LXIV.  279,  Blackhall  1600  RS  XII.    Perhaps 

simply  "  black  hall." 

Bulsnape  :   Bulsnape  1518  DL.    M.E.  bule  "  bull  "  and  snape  "  pasture  "  ;   cf. 

Boysnope  in  Eccles.     Fulesnape  a  1220,  c  1260  CC  is  possibly  miswritten  for 

Bulesnape.    But  cf.  Fairsnape  in  Bleasdale. 

Inglewhite  (v.) :    Inglewhite  1662  RW  83.    The  first  el.  is  probably  a  pers.  n., 

e.g.,  O.N.  Ingulfr.    On  the  second  see  p.  19. 

Kidsnape  :    Kydesknape  1520  DL,  Kydsnape  1539  CC.     M.E.  kid  "  young  of 

goat  "  (a  Scand.  word)  and  snape  "  pasture,"  see  p.  17. 

Longley  :  Longelee,  Longelech  c  1210  CC,  de  Longelyhe  1252  LI.    "  Long  lea." 

Loudscales  (on  the  Loud)  :  de  Ludescal(e)  1219,  de  Ludreskal  1221,  de  Ludescales 

1222,  de  Ludescall  1223  LAR,  Lowd  Scales  1585  RW  210  ;   cf.  de  la  Lude  1262 

LAR.    "  The  scales  or  huts  on  the  Loud."    Scale  is  O.N.  skdli  "  hut." 

Middleton  (on  Westfield  Brook,  a  tributary  of  Barton  Brook)  :   Middelton  1323 

LF,  de  Midelton  1332  LS.    "  The  middle  tun." 

ThrelfaU  (old  manor  ;  the  N.E.  part  of  Goosnargh)  :  Trelefelt  DB,  de  Threliffall 


1246  LAR,  Threlefal  1258 IPM,  Treuelfal  1271  LAR,  Trellefalle  1324  LI,  Threlefel 
1244  LI.  O.N.  prcela  g.  pi.  of  prcell  "  serf  "  (cf.  Threlkeld,  Cumb.)  and  O.N. 
fall  "  clearing  "  (cf.  p.  10).  The  second  el.  seems  to  have  been  influenced  by 
feld  and  fell.  The  latter  association  is  all  the  more  plausible  as  Beacon  Fell 
(874ft.)  is  in  Threlfall.  The  form  Treuelfal  1271  shows  influence  from  Treales 
.(p.  152). 

3.  Clifton-with-Salwick  (on  the  Ribble,  W.  of  Preston). 

Clifton  (v.) :  Clistun  DB,  Clifton  1226  LI,  1257  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Clyfton  1341 

IN.    First  el.  O.E.  clif"  hill,  slope."   Clifton  vil.  lies  on  a  fairly  steep  slope  above 

the  marshy  land  along  the  Ribble. 

Salwick  :   Saleuuic  DB,  Salewic  1201  LPR,  1226  LI,  Saleswic  1200  Rot  Obi, 

Salewyk  1327  LS,  Sawick  1577  Saxton.    Salwick  is  near  a  small  tributary  of 

Savick  Brook.    The  elements  of  the  name  are  probably  O.E.  salh  (pi.  salas) 

"  sallow  "   and  wlc  "  dwelling,"  etc. 

Lund  (v.) :    ?  Lund  1228  C1R,  le  Lund  a  1268  CO,  Lundmosse  1595  DL.    O.N. 

lundr  "  grove." 

4.  Newton-with-Scales  (on  the  Ribble,  W.  of  Clifton). 

Newton  (v.) :  Neutune  DB,  Neuton  a  1242  CC,  1243  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.  "  The 
new  tun." 

Scales  (close  to  Newton) :  Skalys  1501  CC,  Skales,  Scalis  1537  ib.  O.N.  skali  "  hut." 
Dowbridge  (h.) :  (magnam  stratam  de)  Dalebrig(e),  Delbrigeheuet,  Dalebrigewara 
a  1268  CC.  D.  is  in  the  valley  of  Freckleton  Brook.  The  elements  of  the  name 
are  O.E.  dcel  (or  O.N.  dalr)  "  valley  "  and  O.E.  brycg.  The  road  alluded  to  is 
the  Danes'  Pad,  thought  to  be  of  Roman  origin.  The  el.  -wara  (in  one  example) 
seems  to  be  wra  from  O.N.  (v)ra  "  corner." 

5.  Freckleton  (on  the  Ribble  ;  W.  of  Newton  ;  v.) :   Frecheltun  DB,  Frecheltuna. 
1153-60  Ch  (orig.),  FreJciltona,  ffrekelton  c  1190  CC,  Frekelton  1202, 1227  LF,  etc., 
ffrekilton  1332  LS,  Frekilton  1428  LF  ;    Freketon  1201  LPR  ;    Frekenton  1201f. 
LPR,  1270  LAR  ;    Frequinton  12021  LPR,  Frequenton  1204  LPR  ;   Frekintone 
1212  RB ;  Frequelton  1212  LI ;  de  Frikelton  1246  LAR.   S.  of  the  vil.  is  a  point 
of  land  called  the  Naze  :   "  the  famous  Neb  of  the  Nese,"  1771  Whitaker,  Hist, 
of  Manchester  1. 129.  In  Whitaker's  time  the  Ribble  formed  a  large  bend  here. 
The  depth  was  15ft. 

This  is  a  very  difficult  name,  to  no  small  extent  owing  to  the  variety  in  the 
early  forms.  The  forms  in  I  (Frekelton,  etc.)  are  obviously  to  be  preferred  to 
those  in  n  (Frekenton,  etc.),  as  they  are  more  common  and  evidenced  earlier. 
No  doubt  n  is  due  to  Norman  dissimilation.  Then  there  is  the  question  if  the 
spellings  with  qu  for  k  (Frequelton,  Frequinton)  are  worthy  of  attention.  I 
suppose  they  indicate  that  a  w  has  been  lost  after  k.  Sephton  assumes  as  first  el. 
O.E.  Frecwulf,  but  such  a  name  is  not  evidenced  ;  the  instance  in  Searle  is 
Frankish.  If  the  form  contained  a  w,  I  think  the  first  el.  is  an  O.E.  *Frecwcel 
containing  O.E.  free  "  greedy  "  or  "  dangerous  "  (cf.  Forster,  E.  St.  39,  328  ff.) 
and  O.E.  wcel  "  pool,"  referring  to  the  deep  place  in  the  river  mentioned.  This 
seems  to  me  the  most  probable  explanation.  If  the  original  form  had  no  w,  it  is 
perhaps  an  Z-derivative  of  the  stem  in  O.E.  free,  frcec.  This  may  be  an  O.E. 
*Frecla  pers.  n.  (cf.  Freed)  or  a  derivative  of  the  O.E.  adj.  frecel  (M.E.  frekel) 
"  wicked  ;  dangerous  "  (cf.  Forster  I.e.),  a  name  of  the  pool. 


6.  Warton  (on  the  Ribble,  E.  of  Lytham  ;   v.) :    Wartun  DB,  Wartuna  1153-60 
Ch  (orig.),  Warton  1227  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.   Probably  O.E.  *weard-tun  (cf.  weard- 
seld  "  guard-house,"  etc.,  G.  Wariburg).    This  etymology  seems  fairly  certain 
for  Warton  in  Lonsdale,  and  plausible  for  Warton  in  Am.    Warton  Bank  would 
be  suitable  as  a  lookout  place  ;   the  ground  W.  of  Warton  along  the  Ribble  is 
very  low  and  was  in  old  days  mostly  uninhabitable.    O.E.  warop  (wearp)  "  shore  " 
is  also  possible  as  first  el.,  but  a  name  "  shore  town  "   is  not  very  distinctive, 
as  several  old  villages  are  on  the  shore. 

Cowburn  or  Cowburgh  (old  estate) :  Couburugh  1189-94  Ch  (in  ChR  1336), 
Cuburne,  insula  de  Cuburc  (Kuburne)  a  1246  CC.  The  original  name  was  probably 
Cu-burne  "  cow  brook,"  -burgh  being  due  to  a  deliberate  change. 

7.  Bryning  with  Kellamergh  (N.E.  of  Lytham). 

Bryning  (h.) :  Birstaf  brinn[ing]  1201  LPR,  Birstatbrunning  1236  LI,  Burstad 
Brining  1243  LI,  Burwadbruning  1249  IPM ;  Brunigg'  1252  IPM,  Brining, 
Brunigge  1254  IPM,  Brining  1341  IN,  etc.,  Brinyge  1332  LS,  Brynin'  Waugh. 
The  name  has  a  curious  history.  In  the  earliest  sources  it  is  a  double-barrelled 
name.  From  about  1250  the  first  part  is  dropped.  I  explain  the  first  part  as 
an  O.N.  Bjdrstadr  (whence  Norw.  Bjaastad,  Bjastad)  meaning  "  farmstead  "  ; 
Bjdr-  is  the  gen.  of  byr  (cf.  E.  byrlaw<byjarlog) ;  staftr  means  "  place."  The 
same  name  is  Birstwith,  W.  Yks.  :  Birstad  13  cent.  The  second  el.  may  be  the 
O.E.  pers.  n.  Bryning  or  O.Swed.,  O.Dan.  Bryning.  Or  it  may  be  an  earlier 
name  of  the  place,  e.g.,  an  O.E.  patronymic  Bryningas.  I  suppose  Byrstath 
Bryning  means  Bryning  Farm.  The  order  between  the  elements  is  due  to  Celtic 
influence.  A  Celtic  el.  is  found  in  the  next  name. 

Kellamergh  (h.)  :  Kelfgrimeshereg  1201  LPR,  Kelgrimesarge  a  1246  CC,  Kel- 
grimisarhe  1236  LI,  Kelghgrymeshare  1285  LAR,  Kelgrimisharg  1249  IPM, 
Kelgrimeshar'  1254  IPM,  Kelgrymessaregh  1276  C1R,  Kelgrimeshargh  1297  LI, 
Kelgmesargh  1332  LS,  Kilgrymesargh  1347  LF,  Kellamoor  Waugh.  The  "  ergh, 
or  shieling,  of  *Kelgrim."  On  ergh,  argh  see  p.  10.  Kelgrim  is  a  Scand.  pers.  n., 
derived  by  Bjorkman,  Namenkunde,  from  O.N.  *Ketilgrimr.  Yet  the  earliest  form 
does  not  quite  bear  out  this  suggestion. 

8.  Westby  with  Plumptons  (N.  of  Lytham). 

Westby  (h.) :  Westbi  DB,  Westby  1226  LI,  1257  LF,  etc. ;  W esteby  1327,  Westebi 
1332  LS.  "  The  western  by,"  a  Scand.  name  Vestbyr. 

Ballam  (h.) :  Balholm  1189-94  Ch  (in  ChR  1336),  de  Balholme  1324  LCR,  de 
Balghholm  1332  LS.  Ballam  stands  on  a  slight  elevation  (c  35ft.)  with  Lytham 
Moss  on  the  W.,  Brown  Moss  on  the  E.  Holm  (O.N.  holmr)  no  doubt  means  an 
"  island  "  in  a  moss.  The  first  el.  is  perhaps  M.E.  balgh  adj.  "round,"  cf.  p.  7. 
Plumptcn  (formerly  Fieldplumpton  for  distinction  from  Woodplumpton) : 
Pluntun  DB,  Plumton  1226  LI,  1257  LF,  etc.,  Plumpton  1327,  1332  LS  ;  Filde- 
plumpton  1323  LI,  1359  LF.  O.E.  plume  "  plum,  plumtree  "  and  tun.  There  are  now 
two  hamlets:  Great  and  Little  Plump  ton:  Little,  Le  Graunte  FildeplumptonlSZS  LI. 

9.  Ribby  with  Wrea  (N.E.  of  Lytham,  W.  of  Kirkham). 

Ribby  (v.) :  Rigbi  DB,  1169  LPR,  Ribi  1094  Ch,  Rygeby  1189-93  Ch,  Rigby 
1227  C1R,  Riggebi  1226  LI,  Riggeby  1226  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Ruggeby  1249  LI. 
"  The  byr  on  the  ridge  "  ;  O.N.  hryggr  "  ridge  "  and  byr.  Ribby  stands  on  or 
at  a  small  ridge. 


Wrea  (W.  of  Ribby ;  Wrea  Green,  h.) :  Wra  1201  LPR,  1226  LI,  c  1200  CO, 
Wraa  1324  LI,  1380  LF,  le  Wra  1323  LI,  le  Wraa  1327  LS  ;  Wro  1322  LI.  O.N. 
(v)rd  "  corner,"  etc.  ;  cf.  p.  20.  In  this  case  the  most  plausible  meaning  of  vrd 
is  "  remote  part." 

Compton,  or  Counton  (in  Ribby) :  Conton  1538  DL,  Counton  1559  DL.  Perhaps 
O.E.  cumb-tun  "  valley  town." 

10.  Kirkham  (N.E.  of  Lytham,  small  town) :   Chicheham  DB,  Chercheham  1094 
Ch,  Chircheham  c  1130  ib.  ;  Kyrkham,  Kircheham,  Kyrcham  1094  ib.  ;  Kirkeheim 
1196  LF,  de  Kyrkeym  1243  LI,  Kyrkheym  1246  LF,  Kyrkhaym  1246  LAR, 
Kyrkeym  1262  LAR  ;  Kyrkeham  1279  LF,  Kirkeham  1332  LS,  Kirkham  1387  LF, 
etc.    The  forms  point  to  O.N.  kirkia  as  the  first  el.  ;   ch  is  no  doubt  to  be  read 
&  in  the  early  forms.    The  second  el.  is  O.N.  heimr  or  O.E.  ham  "  home,"  etc.     I 
am   inclined   to   believe   that   the   name   is   an  O.E.  *Circehdm,  which  was 
Scandinavianized  wholly  (to  Kirkeheim)  or  partly  (to  Kirkeham).     The  name 
may,  of  course,  be  Scandinavian,  but  Scand.  names  in  -heimr  are  at  least  very 
rare  in  England. 

11.  Treales,  Roseacre,  and  Wharles  (N.E.  of  Kirkham). 

Treales  (the  S.  part ;  h.) :  Treueles  DB,  1206  LPR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  TriveV,  TreveV 
1249  IPM,  Treneles  1286  IPM,  Trades  1324  LI,  1327  LS,  Treeles  1431  FA, 
Trales  1577  Saxton,  Trayles  1597  DL  ;  now  [tre'lz].  The  name  is  sometimes 
written  Trayles  (Buhner).  I  identify  the  name  with  M.Bret.  Trefles  1249  (Loth 
234),  Treflys,  Cam.  ( :  Trefles  Rec.  Cam.  39).  The  latter  is  evidently  Welsh  trefiys 
"  court  of  the  settlement  "  (Anwyl),  a  compound  of  tref  "  hamlet,  town  "  and 
llys  (O.Bret.  Us)  "  court,  hall,  palace,"  or  Welsh  Tref-llys  "  the  township  of  the 
court  or  palace."  In  Owen's  Pembrokeshire  II.  411  Trellys-coed  and  T.-cnwc 
(Trefilys  Bl.  B.  of  St.  David's)  are  explained  in  the  latter  way.  Treales  is  situated 
in  the  interior  of  the  district  on  slightly  elevated  ground  ;  there  are  no  prominent 
physical  features  about  the  place. 

Wharles  (the  middle  part ;  h.) :  Quarlous  1249  IPM,  Werlows,  Warlawes  1286 
IPM,  Wharlowes  1617  RW  64 ;  now  [wcvlaz].  Wharles  is  situated  on  an  elevation 
of  some  70ft.  To  the  E.  the  ground  slopes  away  to  about  50ft.  The  second  el. 
of  the  name  may  be  O.E.  Haw  "  hill,"  or  if  the  first  el.  ended  in  I,  O.N.  haugr. 
The  first  el.  is  extremely  doubtful.  It  seems  most  probable  that  it  began  with 
hw-  (wh-).  Possible  sources  are  O.E.  hwer,  O.N.  hverr  "  kettle,  basin,"  O.E. 
hwearf,  O.N.  hvarf  "  turning,"  etc.,  or  O.E.  hwerfel  "  circle,"  etc.  Quarles, 
Norf.  ( :  Quarles  1302,  1428  FA)  is  Huerueles  DB,  which  points  to  O.E.  hwerfel  as 
its  source.  As  the  plural  is  difficult  to  explain  if  the  second  el.  of  Wharles  meant 
"  hill,"  it  seems  most  plausible  that  it  is  here  to  be  taken  in  the  sense  of 
"  mound  "  ;  the  name  would  then  have  been  given  on  account  of  some  (funeral  ?) 
mounds  in  the  neighbourhood.  If  so,  a  combination  of  O.E.  hwerfel  "  circle  " 
and  O.E.  hldw  or  O.N.  haugr  meaning  "  mounds  standing  in  a  circle  "  may  be 
assumed.  The  same  mounds  may  have  given  name  to  Roseacre,  which  was  no 
doubt  originally  a  field  belonging  to  Wharles. 

Roseacre  (c  1  m.  N.W.  of  Wharles,  h.)  :  Rasak',  Raysak'  1249  IPM,  Raysacre 
1283  LF,  Reyacre,  Raysaker  1286  IPM,  Roseaker  1577  Saxton  ;  now  [ro'ze'ka]. 
O.N.  hreysi  "  cairn  "  and  O.N.  aker  or  O.E.  ceeer  (Wyld,  Lindkvist). 

12.  Medlar  with  Wesham  (N.  of  Kirkham). 


Medlar  :  Midelarge  1215  CO,  Midilharie  1216  ChR,  Middelharg  a  1220  Ch, 
Middelarghe  1226,  -erwe  1227  LI,  Midelare  c  1230  CC,  Midelergh  1235  LF,  Midel- 
argh  1324  LI,  Mithelargh  1292  PW,  1332  LS.  The  "  middle  ergh  or  shieling  "  ; 
cf.  on  ergh,  argh  p.  10.  The  first  el.  is  O.E.  middel,  or — as  suggested  by  the  1292 
and  1332  forms — originally  the  corresponding  O.N.  midil,  found  as  a  preposition. 
Bradkirk  :  de  Bredekyrk  1235  LF,  de  Bredekirke  a  1242  CC,  1246  LAR,  Bretekirke, 
Bredekik  1249  IPM,  de  Bredekyrk  1276  AP,  Bredekirk  1330  LF,  1386  Ind.  II.  ; 
Bradkirk  1189  Ch  (Kuerden's  MS),  de  Bradekirke  a  1242  CC,  Bradekirke,  Brede- 
kirke 1286  IPM,  de  Bradekyrke  LC  417.  I  believe  the  name  means  "  plank 
church  "  (first  el.  O.E.  bred  "  board,  plank  ")  ;  cf.  Felkirk,  Yks.,  whose  first  el. 
is  convincingly  derived  by  Goodall  from  O.N.  fiol  "  board."  The  second  el.  is 
Scand.  in  form,  but  very  likely  kirk  has  replaced  an  O.E.  circe.  There  seems  to 
be  no  mention  in  early  records  and  no  trace  of  the  church  that  gave  name  to  the 

Wesham  (v.) :  West(h)usum  1189  Ch,  Westhusam  1194  Ch,  de  Westhusum  1246 
LAR,  Westeshum  1263  IPM,  Westsum  1327, 1332  LS,  W essum  1431  FA  ;  Westhus 
1204  LPR.  At  "  the  western  houses  "  ;  -Tiusum  is  the  dat.  pi.  of  O.E.  or  O.N. 
hus  "  house."  Wesham  vil.  is  N.W.  of  Kirkham  vil. 

Mowbrick  Hall  (in  Wesham) :  Moulebrec,  Mulebrec  1249  IPM,  Mokbrek  1286 
IPM.  O.N.  Muli  pers.  n.  (Bjorkman,  E.St.  44,  254)  and  O.N.  brekka  "  slope." 
Mowbrick  stands  on  a  slope. 

13.  Weeton  with  Preese  (N.W.  of  Kirkham.  E.  of  Blackpool). 
Weeton  (v.) :  Widetun  DE,  Wytheton  1243  LI,  Witheton  1249  IPM,  1327  LS, 
Wythington  1286  IPM,  Wyhton  1297  LI,  Wetheton  1324  LI,  1332  LS,  1346  FA, 
etc.,  Weton  1341  IN,  etc.  ;  Whiteton  1206  LPR.  O.E.  widig  "  willow  "  and  tun. 
There  are  still  some  fine  specimens  of  the  willow-tree  in  the  village. 
Mythop  (in  Weeton)  :  Midehope  DB,  Mithop  1212  LI,  1249  IPM,  Mithop,  Methop 
1286  IPM.  Cf.  Meathop,  Wml.  (  :  Midhop  a  1190,  Mithehop  c  1200  CC,  Midhopp 
1254  LI)  and  Middop,  Yks.  (  :  Mithope  DB).  Mythop  stands  on  a  slight  elevation 
(c  50ft.  above  sea-level)  surrounded  by  low-lying  country  ;  to  the  W.  the  level 
is  only  19ft.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  hop  "  a  piece  of  enclosed  land,  e.g.,  in  the 
midst  of  fens  "  (NED).  The  first  el.  would  seem  to  have  been  originally  O.E. 
mid  "  middle,"  but  Scand.  midr  seems  to  have  replaced  it,  as  it  has  in  Meathop, 

Preese  :  Pres  DB,  Frees  c  1200  CC,  1243  LI,  1259  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Prese 
c  1200  CC,  de  Prehes  1276  LAR,  de  Preses  1246  LAR.  I  derive  the  name  from  the 
Brit,  word  found  in  Welsh  prys  "  covert,  brushwood,"  pres  "  brushwood,  fuel," 
Corn,  pres  "  meadow  "  (common  in  place-names).  The  same  name  is  Prees, 
Salop  :  Pres  DB,  1284  FA,  Prees  1316  FA,  etc.  The  long  vowel  is  due  to  the  Brit. 
lengthening  in  monosyllables  (Pedersen  §  203fL).  Sephton  derives  Preese  from 
the  Celtic  word. 

Swarbrick  Hall  (in  Preese) :  Swarte-,  Suartebrec  1249  IPM,  Swartebrecke  1286 
IPM,  de  Swart(e)brek  1332  LS  ;  now  [swa'brik].  The  first  el.  is  more  probably 
a  pers.  n.,  O.E.  Swart,  Swarta  (from  O.N.  Svartr,  Svarti,  Bjorkman),  than  the 
adj.  O.E.  sweart,  O.N.  svartr.  Cf.  Mowbrick.  The  second  el.  is  O.N.  brekka 
"  slope."  Swarbrick  Hall  stands  at  a  small  hill  reaching  about  100ft.  above 
sea-level,  the  surrounding  country  being  lower. 


14.  Greenhalgh  with  Thistleton  (E.  of  Blackpool). 

Greenhalgh  (the  S.  part ;  h.) :  Greneholf  DB,  Grenhole  1212  LI,  1216  ChR, 
1292  PW,  Grenole  1215  CO,  1249  IPM,  1270  LAR,  etc.,  Grenol  1249  LI,  1394  LF, 
Grenolf  1327  LS,  Grenoll  1332  LS,  Grenehalgh  1501  CC ;  now  [grrna].  The 
name  means  "  the  green  hollow,"  the  second  el.  being  O.E.  Tiolh  sb.  "  hol- 
low "  ;  cf.  Scotch  howe  "  hollow  place  or  depression."  Greenhalgh  h.  is  on 
the  edge  of  a  shallow  depression  in  the  ground. 

Corner  Bow  or  Cornoe  (in  Greenhalgh ;  h.) :  Cornege  1189  Ch,  de  Cornai  1216 
ChR,  de  Cornay  1215  CC,  Gorney  c  1230  CC,  de  Corney  1246  LAR,  Cornay  1292 
PW ;  Corneraw  1501  CC,  Corneyrow  1553  LF ;  now  [ko'na  ro*].  The  original 
name  was  Corney,  to  which  was  added  raw,  row  "  a  number  of  houses  standing 
in  a  line."  Corney  apparently  means  "  corn  island,"  i.e.,  the  island  where  corn 
was  grown.  But  it  is  also  possible  Corn-  represents  O.E.  corn,  a  sideform  of 
cran  "  crane  "  (cf.  Cornbrook,  p.  27).  Corney  stands  in  a  bend  of  Thistleton 
Brook,  which  here  makes  a  right  angle  ;  this  may  have  caused  the  place  to  be 
described  as  an  "  island."  But  O.E.  eg  was  also  used  in  the  sense  "  land  on  a 
river  "  or  the  like. 

Esprick  (h.) :  Eskebrec  c  1210  CC,  Escebrec  1249  IPM,  de  Askebrek  1332  LS. 
O.N.  Eskibrekka  "  ash  slope."  Esprick  stands  on  a  slope.  Ashtrees  are  still 
common  in  the  hamlet. 

Thistleton  (the  N.  part ;  h.) :  Thistilton  1212  LI,  Thistelton  1219  LF,  1286  IPM, 
1332  LS,  Thistleton  1249  IPM.  "  The  tun  where  thistles  grow." 

15.  Little  Eccleston  with  Larbrick  (N.E.  of  Blackpool ;  on  the  Wyre). 

Little  Eccleston  (h.) :  Eglestun  DB,  Eccliston  1212  LI,  Parua  Eccliston  1261 
LAR,  1332  LS,  Little  Eccleston  1331,  1369  LF.  "  Church  town,"  Brit.  *ecles 
"  church,"  see  p.  37.  Li.  Eccleston  adjoins  Great  Eccleston  in  St.  Michael's, 
of  which  it  was  no  doubt  originally  a  part. 

Larbrick  (W.  of  Little  Eccleston) :  Lairbrec  1212  LI,  Leyrbrec  a  1213  CC,  de 
Lairebrech  1246  LAR,  Layrbrek  1332  LS.  See  further  Lindkvist.  "  Clay  slope  " 
(O.N.  leir  "  clay  "  and  brekka  "  slope  ").  Larbrick  stands  a  little  way  S.  of  the 
Wyre  at  an  altitude  of  65ft.  The  ground  slopes  away  to  the  Wyre.  The  soil 
is  clayey  (VHL  VII.  181). 

16.  Singleton,  Gt.  and  Li.  (N.E.  of  Blackpool ;  S.  of  the  Wyre) :  Singletun  DB, 
Synglentona  1094  Ch,  Syngelton  c  1190  Ch,  Singelton  1177  LPR,  1212  LI,  1246 
LAR,  etc. ;  Singilton  a  1213  CC,  1245  IPM  ;  de  Sengelton  1206  LC  385,  Sengleton 
1330  LC  471,  etc. ;   Schingeltona  1169f.  LPR,  Schingelton  1172,  1182  LPR,  de 
Shingelton,  de  Shyngelton  1246  LAR,  Shingelton  1362  OR ;    Singelton  (magna 
cum  parua)  1327,  1332  LS,  Little  Syngelton  1303  LF.    Singleton  Grange  :  Singel- 
ton Grange  1297  LI. 

The  remarkable  variation  in  the  early  forms  corresponds  exactly  to  that  in 
the  early  forms  of  shingle  sb.1  "a  thin  piece  of  wood  used  as  a  house- tile  "  : 
shyngle,  schyngle,  shyngel  1300,  etc.  (scincle  c  1200),  singel,  single  1330,  etc., 
schengle,  shengyll  16  cent.  (NED),  to  some  extent  also  with  those  of  shingle 
sb.2  "  small  roundish  stones  "  :  chingle,  shingle  16  cent.  (NED).  Chingford, 
Ess.  (  :  Cingefort  DB,  Chinggeford  1303  FA,  Shingelford  1346  FA)  seems  to 
contain  this  latter  word.  Singleton  more  probably  contains  the  former  shingle. 
The  same  name  seems  to  be  Singleton,  Suss.,  correctly  explained  by  Johnston, 


who  also  adduces  Singleborough  in  Bucks.  (Sincleberia  DB,  Cincleberge  1262 
IPM  ;  cf.  scincle  c  1200  NED).  If  this  is  correct,  shingle  "  house-tile  "  must 
be  an  O.E.  adaptation  of  Lat.  scindula.  The  variation  between  single  and  shingle 
must  be  due  to  different  substitutions  for  Lat.  sc- ;  -gl-  for  Lat.  -did-  is  remark- 
able. Singleton  would  thus  seem  to  mean  "  the  tun  with  shingled  roof(s)  "  ;  cf. 
Chingle  Hall,  pp.  147,  149. 

Mains  (manor-house  in  Li.  Singleton) :  Maynes  1594  Poulton  R.  Cf.  mains 
sb.2  (<  domain)  "  the  farm  attached  to  a  mansion,  a  home  farm  "  (1533ff.  NED). 
Newbigging  (now  Singleton  Grange) :  Neubigging  1215  LPR,  1226  LI,  1216 
CO,  Newebigging  1215  C1R.  Bigging  "  building  "  (1300,  etc.)  is  a  derivative 
of  big  vb.  "  to  build  ;  to  dwell  "  from  O.N.  byggia. 

17.  Hambleton  (S.E.  of  Fleetwood,  on  the  W.  bank  of  the  Wyre  ;  v.) :  Hameltune 
DB,  Hamelton  1177,  1201,  1206  LPR,  1212  LI,  1246  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.  The  first 
el.  is  no  doubt  a  pers.  n.  O.E.  *Hamela  or  the  like  (Wyld) ;  cf .  Hama  and  Hemele. 
The  name  Hambleton  is  found  in  Yks.  (Hameltun  DB),  Leic.,  Line.,  etc. 
Sower  Carr  :  Sawerker  1622  RW  56.  O.N.  saurr  "  mud,"  etc.,  and  kiarr 
"  marsh." 


The  S.W.  part  of  the  hundred  ;  on  the  Ribble. 

Lytham  (township,  town) :  Lidun  DB,  Lythum  1189-94  Ch  (in  ChR  1336), 
1300  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Lithum  1201  LPR,  1212  LI,  Lethum  1341  IN,  1506  LF, 
Lethom  1494  Ind  II,  Lethum  1577  Saxton  ;  now  [lifom,  le&amj.  This  must  be 
O.E.  hlidum  "  at  the  slopes  "  from  O.E.  hlift.  The  name  seems  to  refer  to  the 
slight  slope  above  the  Ribble.  There  is  hardly  any  point  in  the  township  higher 
than  c  25ft.  Most  of  the  district  was  formerly  mossland. 

Eastham  (N.E.  of  Lytham  town) :  Estholme,  Estholmker  c  1190  Ch  (in  ChR  1336). 
"  The  eastern  holm."  The  place  stands  on  very  low  ground  ;  to  the  E.  close  by 
is  a  slight  elevation,  which  was  no  doubt  formerly  a  holm  or  island  in  the  moss. 
Kilgrimol  (Cimiterium  de  K.)  c  1190  Ch  (in  ChR  1336),  Kylgremosse  1531 LP  1. 210. 
The  cemetery  by  the  16th  cent,  had  been  worn  into  the  sea  (VHL  VII.  216). 
The  place  is  now  in  St.  Annes.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  apparently 
Kelgrim  as  in  Kellamergh  and  hoi  "  hollow." 


A  narrow  strip  of  land  along  the  sea. 
1.  Layton  with  Warbreck,  now  called  Blackpool. 

Layton,  Gt.  and  Li.  (villages)  :  Latun  DB,  Latona  c  1140,  Lattuna  1147,  Latona 
1155  Ch,  Laton  1236,  1297  LI,  1285  ChR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  magna  Laton  1275  LC 
380,  de  Parua  Latun  1284  LAR,  Great,  Little  Laton  1340  LF,  parua  Laton  13  cent. 
WhC  423  ;  Lathun,  Lathon  13  cent.  CC.  The  first  el.  I  take  to  be  O.E.  lad  "  water- 
course, channel."  As  regards  the  long  vowel  before  t  from  dt  cf.  Huyton  p.  113. 
There  are  small  water-courses  in  Layton.  Another  possibility  is  that  the  first  el. 
is  O.N.  Id  "  water  along  the  shore,"  Norw.  dial,  laa  "  peat-water,"  cf.  M.H.G. 
Id  "  pool,  peaty  water,"  etc.  Cf.  Blackpool  infra.  Lathun  (Lathon)  CC  is  no 
doubt  due  to  association  with  La  thorn  De. 


Warbreck  :  Wardebrec  c  1140,  Wardebrecca  1147,  Wardebrech  1155  Ch,  Warthe- 
brek  1324  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.  "  Beacon  hill  ";  from  O.N.  vardi,  varda  "  beacon  " 
and  brekka  "  slope."  Warbreck  stands  on  a  ridge  of  100  ft.,  on  which  is  also  a 
place  called  Knowle  (O.E.  cnoll  "  knoll  "). 

Blackpool  town  (  :  Blacke  Pull  1661  RW  14)  took  its  name  from  "  a  peaty- 
coloured  pool  of  water  "  (VHL  VII.  242),  called  Put  1252-68  CO  157  ;  cf.  del 
Pull  1332  LS  (Layton). 

Bispham  or  Layton  Hawes  :  Homves,  Howes  inter  Lithum  et  Laton  13  cent.  CO, 
the  Hawes  1531  DL.    The  plural  of  how  from  O.N.  haugr  "  hill." 
2.  Bispham  with  Norbreck  (N.  of  Blackpool). 

Bispham,  Gr.  and  Li.  (hamlets) :  Biscopham  DB,  c  1130,  1147  Ch,  1196  LF, 
Bischopeham  1094  Ch,  Biscopeham  c  1140  ib.,  Bischopham  1155,  c  1190  ib., 
Biscopheyma  1216  Ind,  Bisbhaym  c  1270  CC,  Bispeham  1327  LS,  Bispham  1332 
LS,  1340  LF,  etc.,  Byspham  in  ye  Fyle  1577  Saxton.  O.E.  Biscopham  "  the 
bishop's  ham."  The  forms  with  heym,  due  to  Scand.  influence,  are  very  rare. 
There  is  no  reason  with  Lindkvist  p.  60  to  look  upon  the  name  as  Scand.  and 
derive  the  first  el.  from  O.N.  biskop.  It  is  doubtful  if  the  pronunciation  sk  is 
evidenced  ;  with  Biscopham  in  DB,  etc.,  may  be  compared  Biscopestone,  Suss., 
Som.,  etc.,  in  DB.  For  the  development  of  Biscop-  to  Bisp-  cf.  Bispestone, 
Staffs.  Biscomb  (Bardsley)  is  probably  a  different  name. 

Norbreck  (h.) :  Norhicbiec  1241  LF,  Northbrek  1267  LAR,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc. 
"  The  northern  slope  "  or  "  hill  "  (O.N.  brekka).  The  place  is  on  the  slope  of  a 
small  hill  N.  of  Gt.  Bispham. 


A  district  E.  and  N.  of  Blackpool,  W.  of  the  Wyre.  The  surface  is  low  and 
mostly  level. 

1.  Marton  (S.E.  of  Blackpool) :  Meretun  VR,,Mertona  1176  LPR,  Mereton  1177 'ff. 
LPR,  1212  LI,  Merton  1286  IPM,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Mareton  1183f.  LPR,  Marton 
1249  IPM,  etc.,  Great,  Little  Marton  1297  LI,  etc.,  Merton  Magna  1327  LS. 
Marton  is  named  from  Marton  Mere,  now  reduced  considerably  in  size,  so  that 
the  hamlets  of  Gt.  and  Li.  Marton  stand  at  some  distance  from  it.    The  first  el. 
is  O.E.  mere  "  lake." 

Linholm  is  sometimes  mentioned  together  with  Marton  in  early  documents  : 
Lynholm,  Lynolm  1249  IPM,  Lenholm  1286  IPM,  de  Lynholm  1332  LS.  "  Flax 
holme  "  (O.E.,  O.N.  Im  "  flax  "). 

Peel  :  Pile  1593  Poulton  R.  Peel  "  a  palisade  ;  a  small  tower  "  (<A.F.  pel). 
Revoe  :  Revoe  1595  Poulton  R,  1672  RW  225.  Second  el.  apparently  O.N. 
haugr  "  hill." 

2.  Hardhorn  with  Newton  (E.  of  Blackpool). 

Staining  (h.) :  Staininghe  DB,  Stenig  1208  Rot.  Obi.  425,  Stanynggas,  Steyninges 
1211-40  WhC  41 9f.,  Staininges,  Stayninges,  Staining,  de  Staning  1246  LAR, 
Staynyng  Grange  1297  LI,  Staynynge  1312  LI. 

This  is  no  doubt  an  old  name  in  -ingas,  derived  from  a  pers.  name  or  some  other 
word.  The  base  seems  to  be  a  Scand.  word,  but  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that 
Staining  is  rather  a  Scand.  adaptation  of  an  O.E.  Stdningas  or  Stceningas  ;  cf. 


Steyning,  Suss.  :  Stceningum  880,  Staninges  DB,  but  Steininges  1278,  etc. 
(Roberts).  The  form  Stanynggas,  which  looks  as  if  it  had  been  taken  out  of  some 
O.E.  deed,  to  some  extent  corroborates  this.  Stan-  is  not  with  certainty  evidenced 
in  O.E.  pers.  names.  But  the  corresponding  Stein-  is  common  in  O.H.G.  and 
Scand.  names  ;  it  is  therefore  probable  that  the  element  was  once  used  by  the 
Anglo-Saxons.  Derivation  from  *Stdn  pers.  n.  seems  to  me  most  probable,  but 
stdn  "  stone  "  or  a  place-name  Stan  may  also  be  the  base.  Staining  is  an  old 
manor  ;  in  DB  it  is  assessed  at  no  less  than  six  ploughlands.  Hardhorn  and 
Newton  are  not  mentioned  until  fairly  late. 

Hardhorn  (h.)  :  Hordern  1298  WhC  439,  1324  LI,  1327  LS,  Hordorn  1332  LS. 
O.E.  hordern  "  store-house,  store-room."  Cf.  Hordern,  p.  48.  Hardhorn  must 
have  been  a  storehouse  belonging  to  the  lords  of  Staining  or  to  Whalley  Abbey. 
Newton  (h.)  :  Neuton  1298  WhC  439,  1327  LS,  Nuton  1332  LS. 
Todderstaffe  :  de  Taldrestath  1332  LS,  Talderstath  1526,  Talderstafe  1524  DL, 
Toderstaffe  1597  Poulton  R.  The  forms  allow  of  no  definite  etymology.  Todder- 
staffe stands  on  a  brook  ;  the  second  el.  may  be  O.N.  stpfi  "  landing-place." 

3.  Poulton  (N.E.  of  Blackpool ;    with  Great  Poulton  v.,  Little  Poulton  h.)  : 
PoUun  DB,  Pultona  1094,  c  1190  Ch,  1216  Ind,  Pulton  1196  LF5  1246  LAR, 
1332  LS,  etc.,  Magna,  Parva  Pulton  LC  400,  Kirkepulton  1330  LF.    "  The  tun 
at  the  pool."    Poulton  township  lies  between  two  brooks,  which  join  to  form  the 
brook  called  Skippool.    I  suppose  Poulton  was  named  from  Skippool,  which  see. 
Compley  :   Comptley  1600,  Conntley  1605,  1607  Poulton   R.    An  earlier  form 
is  very  likely  Cantelawe  LC  403.     If  so,  the  name  seems  to  go  back  to  O.E. 
Cantan  hldw  "  the  hill  of  Canta."    High  Compley  is  on  a  slight  hill. 

4.  Carleton  (N.E.  of  Blackpool ;   Gt.  and  Li.  Carleton,  hamlets) :    Carlentun 
DB,  Carlton  a  1190  CC,  Karlton  1243  LI,  Karleton  1256  LF,  Carleton  1327,  1332 
LS,  etc. ;  parva  Carlton  c  1200  CC,  Magna  Carlton  c  1260  ib.    Carleton  and  Carlton 
are  common  names  in  Scand.  England ;  examples  are  found  as  far  S.  as  Cambr.  and 
Beds.    I  take  it  that  the  first  el.  is  karla  the  gen.  pi.  of  O.N.  karl  "  a  man,  a  hus- 
bandman," etc.     Skeat   explains   Carlton,   SufL  so,  while  Bjorkman,  Wyld, 
Sephton  take  the  first  el.  to  be  a  pers.  n.  (O.N.  Karl,  -i}.    The  name  is  a  Scand. 
counterpart  of  Charlton,  etc.  (see  Chorlton,  p.  32).     To  some  extent  Carleton 
may  be  a  Scand.  adaptation  of  O.E.  Ceorlatun. 

Hayholme  :  Hayholm  c  1270  CC,  de  Haiholm  1332  LS,  hayome  1594  Poulton  R. 

O.E.  heg  or  O.N.  hey  "  hay  "   and  O.N.  holmr  "  island,"  etc. 

Norcross  (Great  Carleton) :  Northcros  c  1200  CC,  Nortcros  c  1250  CC,  de  Northe- 

crosse  1285  LAR.    The  "  north  cross." 

Riscar  :    Rysecarre  1598  Poulton  R.     Probably   O.N.  hris  "  brushwood  "    (or 

O.E.  hris)  and  kiarr  "  bog,"  etc. 

5.  Thornton  (Gt.  and  Li.,  N.  of  Blackpool,  between  the  Wyre  and  the  sea  ;  v.)  : 
Torentun  DB,  Torrenton  1226  LI,  Thorneton  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Thorinton 
1258  IPM,  Thornton  1275  LC,  1297  LI,  etc.    First  el.  O.E.  porn  "  thorn." 
Burn  or  Bourn  Hall  (N.  of  Gt.  Thornton) :   Brune  DB,  1246  LAR,  Brunne  1204 
LPR,  1283  LF,  Brone  1324  LI,  de  Brun  1332  LS  ;   Brome  1200  LPR,  de  Brume 
LC  417.     O.E.  brunna,  an  older  form  of  burna  "  brook  "  ;    cf.  Burnley  in  Bl. 
There  are  two  or  three  small  brooks  in  the  neighbourhood.    Of  course,  the  place 
may  have  been  named  after  a  spring. 


The  Holmes  (near  Gt.  Thornton  vil.) :  le  Holmes  1386  CR  358,  Holmes  1489 
PatR,  1525  DL.  O.N.  holmr  "  island,"  etc. 

Limebrest  (S.  of  Gt.Thornton) :  theLymebreste  1604  Poulton  R.  Etymology  obscure.f 
Ritherham,  now  Cleveleys  (on  the  sea)  :  Rotherholme  1571  DL,  Ridthrome 
1588  RW  5,  Rytherome  1596  Poulton  R.  O.E.  hryfor  "  ox  "  and  holm  "  island." 
Bossall  (the  headland  between  the  Wyre  and  the  sea  with  Fleetwood1  town  at 
the  N.  end) :  Rushale  DB,  Rossall  1212  LI,  Rossale  (pastura)  1216,  1221  C1R, 
(haya  de)  Roshal  1222  C1R,  Roshale  1228  LF,  1292  ChR,  Russal,  Rossale  1292 
PW,  Rosso  hall  1577  Saxton.  The  ground  is  low  and  level. 

The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  perhaps  O.E.  halh  "  haugh."  The  first  el. 
is  supposed  by  Wyld  to  be  O.E.  hros  "  horse,"  but  the  O.E.  form  is  regularly 
hors,  and  it  is  doubtful  if  O.E.  hros  existed.  O.N.  hross  "  horse  "  is  well  evidenced. 
If  the  first  el.  is  hross,  however,  the  second  el.  should  rather  be  identified  with 
O.N.  hali  "  tail,"  which  is  found  in  Norw.  place-names  to  denote  a  long  and 
narrow  strip  of  land  or  a  projecting  ridge.  Also  in  Iceland  hali  is  used,  e.g., 
in  the  name  Refshali  "  fox's  tail."  Rossall  might  mean  "  horse's  tail  "  or  perhaps 
"  the  tongue  of  land  used  for  a  horse-pasture."  As  a  matter  of  fact,  Rossall 
has  mainly  been  used  as  a  pasture-ground.  On  the  other  hand  the  spellings 
Rushale,  Russall  in  early  sources  are  noteworthy.  Possibly  they  indicate  that 
o  was  long.  Of.  Gusansarghe  DB,  now  Goosnargh.  If  so,  Ros-  may  be  identified 
with  Welsh  rhos  (cf.  Roose  in  Furness  infra).  This  word  originally  meant  "  pro- 
montory," a  sense  still  preserved  in  Irish,  and  possibly  preserved  in  such  names  of 
promontories  in  Wales  as  Rhos-on-Sea,  Penrhos  Point,  and  Rhoscolyn  Head  (near 
Holyhead).  If  the  first  el.  is  the  Brit,  word,  the  second  is  no  doubt  O.E.  halh. 
Stanah  (on  the  Wyre,  opposite  to  Staynall) :  Staynole  ultra  Wyr  CC  136,  Staynolf 
1324  LI.  Stanah  and  Staynall  must  once  have  formed  a  whole,  and  it  is  hardly 
possible  in  each  case  to  establish  to  which  of  the  two  early  quotations  refer. 
Of  early  forms  the  following  may  be  quoted  without  an  attempt  at  exact  identifica- 
tion: Steinola  1177  LPR,  Stanhol  1201  LPR,  Stainhol,  Steinhol  1226  LI,  Steyn- 
holf  1249  LI,  Steynhole  1265  IPM.  The  second  el.  is  clearly  O.E.  holh  or  O.N. 
hoi  "  hollow,  hole,"  probably  in  the  sense  "  a  hollow  in  the  ground."  Staynall 
stands  at  the  edge  of  a  depression  in  the  ground.  The  first  el.  is  apparently 
O.N.  steinn  "  stone  "  or  Steinn  pers.  n.  Again,  of  course,  an  O.E.  name  in  Stan- 
may  have  been  modified  by  Scandinavians  ;  if  so,  the  first  el.  is  no  doubt  O.E. 
stdn  "  stone." 

Trunnah  (near  Gt.  Thornton) :  de  Truno  1271  CC,  1287  LC,  Turnoll  1525  DL, 
Trunnall  1593,  Truno  1600  Poulton  R.  Etymology  obscure.  The  second  el. 
appears  to  be  O.E.  hoh  (or  O.N.  haugr).  The  place  stands  at  a  slight  rounded 
elevation.  The  only  suggestion  I  can  make  as  regards  the  first  el.  is  that  it  may 
go  back  to  an  O.E.  *trun  or  the  like,  related  to  O.E.  trendan  "  to  roll,"  trinde 
"  round  lump,  ball,"  Engl.  trundle,  O.Fris.  trind,  trund  "  round,"  etc.  ;  cf. 
NED  s.v.  trend  vb.,  Falk  and  Torp  s.v.  trind,  Torp-Fick,  p.  170.  The  base  is 
found  without  d  in  O.H.G.  trennila  "  ball,"  M.H.G.  trinnen,  trennen.  The  O.E. 
*trun  might  be  an  adj.  meaning  "  round  "  or  a  noun  meaning  "  a  lump  "  or  some- 
thing like  that. 

1  Named  from  Sir  Peter  H.  Fleetwood  ;  the  town  dates  from  the  earlier  half  of  the  19th 
century  (VHL  VII.  237). 


LANCASTER  PAR.  (part) 

A  district  E.  of  Fleetwood  and  the  lower  Wyre. 

1.  Stalmine  with  Staynall. 

Staynall  (on  the  Wyre  ;  h.) :  Stay  note  (citra  Wir)  a  1190  CC,  Stainold,  Stainhole 
a  1220  FC  II.,  Steinole  1206-35  FC  II.  (orig.),  Staynoll  1332  LS,  Steynolff  1520  LF. 
See  Stanah,  p.  158. 

Stalmin[e]  (N.E.  of  Staynall,  h.) :  Stalmine  DB,  Stalmin  1206  LPR,  1236-46 
FC  II.  237  (orig.),  etc.  ;  Stalmyn  1262  LF,  1297  LI,  etc.,  Stalmynne  1332  LS, 
Staylmyn  1443  LF  ;  Sto'min  Waugh. 

The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  obviously  O.N.  mynni  "  mouth  of  a  river." 
The  first  el.  seems  to  be  O.E.  stall  (steall)  "  pool  "  (cf.  Rawtenstall).  But  we 
expect  as  the  first  el.  a  word  meaning  a  stream  ;  cf.  Airmyn,  Yks.,  situated 
at  the  point  where  the  Aire  falls  into  the  Ouse.  Stalmine  does  not  stand  at  the 
junction  of  two  streams,  but  near  a  very  slowly  moving  stream.  The  following 
seems  to  me  the  most  plausible  explanation  of  the  name.  The  el.  stall  here 
means  "  a  stream  "  ;  stell  in  dialects  means  not  only  "  a  pool,"  but  also  "  a 
large  open  drain,  a  brook,  a  small  running  stream  "  (cf .  EDD).  The  same  sense- 
development  from  "  pool  "  to  "  stream  "  is  seen  in  pool  (p.  15).  Stalmine  is 
now  more  than  a  mile  E.  of  the  place  where  the  brook  falls  into  the  Wyre.  But 
it  is  quite  possible  that  at  one  time  the  course  of  that  river  was  more  easterly 
than  it  is  now  ;  it  seems  very  plausible  that  Staynall  and  Stanah  were  once 
on  the  same  side  of  the  Wyre,  viz.,  on  the  W.  bank.  If  so,  Stalmine  would  have 
been  a  good  deal  nearer  the  mouth  of  the  stream  than  it  is  now,  especially  at 
high  water.  Of  course,  the  original  Stalmine  vil.  may  have  been  farther  W. 
than  the  present  one. 

Corcas  Lane  (in  the  N.W.  part  of  Stalmine)  preserves  an  interesting  old  name  : 
Corchole,  Corchola  a  1220  FC  II.,  Corchole  a  1235  ib. ;  Corkea  Hill  1677  Stalmine 
R.  This  is  probably  the  Ir.  pers.  n.  Core  or  O.N.  korki  "  oats  "  (from  Ir.  coirce) 
and  O.E.  holh  or  O.N.  hoi  "  a  hollow." 

2.  PreesaU  with  HackinsaU  (N.  of  Stalmine  with  Staynall). 

Preesall  (v.).  Three  types  of  the  name  may  be  distinguished :  (a)  Pressouede  DB, 
Preshoued  c  1190  Ch  (PatR  15  R  II.),  Preshoueth  a  1248,  Presoueth  a  1265, 
Preshout  c  1265  CC,  Preshefd  (written  -hesd)  1256  Ind.  ;  (6)  Pressoure  1094, 
c  1190  Ch,  Preshouere  c  1190  Ch,  Presoura  1169  LPR,  Pressora  1177  ib.,  Presoure 
1202  ib.  ;  (c)  Preshou  c  1190  Ch,  1200  CC,  1246  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Presho  1199 
LF,  1261  IPM,  Preeshou  1355  LF,  Preeshowe  1327  LS,  Priso  1590  Burghley. 

The  surface  of  the  township  is  low  and  flat,  but  Preesall  vil.  stands  on  a 
short  ridge  which  falls  away  steeply  to  the  N.  and  is  very  conspicuous  ;  it  is 
marked  as  a  beacon  hill  in  Burghley's  Map  1590.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  no 
doubt  identical  with  Preese  p.  153.  The  old  British  name  of  the  district  was 
probably  Pres.  The  second  el.  is  in  the  earliest  instances  (type  a)  O.N.  hofud, 
here  used  in  the  sense  "  a  steep  ridge."  Type  c  seems  to  contain  O.N.  haugr 
"  hill,"  which  supplanted  the  original  second  el.,  because  hpfud  at  an  early  date 
was  forgotten  in  the  living  language.  Type  b  seems  to  contain  O.E.  ofer 
"  shore."  As  Preesall  stands  near  the  bank  of  the  Wyre,  Presouer  is  a  natural 
popular  etymology  for  Pres(h)oueth. 


Parrox  Hall  (estate) :  Parrock  hey  1456  VHL  VII.  258.  The  name  seems  to 
contain  O.E.  parroc  "  enclosure." 

Hackinsall  (opposite  to  Fleetwood) :  Hacunesho  c  1190  Ch,  1221  C1R,  1246  LAR, 
1262  IPM,  Akenesho  1202  LPR,  de  Hacuneshou  1246  LAR,  Hacunshou  a  1246 
CO,  Hakenesho  1285  LAR,  Hacounshou  1332  LS,  Haconeshou  1357  LF  ;  cf.  Wyld 
and  Lindkvist,  p.  181. 

The  first  el.  is  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Hdkon.  The  second  in  the  earliest  quotations 
would  seem  to  be  O.E.  hoh  "  projecting  ridge,"  etc.,  whereas  the  later  ones 
point  to  O.N.  haugr.  I  believe,  with  Lindkvist,  that  the  name  originally  contained 
O.N.  haugr.  Hackinsall  stands  on  a  slight  elevation  in  a  low  and  level  district. 
Knott  End  (h.)  :  Hacunshou  Cnote  c  1265  CO.  M.E.  knot  "  a  hill  "  ;  cf.  p.  9. 
There  is  a  slight  hill  close  to  the  hamlet. 

Lickow  :  (Campus  de)  Licol  c  1250  CO,  Lickol  c  1265  ib.  The  second  el.  is 
obviously  O.E.  hol(h]  or  O.N.  hoi,  probably  in  the  sense  of  "  a  hollow."  The  first 
el.  is  doubtful.  O.N.  lykkia  "  enclosure  "  might  be  suggested.  Cf.  also  Lickle, 
p.  191.  Or  we  might  compare  O.E.  Licepyt  945  BCS  803,  Lichepet  DB  (Lickpits, 
Hants) ;  this  may  contain  a  word  derived  from  the  verb  lick. 
3.  Pilling  Lane  (the  N.E.  district,  on  the  border  of  Pilling) :  the  lower  end  of 
Pyllyn  1583  CC.  Clearly  "  the  road  to  Pilling." 


Michelescherche  DB,  eccl.  Sci  Mich'  Sup'  Wiru  c  1195  Ch,  eccl.  Sci  Mich' is 
sup'  Wir'  1204  AP,  (cap.  pertinens)  Sancto  Micaeli  super  Wiram  1205  LPR, 
ecclesie  beati  Michaelis  super  Wyre  1326  LC  453,  Sainct  Mihels  c  1540  Leland, 
Mighel  church  1577  Harr.  The  church  is  in  Upper  Rawcliffe. 

The  parish  is  situated  N.W.  of  Preston  on  both  sides  of  the  Wyre  with  a 
southern  extension  on  the  Woodplumpton  Brook.  The  district  is  flat  and  low. 
1.  Out  Rawcliffe  (N.  of  the  Wyre ;  v.) :  Rodeclif  DB,  Outroutheclif  1324  LI, 
Outerouthclif  1327  LS,  Outrotheclife  1332  ib.,  Outrauclif  1443  LF.  Out,  Middle, 
and  Upper  Rawcliffe  are  difficult  to  keep  apart  when  no  prefix  is  added. 
Examples  of  Rawcliffe :  Boutecliue  (!)  1206  LPR,  Raucheclive  1267  LAR, 
Routhecleve  1286  IPM,  Raudeclif  c  1540  Leland,  the  Rawcliffes  1577  Harr.  The 
name  means  "  red  cliff  "  (O.N.  raudr  "  red  "  and  O.N.  klif  "  steep  hill,"  or 
O.E.  clif"  cliff  ").  The  name  is  fairly  common  in  England,  see  Lindkvist  p.  159. 
The  surface  of  the  township  is  low,  but  Out  Rawcliffe  stands  between  two  patches 
of  higher  land,  reaching  an  elevation  of  50ft.  Out  Rawcliffe  is  to  the  W.  of 
Upper  Rawcliffe,  which  is  higher  up  the  Wyre. 
Middle  Rawcliffe  :  Rodeclif  DE,  Middle  Routheclive  1249  IPM. 
Ashton  :  ?  de  Asshton  1332  LS  (Preesall).  "  Ash  village  "  ;  cf.  p.  29.  Ashton 
is  presumably  an  old  English  village  or  homestead. 

Liscoe  :  Liscoe  1677  RW  54.  Second  el.  no  doubt  O.N.  skogr  "  wood,"  the  first 
being  e.g.  O.N.  hlid  "  slope." 

Moorham  Hill :  Early  forms  not  found.  The  second  el.  is  no  doubt  holm.  The 
place  is  on  a  piece  of  higher  land  in  the  old  mossland. 

Skitham  :  Scytholm  CC  47.  O.N.  skitr  "  dirt  "  and  holmr  "  island."  The  place 
stands  at  a  slight  elevation  surrounded  by  mossland. 


2.  Upper  Rawcliffe  with  Tarnacre  (E.  of  Out  Rawcliffe,  on  both  sides  of  the 

Upper  Rawcliffe  :  Rodedif  DB,  Uproucheclive  1246  LAR,  Hop  Routheclive 
c  1250  CO,  Uproutheclive  c  1275  CO,  Vprotheclife  1332  LS,  Uprauclyf  1369  LF. 
Upper  Rawcliffe  was  no  doubt  originally  part  of  Out  Rawcliffe,  as  the  name  can 
hardly  be  explained  otherwise  ;  the  ground  is  low  and  level. 
Tarnacre  (the  N.E.  part)  :  Tranaker  c  1210  CO,  1292  PW,  de  Tranaker  1246  LAR, 
Tranacre  1323  LF  ;  Trenaker  c  1275  CC,  Trenakyr  1451,  Trenakir  1461  CC. 
The  second  el.  is  O.N.  akr  or  O.E.  cecer ;  the  first  O.N.  trani  (trana)  "  crane  " 
or  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Trani  derived  from  it.  As  regards  the  interchange  of  e  and  a 
we  may  compare  Trenholme,  Yks.  (Traneholm  1276  HR),  Tranwell,  Nhb. 
(Trennewell  1268,  Trenwell  1271  IPM,  Tranewell  1289  ib.,  Trenwell,  Tranewell 
1324  ib.).  The  form  with  e  may  represent  an  O.N.  form  with  i-mutation  ;  cf. 
NoB  VIII.  94ff. 

3.  Great   Eccleston  (S.  of  the  Wyre,  v.)  :    Eglestun   DB,  Eccliston  1212,  1243 
LI,  Great  Ecleston  1285  LF,  Great  Eccleston  1296  LF,  Magna  Eccleston  1346  FA, 
Eccliston  Magna  1332  LS.    Cf.  p.  37.    There  seems  to  be  no  record  of  an  old 
church  in  Eccleston. 

Copp  (h.):    O.E.  copp  "  top."    Copp  stands  on  a  small  conspicuous  hill  (78ft.), 

4.  Elswick  (S.  of  Eccleston,  v.) :    Edeksuuic  DB,  Hedthelsiwic  c  1160  Ch  374, 
Ethelswic,  Etleswhic  1202  LF,  de  Etheliswyc,  de  Ethereswyk  1246  LAR,  Etheleswyk 
1298  LF,  etc.,  Ethelleswyk  1311  IPM,  Etheliswike  1332  LS.    The  form  of  c  1160 
may  point  to  O.E.  Edelsige  as  the  first  el.  ;   anyhow  it  is  a  pers.  n.  in  Edel-. 
The  second  is  O.E.  wlc  "  dwelling,"  etc. 

5.  Inskip  with  Sowerby  (S.  of  the  Wyre..  S.E.  of  Gt.  Eccleston). 

Sowerby  (the  E.  part) :  Sorbi  DB,  Soureby  1246  LAR,  1324  LI,  Sourly  1332  LS, 
1340  LF,  etc.  ;  now  [sausrbi].  O.N.  Saurbyr  from  saurr  "  mud,  dirt  "  and  byr. 
Saurboer  is  a  common  name  in  Iceland  and  Norway,  and  the  corresponding  name 
is  found  in  Sweden  ;  it  denotes  a  village  or  farm  standing  on  marshy  soil.  The 
name  is  common  also  in  England  ;  see  Lindkvist  p.  162f.  The  surface  of  the 
township  is  low  and  level.  Sourelandes  in  Sowerby  are  mentioned  1230-68 
CC  244. 

Inskip  (the  S.W.  part ;  v.) :  Inscip  DB,  Hinskipe,  Inscype  1246  LAR,  de 
Inscipk,  Inschip  c  1260  CC,  Insckyp  1285  LF,  Inskip  1330  LF,  1332  LS,  etc., 
Inskyp  1341  IN.  This  is  a  very  curious  name.  The  first  el.  may  be  Celt  inis 
"  island  "  (cf.  Ince,  p.  103).  Inskip  stands  on  a  plateau  some  50ft.  above  sea- 
level  ;  the  surrounding  country  is  low.  The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  doubtful. 
Two  names  that  show  a  certain  resemblance  to  Inskip  may  be  mentioned  here  : 
Minskip,  Yks.  (Minescip  DB)  and  Brennskip'  (Bronnskip')  in  Denbigh  1334 
Survey  of  Denbigh.  The  first  el.  of  Minskip  might  be  identical  with  Welsh  mynydd 
"  hill "  ;  the  place  is  on  the  slope  of  a  slight  hill.  The  first  el.  of  Brennskip  is,  I 
presume,  Welsh  bryn  "hill." 

6.  Woodplumpton  (on  both  sides  of  Woodplumpton  Brook  ;   v.) :   Pluntun  DB, 
Plumpton  1256  LF,  Plumton  1287  Ind,  Wodeplumpton  1327,  1332  LS,  1369  LF, 
etc.  ;   cf.  Plympton  brooke,  the  Plime  or  Plimton  water  1577  Harr.    O.E.  plum- 
tun,  see  Fieldplumpton  p.  151. 

Bartle  (Higher  and  Lower,  S.  of  Woodplumpton) :    Bartayl  (moor)   1256  LF, 


Nezerbartailesheye  1287  Ind,  de  Bartaill  1323,  1328  LF.  The  second  el.  is  the 
word  tail  (O.E.  tcBgl)  in  the  sense  "  a  piece  or  slip  of  irregularly  bounded  land 
jutting  out  from  a  larger  piece  "  (found  from  1472  in  Scotland,  NED).  Higher 
and  Lower  Bartle,  and  Bartle  Hall  stand  a  good  way  apart.  Similarly  O.N. 
hali  "  tail  "  is  used  in  Norw.  place-names.  The  first  el.  is  perhaps  O.E.  bere 
(with  vowel  as  in  barley,  Barton)  or  possibly  bare  adj.  or  even  bar  "  boar." 
Catforth  (on  Woodplumpton  Brook) :  de  Catford  1332  LS,  Catforthe  1514  DL, 
Gatford  hall  1577  Saxton.  Probably  "  cat  ford." 

Eaves  :  Eves  1538  DL,  the  Eaves  1628  RW  63.  O.E.  efes,  perhaps  in  the  sense 
"  edge  of  a  wood." 

Lewth  :  Lewthe  1622  RW  63.  The  name  is  identical  with  dial,  lewth  "  shelter ; 
a  sheltered  place  "  (EDD)  from  O.E.  hleowp  "  shelter,  protection." 


This  parish  occupies  a  large  district  on  both  sides  of  the  Wyre  and  its  tribu- 
taries the  Calder  and  the  Brock,  besides  Pilling  township  on  the  Lune  estuary. 
The  surface  varies  a  good  deal.  The  W.  part  is  low  and  level,  partly  mossland, 
while  the  E.  part  is  on  the  slope  of  the  fells  (Bleasdale  Moor,  etc.). 

1.  Bilsborrow  (S.  of  Garstang  and  the  Brock) :  Billesbure  1187ff.  LPR,  Billisburg 
c  1200  CO,  Bilksburgh  1212  LI,  1303  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Billesburg  1226  LI, 
1259  LAR,  Ballisburg'  1245  IPM,  Billisburgh  1297  LI,  Bilsborough  1508  LF. 
"  The  burh  of  Bil"    Bil  is  an  O.E.  pers.  n.,  found  e.g.  in  Billesley,  Warw.  (billes 
Iceh  704-9  BCS  123). 

2.  Claughton  (S.E.   of  Garstang) :    Clactune  DB,   Clacton  1185f.   LPR,   1208 
LF,  etc.,  Clatton  1246  LAR,  Clahton  1252  IPM,  Claghton  1285  LAR,  1292  PW, 
1332  LS,  etc.,  Clahgton  1297  LI,  Clayghton  1554  DL ;    said  to  be  pronounced 
Clighton  (Bulmer  p.  293).    There  seem  to  be  two  alternatives  for  the  explanation 
of  the  first  el.    Either  it  is  the  pers.  n.  Clac  (probably  from  O.N.  Klakkr,  etc., 
Bjorkman)  found  in  Claxtorp,  Yks.,  Clactorp,  Line.  DB;  or  it  is  O.N.  klakkr 
"  lump,  clot,"  Swed.  dial,  klakk  also  "  small  hillock,"  Icel.  klakkur    '  rock." 
Cf.  on  this  word  in  Scand.  and  Engl.  names  NoB  VIII.  89f.    At  least  it  seems 
probable  that  some  names  in  Clac-  contain  the  common  noun.    Claughton  stands 
on  the  slope  of  a  hill  which  reaches  some  400ft.  above  sea-level. 

Dandy  Birks  (N.E.  of  Claughton  Hall,  in  a  high  situation).  Said  to  be  identical 
with  Dounanesherg  1241  CC.  This  contains  Ir.  Dundn  or  Dubdn  pers.  n.  and 
ergh  "  a  shieling."  See  Scandinavians  p.  80. 

Hecham  or  Heigham  :  Heyham  1241  CC,  Hegham  1292  PW,  de  Hegham  1332  LS. 
The  name  seems  to  contain  O.E.  heah  "  high  "  and  hamm  "  enclosure  "  or  ham 
"  homestead." 

3.  Catterall  (S.  of  Garstang,  in  the  tongue  of  land  E.  of  the  confluence  of  the 
Brock  and  the  Wyre  ;  v.)  :  Catrehala  DB,  Caterhale  1212  LI,  1301  LF,  Katirhal 
1244  IPM,  Caterale,  Kateral  1258  IPM,  Caterale  1323  LF,  Caterhale  1332  LS, 
Caterall  1346  FA,  1387  LF,  etc.    This  name  has  been  identified  with  a  Norw. 
name  derived  from  O.N.  Kattarhali,  literally  "  cat's  tail  "  (Wyld,  Lindkvist 
p.    186).      But   nothing    in   the    situation    of    the    place    seems    to     render 
such  an  etymology  plausible,  while  O.E.  halh  "  haugh  "  is  just  what  one  would 


expect  as  the  second  el.  ;  the  surface  of  the  township  is  low  and  flat,  especially 
along  the  Calder.  But  if  O.E.  halh  is  the  second  el.,  the  first  is  hardly  Scandi- 
navian. Names  in  halh  very  often  have  as  first  el.  a  pers.  name,  and  very  likely 
such  is  the  case  with  Catterall.  An  O.E.  pers.  n.  Cater  or  the  like  is  not  evidenced 
but  is  very  likely  the  base  of  O.E.  Cateringas  in  Cateringatune  Thorpe  560  (now 
Catherington,  Hants.).  A  hamlet  in  Catterall  was  called  Halecath  1212  LI, 
Halechat  1213-42  CO.  This  seems  to  be  a  place-name  Hale  (<O.E.  halh)  with 
a  pers.  n.  Cat  placed  behind  for  distinction  (from  Catterall  ?).  Cf.  Torpkat  HR, 
Thorp  Cuntasse  ib.  (now  Catthorpe,  Countesthorpe,  Leic.). 
Landskill  (on  the  slope  of  Bleasdale  Fell)  :  Longstal  (for  -seal)  1341  IN,  Lanscaile 
1589  DL,  Langscayles  1594  DL.  "  The  long  scale  or  hut  "  (O.N.  skali). 
Rowall  or  Rohall  or  Roe  Farm  (at  the  junction  of  the  Wyre  and  the  Brock)  : 
Ruhale  c  1200  CC,  Rouhale  1251  CC,  de  Rouhale  c  1260  CC,  de  Routhale  c  1265  CC, 
de  Rouwale  1293  LI,  1325  LCR,  Rowall  1443  LF.  Cf.  Roall,  Yks.  :  Ruhale 
DB,  Rughala  1159,  etc.  (Moorman).  O.E.  ruh  "  rough  "  and  halh  "  haugh." 
The  pronunciation  is  said  to  be  "  Rooa." 

4.  Kirkland  (S.W.  of  Garstang) :    (mortuo  bosco  de)  KirMund  c  1230  CC, 
Kirkelund  wood,  Kirlundfeldes  1247  IPM,  Kirk(e)lund  (boscus  de  K.)  c  1280  CC, 
Kirkland  1392  LF.    "  The  church  grove  "  ;  lund  is  O.N.  lundr  "  grove."   Garstang 
church  is  in  Kirkland.    Churchtown  is  a  hamlet  close  to  the  church. 
Humblescough  :    Humbilschough  c  1280  CC.    Humblescough  is  on  flat  ground. 
No  prominent  physical  features  suggest  a  definite  etymology.    As  the  second 
el.  is  Scand.  (O.N.  skogr),  we  seem  warranted  in  deriving  also  the  first  from  a 
Scand.  word.     O.N.  humli  "  hop  plant  "  or  humla  "  humble-bee  "  are  both 
plausible.    O.Swed.,  O.Dan.  Hum(b)li  pers.  n.  is  well  evidenced  in  place-names, 
and  O.N.  Humli  also  occurs. 

5.  Garstang  (town) :  Cherestanc  DB,  Gairstag  1194-99  Ch  (orig.),  Gresteng  1204 
AP,    Geresteg    1199-1212   AP,  de  Gueyrestang  1206  LC,  Geirstang  1216  ChR, 
Gairstang  1247  IPM,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Gayerstang  1246  LF,  Gayrstang  1246  LAR, 
1292  LF,  etc.,  Gayrstanges  c  1275  CC,  Gerstang  1278  LAR,  Garstan  1577  Harr. 
Further  examples  are  given  by  Lindkvist,  p.  47,  who  points  out  that  the  same 
name  is  found  in  Scotland,  viz.,  Girstenwood  :  Gairstang  1305  ChR.    The  second 
el.  is  clearly  O.N.  stong  "  pole."    The  first  el.  is  identified  by  Wyld  with  O.N. 
Geirr  pers.  n.,  with  O.N.  geiri  "  a  triangular  piece  of  land,"  by  Lindkvist.    It 
seems  improbable  that  the  word  stong  should  twice  have  been  combined  with  the 
same  pers.  name.    Lindkvist's  suggestion  seems  preferable,  though  it  is  curious 
also  that  a  combination  of  geiri  and  stong  should  occur  twice. 

6.  Barnacre  with  Bonds  (E.  of  Garstang  and  the  Wyre). 

Bonds  (near  Garstang).     The  name  is  apparently  late  :    Bonds  1667  RW  110. 

This  may  be  elliptical  for  Bond's  place  or  the  like. 

Byrewath  or  Byerworth  (on  the  Wyre)  :    Birwath  c  1260  CC,  Byrwath  1290  LI, 

de  Burwath  1341  IN,  Byreweth  1501  CC,  Byrewarthe  1529  DL  ;   now  [baiawa>]. 

The  name  probably  means  "  the  village  ford,"  the  first  el.  being  the  gen.  (bjdr, 

byjar)  of  O.N.  byr  "  village,"  the  second  O.N.  vad  "  ford."    O.E.  byre  "  byre  " 

is  also  possible  as  the  first  element. 

Dimples  :  Dymples  1524  LP  I.  115,  Dimples  1600  RS  XII.    The  name  no  doubt 

means  "  the  pools  "  (O.E.  *dympel  or  *dympla  "  a  pool  ") ;  cf.  Dumplington  p.  38. 


In  O.M.  1846-51  three  ponds  are  marked  in  the  close  neighbourhood  of  Dimples  ; 
traces  of  these  are  still  to  be  seen. 

Greenhalgh  Castle  :  Grenolf  1347  VHL  VII.  315,  Grenehaugh  c  1540  Leland, 
Grenno  cast.  1577  Saxton  ;  now  [grrna].  Cf.  Greenhalgh  p.  154.  The  castle 
ruin  is  on  a  small  hillock,  but  Greenhalgh  Castle  Farm  is  in  a  slight  depression 
in  the  ground. 

Howath  or  Howarth  (on  the  Calder)  :  Hawath,  Houwat  1258  IPM,  Howath  c  1260 
CO,  Houwath  (pons)  c  1280  CC,  de  Howath  1323  LI,  Haweth  1443  LF,  Hawith 
1468  LF  ;  now  [haua)>].  The  name  means  the  "  ford  by  the  hillock  "  (O.N. 
haugr  "  hill  "  and  vaft  "  ford  ").  The  place  stands  close  to  Brunahill,  which  is 
on  a  slight  hill.  Lindkvist's  suggestion  "  high  ford  "  (O.N.  hor  "  high  "  and  vad) 
does  not  suit  the  topography  of  the  place. 

Lingart  (h.)  :  de  Lingarth  1246  LI,  de  Lingard  c  1260  CC,  Lyngard  1451,  1461  CC. 
"  Flax  enclosure,"  O.N.  or  O.E.  lln  "  flax  "  and  O.N.  gardr  "  enclosure." 
Barnacre  (the  larger  N.E.  part)  :    Berneacre  1517,  Bernacre  1521  DL.    Perhaps 
"  barn-acre  "  (O.E.  bern  "  barn  "  and  cecer).     Or  the  first  el.  might  be  O.N. 
Biarni  pers.  n.  ;   cf.  the  next  name. 

Stirzacre :  de  Stirsacre  1323  ~LF,de  Steresacre  1341  IN.  First  el.  the  O.N.  ipeis.n.Styrr. 
Sullam  Side  (on  a  hill-slope  to  the  E.)  :  de  Solam  1246  LAR.  Etymology  doubt- 
ful. Sullom  Hill  reaches  525ft.  We  might  think  of  O.E.  Solan  hamm  (or  Mm), 
if  Sola  had  o. 

Woodacre  :  Wadacre  1246  LAR,  de  Wedacre  1245-8  LC,  1325  LCR,  de  Wedakre 
1293  LI,  Wedacre  1363  CC,  Weddaker  1521,  Wodeacre  1517  DL,  Waddiker 
1577  Saxton.  O.E.  weod  "  weed  "  and  cecer.  Woodacre  is  due  to  popular 

7.  Nateby  (W.  of  Garstang  ;  h.) :  Nateby,  Natebi  1204  LF,  parva  Nateby  1320  CC, 
de  Nateby  c  1260  CC,  1292  LF,  1293  LI.  As  the  second  el.  is  O.N.  byr  "  village," 
etc.,  it  is  probable  that  also  the  first  is  of  Scand.  origin.    A  pers.  n.  seems  most 
plausible,  and  there  are  apparently  traces  of  an  0. Scand.  Nate  ;   see  Lindroth, 
Ortnamnen  pa  -rum  p.  55.    This  is  probably  the  first  el.  of  some  other  names  in 
Nate-,  as  Nateby,  Wml.,  but  in  some  cases  O.N.  nata  "  nettle  "  is  very  likely 
to  be  assumed,  as  in  Natland  ;   cf.  Norw.  Notland,  derived  from  Notuland,  i.e., 
"  nettle-land  "  NG  XI.  124.    Several  E.  names  in  Nate-  are  adduced  and  dis- 
cussed, without  a  definite  result,  by  Lindkvist  p.  202. 

8.  Winmarleigh  (N.W.  of  Garstang)  :    Wunemerleye  a  1200  CC,  Wynemerislega, 
Wynermerisle  1212  BF,  Winmerleie  c  1220  CC,  de  Wymmerle  1246  LAR,  Wynmer- 
legh  1343  LF,  Wimmerlaw  c  1540  Leland  ;    now  [win  ma'li].     O.E.  Winemcer 
pers.  n.  and  leah. 

9.  Nether  Wyresdale  (between  the  Wyre  and  Grizedale  Brook)  :     Wiresdale 
1190  CC,  Wyresdale  1319  LF,  1327  CC,  etc.,  Nether  Weiresdale  1517  DL,  Laygher 
Wyresdale  1533  LP  II.  28.    "  The  valley  of  the  Wyre." 

Dolphinholme  :  Dolphineholme  1591  DL,  Dolphinhoulme  1621  Cockerham  R. 
The  elements  are  Dolfin  pers.  n.  (perhaps  Scand.)  and  O.N.  holmr  "  island,"  etc. 
Scorton  (v.) :  Scourton  c  1550  DL,  Skurton  1563  RW  73  ;  now  [sko'tn].  Close 
to  the  church  is  a  deep  ravine.  It  seems  plausible  to  derive  the  first  el.  from 
O.N.  skor  "  a  rift  in  a  rock  or  precipice,"  skura  "  a  score,  trench."  In  Sweden 
Skuru  occurs  as  the  name  of  a  deep  ravine  in  Smaland. 


10.  Cabus  (N.  of  Garstang)  :  de  Kaibal  1200-10  FC  II.  231  (orig.),  de  Caybel  1246 
LAR,  Cayball  1320  CO,  de  Kaybal[les]  c  1250  CO,  Caboos  c  1550  DL  ;    now 

This  is  a  difficult  name.  The  topography  of  the  place  offers  little  indication. 
The  surface  is  on  the  whole  low,  but  there  are  some  slight  ridges  or  hillocks  ; 
most  conspicuous  is  a  long  low  ridge  running  from  N.  to  6.  along  the  Wyre. 
The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  compared  with  that  of  Keysoe,  Beds.  (  :  Kaysho 
TN,  etc.),  Cainhoe,  Beds.  (  :  Cainou,  Chainehou  DB),  Cassio,  Herts.  (  :  Ccegesho 
793  BCS  267),  Keyham,  Leic.  (  :  Caiha'  DB),  Cayton,  Yks.  (  :  Caitune  DB, 
Caytona  1155  YCh  76).  All  these  may  have  as  first  el.  a  pers.  n.  *Cceg  or  *Ccega. 
If  this  is  right  we  may  assume  the  same  pers.  n.  as  the  first  el.  of  Cabus.  Cf., 
however,  Cayley  p.  100.  The  second  el.  is  an  early  M.E.  word  ball  or  the  plural 
of  it.  I  suggest  that  this  is  identical  with  ball  "  a  knoll,  a  rounded  hill  "  (W. 
Som.)  and  Engl.  ball  in  the  sense  "  ball  of  the  hand  or  foot."  Cf.  Dan.  -balle  in 
place-names,  apparently  to  be  compared  with  balle  in  fodballe  "  ball  of  the 
foot  "  (Steenstrup,  Indledende  Studier,  p.  23).  The  word  balle  is  here  used  to 
denote  slight  elevations.  The  same  word  I  suppose  is  found  in  Swinsty  Ball, 
the  name  of  a  hill  in  Kirkby  Moor  (Furness).  I  take  the  second  el.  of  Cabus 
to  refer  to  the  elevations  in  the  township  mentioned. 

Gubberford  (in  G.  Lane,  G.  Bridge)  :  de  Gobethayt  after  1268  CC,  Guburthwait, 
Guberthwat  1398  CC,  Tobberthwayte  1587  DL,  Goberthwayte  1588  DL.  The 
early  forms  are  not  clear  enough  to  allow  of  a  definite  etymology.  The  second 
el.  is  O.N.  pveit  "  thwaite."  The  first  is  possibly  a  pers.  n.  (e.g.,  O.N.  Guftbiprg). 

11.  Holleth  (detached  township  N.  of  Forton)  :   Holout  1242  CC,  Holauth  1320 
CC,  Holouth  1364  CC,  Holloth  1521  DL.    The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N.  or 
O.E.  hoi  "  hole  "  and  ON  hpfud"  hill."    The  township  consists  of  a  conspicuous 
hill  (c  100ft.).    On  this  are  found  a  number  of  small  ponds,  marked  in  the  6-inch 
map.    Two  of  these  are  in  a  fairly  deep  round  hollow.    I  suppose  the  name  means 
"  the  hill  with  the  deep  pool  or  pools." 

12.  Pilling  (on  the  Lune  estuary  ;  v.)  :  pylin  1194-99  CC  375  (orig.),  Pylin  1201 
CC,  1270  LAR,  Pelyn  1320  CC  ;   Mussam  de  Pilyn  c  1280  CC  270  ;   now  [pilin]. 
The  name  is  no  doubt  derived  from  the  river-name  Pilling.    The  surface  is  very 
low,  and  to  a  great  extent  consists  of  moss-land. 

Eskham  is  probably  "  ash  holm." 

LANCASTER  PAR.  (part) 

Bleasdale  (E.  of  Garstang  in  the  hilly  country  on  the  upper  Calder  and  Brock)  : 
Blesedale  1228  C1R,  (forest  of)  Blesedale  1297  LI,  Blestale  c  1540  Leland.  Two 
possibilities  seem  to  offer  themselves  for  the  explanation  of  the  first  el.  of  the 
name.  It  may  be  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Bksi,  found  in  Bleasby,  Line,  and  Notts. 
(cf.  Bjorkman).  Or  it  may  be  identical  with  the  place-name  Bleaze  (Blease), 
found  in  BJeaze  Wood,  Lo.,  Blease  Fell,  Wml.,  etc.  This  name  is  no  doubt 
identical  with  Norw.  Blesa,  Blesan,  which  are  thought  to  belong  to  Icel.  blesi 
"  a  blaze,  a  light  spot "  (Rygh  NG II.  235).  It  is  suggested  that  the  names  refer  to 
some  light  spot  in  the  vicinity,  e.g.,  on  a  hill-side  ;  Norw.  blesa  actually  means 
"  a  bare  spot  on  a  hill-side."  Another  meaning  of  the  word  is  found  in  Swedish 


dial.,  viz.,  "  an  opening  between  hills."    I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  Bleasdale 

contains  the  Scand.  blesi  or  blesa  in  one  of  its  senses.    A  full  account  of  the  name 

will  be  found  in  NoB.  VIII.  85f. 

Admarsh  Church  :  Admarshe  (pasture)  1572  DL,  Edmarshe  chap.  1577  Saxton, 

Edmersey  chappell  1577  Harr.,  Chappell  of  Admarsham  1650  LC.   The  forms  are 

too  late  to  allow  of  a  certain  conclusion.    The  second  el.  seems  to  be  O.E.  mersc 

"  marsh,"  the  first  O.E.  Eada  or  a  name  in  Ead-. 

Blindhurst  (on  the  slope  of  Parlick) :   Blyndhirst  1323  LI,  1341  IN,  Blyndehurst 

1324  LI.    Probably  O.E.  blind  "  dark,  obscure,"  and  hyrst,  "  wood." 

Brooks  (near  Fairsnape)  :   (vaccary  between)  Le  Brakes  1323  LI,  (vaccary)  del 

Brakes  1324   ib.,  Brakes  1341  IN.    "  The  brooks." 

Fairsnape  (Higher  and  Lower,  on  the  slope  of  Fairsnape  Fell) :    Fayrsnape 

(vaccary)  1323,  1324  LI,  Fairsnap  1341  IN.     O.E.  foeger  or  O.N.  fagr  "  fair, 

beautiful,"  and  snape  "  pasture  "  p.  17. 

Grizedale  (on  Grizedale  Brook) :    Grisedale  1314,  Grisdale  1324  LI,  Grysedale 

c  1350  LPR.    First  el.  either  the  pers.  n.  Gris  (O.N.  Griss)  or  more  probably 

the  common  noun  grice  "  pig  "  (O.N.  griss).    Grizedale  is  also  the  name  of  a 

brook  in  Over  Wyresdale. 

Hazelhead  :  Haselheved  1323, 1324  LI,  (vaccary)  1341  IN,  Haselheued  c  1350  LPR. 

Head  means  "  hill."    Stated  to  be  now  Broadhead. 

Thorpen  Lees  (lost) :   sthorsmelees  1228  C1R,  Thorphynislegh  1338  LPR,  Thor- 

fleghsyke  c  1350  LPR.    The  elements  are  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  parfinnr  and  O.E. 

leak  "  lea." 

Winsnape  :    Wensnape  1228  C1R,   Wanesnape(broke)  1338  LPR.     O.N.  vcenn 

"  beautiful,"  etc.,  may  be  the  first  el. ;  the  second  is  snape  "  pasture  "  (cf.  p.  17). 

COCKERHAM  PAR.  (part) 

The  part  of  Cockerham  par.  S.  of  the  Cocker  was  originally  in  Amounderness 
hundred.  The  E.  part  of  the  district  is  undulating,  while  the  W.  part  is  low  and 

1.  Cleveley  (W.  of  the  Wyre) :   Cliueleie  c  1180  CO,  Cliveley  c  1270  ib.,  Kliflegh 
c  1380  CR  349.    O.E.  clif  "  cliff,"  etc.,  and  leak.    Elevations  of  200ft.  are  reached 
in  the  township. 

Shireshead  chapel  :  Shireshead  1577  Saxton,  Shireshed  1577  Harr.  The  name 
means  "  the  upper  end  of  the  shire."  Shireshead  stands  near  the  Cocker,  the 
old  boundary  between  Amounderness  and  Lonsdale. 

2.  Forton  :    Fortune  DB,  Forton  1212  LI,  1323  LF,  etc.,  Fortun  13  cent.  Ind. 
Probably  O.E.  ford-tun,  i.e.,  "  the  tun  by  the  ford."    In  early  documents  two 
fords  are  alluded  to  in  connection  with  Forton,  viz.,  Langwathforde  1250-68  CC 
(O.N.  Langavad  "  the  long  ford  ")  and  Scamwath  (O.N.  Skammavad  "  the  short 
ford  "),  in  Scamwathlithe,  etc.,  1220-40  CC.    The  township  is  bounded  on  the  W. 
by  the  Cocker,  on  which  the  original  Forton  may  have  stood.    Forton  Hall  is 
on  a  trib.  of  the  Cocker. 

3.  Cockerham  (see  further  p.  170). 

Crimbles  :  Crimeles  DB,  Crimblis  c  1155  Ch,  Crimbles  1207, 1241  LF,  le  Crymbles 
1320  CC  ;  Crimell  c  1240  CC  ;  Grimbles  1364  CC  ;  Crumles  1206  LF,  Crumbles 


1212  LI,  de  Crumbles  a  1265  CO.    Gt.  and  Li.  Crimbles  are  both  S.  of  the  Cocker, 
but  formerly  part  of  Crimbles  was  N.  of  the  river. 

This  name  is  common,  especially  as  a  field-name.  Cf.  e.g.,  Crimble  (Heap, 
Bury),  Crymyll  (Worston)  1518  CCR,  and  see  VHL  III.  430,  IV.  399.  Goodall 
mentions  several  examples  of  Crimbles  from  Yks.  Crymel  (Cornw.)  is  found 
OR  I.  203,  Crumble,  Suss.  HR  II.  205.  This  name  must  represent  a  native 
common  noun,  apparently  an  O.E.  *crymel  or  the  like.  This  may  be  a  derivative 
of  cruma  "  small  piece,  scrap,"  the  meaning  being  "  a  small  piece  of  land  "  ;  this 
is  corroborated  by  the  fact  that  the  name  often  has  the  plural  form.1  Similar 
names  are  :  Scrapps  (a  small  piece  of  land  in  Aspull)  1501  CC  (cf.  scrap  "  a 
small  piece  "),  the  Croats,  Glo.  (cf.  M.E.  crote  "  small  piece  ").  For  names  of 
similar  meaning  in  Sweden  see  Liden,  NoB  IV.  106ff. 

Laithwaite  :   Lathwayt  1320  CC,  Laithwatt  1600  Cockerham  R.    Probably  O.N. 
hlada  "  barn,"  as  alternatively  suggested  by  Lindkvist,  and  thwaite. 


Lonsdale  hundred  consists  of  two  distinct  parts,  Lonsdale  S.  of  the  Sands  or 
Lonsdale  proper,  and  Lonsdale  N.  of  the  Sands,  the  district  W.  of  the  Kent 
estuary  and  the  Winster.    The  two  parts  are  best  dealt  with  separately. 
Lonsdale  at  first  meant  "  the  Lune  valley,"  but  in  the  12th  cent,  began  to  be 
used  of  Lonsdale  hundred.    Early  forms  of  the  name : 

Lanesdale  DB,  (Burtona  de)  Lanesdala  1130  LPR,  Lansdale  (Yks.)  1210 
AP,  Lonisdale  1150-60  Ch,  Lonesdale  (Wapentake)  1169  LPR,  1285  Ind,  Lones- 
dele  (Wapentake)  1169  LPR,  Lonesdala  1188,  1199  LPR,  Lounesdal  1267  ChR  ; 
Landesdale  1220  C1R,  Londesdale  1362  OR,  Landes-,  Lunesdale  c  1540  Leland, 
Lansdale,  "  corrupt  for  Lunesdale  "  1577  Harr.  "  The  valley  of  the  Lune." 

Lonsdale  S.  of  the  Sands  comprises  roughly  the  valleys  of  the  Lune  with  its 
tributaries,  and  of  the  Keer.  The  surface  is  mostly  undulating,  with  level  parts 
along  the  sea  and  in  the  river  valleys.  There  is  a  large  fell  district  in  the  S.E. 
part,  where  an  altitude  of  1,836ft.  is  attained  at  Ward's  Stone,  and  a  smaller 
one  in  the  N.E.,  where  a  height  of  over  2,000ft.  is  reached  in  Leek  Fell. 

Names  of  Rivers,  etc. 

Damas  Gill  (a  trib.  of  the  Wyre) :  Dameresgile  1228  C1R,  Damergill  c  1350  LPR. 
The  first  el.  is  possibly  a  compound  of  O.E.  da  "  doe  "  and  mere  "  lake."  There 
is  a  tarn  (now  a  reservoir)  near  the  stream.  The  second  el.  is  O.N.  gil  "  ravine." 
Lune  :  loin  1156-60  Ch,  Lon  1180-4  CC,  1228  C1R,  Loon  a  1190,  13  cent.  CC, 
Lonn  c  1190  Ch,  Lone  1202  LF,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Lon'  1252  IPM,  le  Loon  1342 
LPD  II.  162,  Loone  1364  CC,  1389  FC  II,  Lune  c  1540  Leland,  1577  Harr.,  Luni, 
Loni  (gen.)  1586  Camden  ;  now  [hrn,  liun].  Cf.  Lonsdale  supra  and  Lancaster. 

1  In  the  following  passage  from  the  Chartulary  of  St.  John  Pontefract,  p.  476,  crimble  is 
clearly  used  as  a  common  noun:  [ego  dedi]  "  duos  crimblos in campis  deBrettona  .  .  .  ,  unum 
crimble  buttat  super  molendinum  .  .  .  ,  et  unum  capud  unius  crimble  buttat  super  dime" 
[Dearne  riv.]. 


The  early  and  modern  forms  point  to  O.E.  Lon,  M.E.  Lon  as  the  base.  Of 
course,  we  expect  the  name  of  such  an  important  river  to  be  British.  It  has  been 
identified  with  Alone  (the  name  of  a  Roman  station)  in  Ant.  It.  (McClure  p.  111). 
This  identification  is  not  impossible.  Alone  goes  back  to  Prim.  Celt.  *Alaun-, 
which  would  become  Brit.  *Alon-  (> Welsh  Alun).  If  the  name  was  adopted 
very  early,  the  o  might  still  have  been  preserved.  As  regards  the  loss  of  the 
initial  vowel,  it  is  to  be  remembered  that  Brit.  *Alon  no  doubt  had  the  chief 
stress  on  the  second  syllable.  The  a,  which  occurs  in  early  forms  of  Lonsdale 
and  is  regular  in  Lancaster,  might  be  explained  as  due  to  O.E.  shortening  and 
subsequent  substitution  for  o  of  the  open  o  alternating  with  a  before  nasals. 
But  the  etymology  of  the  name  Lune  is  to  some  extent  bound  up  with  that  of 
Lancaster.  This  name  apparently  means  "  the  city  on  the  Lune."  Now  there 
are  two  O.E.  examples  of  this  name,  viz.,  Landc  on  two  coins  of  the  time  of 
Harold  I.  (1035-39)  ;  cf.  Hildebrand,  Anglosachsiska  mynt,  p.  352f.  If  these 
forms  are  trustworthy,  they  seem  to  point  to  the  first  el.  of  Lancaster  having 
been  originally  O.E.  land ;  Landc(cester)  might  mean  "  the  chief  fort  of  the 
country  "  or  the  like.  In  such  a  form  the  d  would  drop  out  at  an  early  period. 
If  this  is  right,  the  similarity  between  the  first  el.  of  Lancaster  and  the  name  Lune 
must  be  accidental,  but  Lan-  (Lon-)  must  at  an  early  period  have  been  associated 
with  the  name  Lune.  This  might  help  to  explain  the  form  Lanesdale  for  Lones- 
dale.  After  all,  the  O.E.  Landc(cester)  may  be  due  to  popular  etymology.! 
Cocker  (a  trib.  of  the  Lune) :  Cocur  ?  930  YCh  (genuine  ?),  Cokir  c  1155  Ch, 
Coker  c  1175  CO,  Koker  a  1202  CO.  Cf.  Cockerham  and  Cockersand  p.  170f. 
The  same  name  is  found  in  Cumb.,  and  Cockerton  in  Durh.  (Cocertune  Hist.  St. 
Cuthbert)  was  no  doubt  named  from  a  river  Cocker.  A  lost  stream-name  in 
Leyl.  is  Cokerdene  c  1225,  c  1240  CC,  Kokerdene  c  1240  PC  ;  the  name  may  be 
preserved  in  Cocker  Bar1  (Leyland  par.).  If  Stokes  correctly  derives  Ir.  cuar 
"  crooked  "  from  *kukros,  the  name  Cocker  is  easily  explained  as  the  fern,  form 
of  this :  *kukrd  >  Brit.  *kokrd.  The  Lane.  Cocker  may  be  aptly  described  as  "  the 
winding  river."  But  the  etymology  of  Ir.  cuar  proposed  is  open  to  doubt.  Any- 
how, Cocker  is  probably  a  Brit.  name.  We  may  perhaps  compare  the  Brit, 
pers.  names  Cocuro,  Cocurus  in  Holder. 

Conder  (a  trib.  of  the  Lune) :  Kondover  a  1220  CC,  Kondoure  1225-50  CC,  Gon- 
dour\  Gondouere  1228  C1R,  Candovere  1246  LAR.  The  name  is  no  doubt  British, 
the  second  el.  being  Celt.  *dubron  (Welsh  dwfr,  etc.)  "  water."  The  first  el.  is 

Lucy  Brook  (between  Aldcliffe  and  Lancaster)  :   Lousibrok  c  1300  FC  II.    First 
el.   perhaps  dial,  lousy  "  sparkling,  frothing,  foaming  "  (EDD  sub.  louse  vb.). 
Escowbeck  (Caton) :    Escouthebec  a  1241,  Escouthebroc  a  1250  CC.    The  first  el. 
is  an  O.N.  place  name  Eski-hpfud*  "  ashtree  hill."    Cf.  on  hpfud,  p.  13. 
Artlebeck  :   Arkelbec  c  1200,  c  1245  CC,  Arkelbek  13  cent.  LC,  Hartlebek  1577 
Saxton.    O.N.  Arnketill,  Arnkell  pers.  n.  and  beck. 
Ragill  Beck  (a  trib.  of  Artlebeck) :    Rouchgill,  -heued,  Rauchgill  c  1350  LPR. 

1  But  Cocker  Brook  and  Cocker  Lumb  in  Oswaldtwistle  Bl.  do  not  contain  this  old  stream- 
name.  Cocker  is  evidently  identical  with  the  first  el.  of  Cokaside,  Cockaisidemos  1208-25, 
Kokasyd  13  cent.  DD  ;  cf.  la  Thuercokerdiche  1270-80  ib.  This  may  be  identical  with  Cockey, 
p.  53,  or  a  compound  of  O.E.  cocc  "  cock  "  and  eg  "  island,  water-meadow." 


Rouch-  is  no  doubt  for  Routh-,  i.e.,  O.N.  raudr  "  red  "  ;  gill  is  O.N.  gil  "  a  ravine." 
Wenning  (a  trib.  of  the  Lune)  :  Wennyng  c  1170,  c  1177  FC  II,  Wenninga 
1165-77  FC  II.  309  (orig.),  Wenning(g)a  1189  Cal.  Sc.  I.  28,  Wening  a  1255, 
Wenning  a  1260  CC,  Wennigh  a  1268  CC,  the  Wenny  1577  Harr. ;  now  [wenin]. 
See  the  discussion  under  Wennington  p.  181.  The  name  Wenning  cannot  be  a 
derivative  of  the  Celt.  adj.  *vindo-  in  Welsh  gwyn  (fern,  gwen)  "white,"  etc. 
(cf.  Afon  Wen,  in  Wales),  for  the  water  of  the  river  is  peaty-brown. 
Hindburn  (a  trib.  of  the  Wenning)  :  Hyndborn  1577  Saxton,  the  Hinburne  1577 
Harr.  ;  now  [hainban].  First  el.  no  doubt  O.E.  hind  "  the  female  of  the  hart." 
Cf.  the  same  name  in  Bl. 

Roeburn  (a  trib.  of  the  Hindburn)  :  the  Rheburne  1577  Harr.,  Roburn  1577 
Saxton  ;  now  [ro'ban].  Cf.  Roeburndale  p.  181.  The  first  el.  is  probably  O.E. 
rcegan  g.  sg.  of  rcege  "  roe."  As  regards  the  sound  development  we  may  compare 
M.E.  (northern)  bree  from  O.E.  bregan  "  frighten  "  (probably  in  breed  All.  Poems 
C.  143),  dee  "  to  die,"  kee  "  key  "  (O.E.  cceg],  etc.  The  change  from  Re-  to  Roe- 
is  due  to  influence  from  the  word  roe.  Second  el.  O.E.  burna  "  burn." 
Greeta  (falls  into  the  Lune  near  Tunstall)  :  the  Gretey  1577  Harr.  ;  cf.  de  Gretagila 
a  1230  CC  (Clapham,  Yks.).  The  name  is  identical  with  Greta,  Cumb.  and  Yks. 
It  goes  back  to  O.N.  Griotd  (cf.  Griotd  in  Iceland),  from  griot  "  stone(s)  "  and 
a  "  river." 

Cant  Beck  (a  trib.  of  the  Greeta)  :  Kant  1202  LF.  Perhaps  a  back-formation 
from  Cantsfield  ;  see  this  name,  p.  183.  If  not,  the  name  is  probably  British. 
Keer  (falls  into  Morecambe  Bay)  :  Keere,  Here  c  1350  LPR,  Keri  c  1540  Leland  ; 
Docker  1577  Saxton,  Harr.  Possibly  the  Celtic  adj.  found  in  Ir.  as  ciar  "  dusky  " 
(cf.  Joyce  II.  271).  The  base  is  *keiro-,  which  would  give  Brit.  *ker-,  a  stem  not 
to  my  knowledge  evidenced  in  Brit,  languages.  But  other  derivations  are  possible. 
Docker  is,  of  course,  a  different  name,  derived  from  Docker  in  Whittington. 
Kent  (falls  into  Morecambe  Bay)  :  Kent  1208  LF,  1272  LI,  Kenet  1246  LAR, 
Kente  c  1350  LPR.  The  name  is  identical  with  Kennet,  the  name  of  an  affluent 
of  the  Thames  (cynetan  944  BCS  802),  Kennet,  Camb.,  and  Welsh  Cynwyd, 
O.Brit.  Cunetione  (abl.)  Ant.  It.  (Holder). 

Hawes  Water  (Silverdale).  Now  [o*z  wo'ta].  The  old  name  was  Arnside  Dub  : 
Arnolvesheued  Dub  1246  LF.  Arnside  is  in  Wml.  just  over  the  border.  The 
elements  of  the  name  are  O.E.  Earnwulf  pers.  n.  and  heafod  "  head,  hill."  Dub, 
a  word  of  obscure  etymology,  means  "  a  pool."  Hawes  is  presumably  dial. 
hause  (from  O.E.  or  O.N.  hals)  "  a  narrower  and  lower  neck  between  two  heights 
or  summits  ;  &  col"  (NED),  also  "  a  defile,  a  narrow  passage  between  moun- 
tains "  (EDD). 

Names  of  Hills 

Clougha,  Clougha  Pike  (S.E.  of  Lancaster ;  c  1,500ft.) :  Clochoch  1199  LI  I.  92, 
Clochehoc  1228  C1R,  Cloghou  1228  WhC,  Clough  ho  hill  1577  Saxton  ;  now 
[klofa].  The  elements  of  the  name  are  dough  (O.E.  cloh)  and  O.E.  hoh  "  pro- 
jecting ridge,"  etc.  Clougha  Pike  forms  a  projection  from  the  massive  of  hills. 
Little  Fell  (near  Quernmore)  :  Littelfel  1228  C1R.  Fell  is  O.N.  fall. 
Stephen's  Head  (E.  of  Clougha  ;  1,633ft.) :  Steuensete,  Littelsteudensete  c  1350 
LPR.  "  Stephen's  set  or  shieling."  The  hill  was  named  from  a  shieling.  A 


similar  name  is  Ughtryshsete,  Ughrithsete  c  1350  LPR  (identified  with  Great  Hill 

on  the  Yks.  border).    The  first  el.  is  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Uhtred. 

Swaintley  Hill  (Roeburndale)  :    Swyneclogheued,  Swyn(e)styclogh  c  1350  LPR. 

Swynsty-  might  be  O.E.  swinstig  "  pigsty,"  but  is  more  likely  O.E.  swln  "  wild 

boar  "  and  stig  "  a  path." 

Threaphaw  Fell  (on  the  border  between  Lane,  and  Yks. ;   close  to  the  Trough 

of  Bowland)  :    Threpehowe,  Threphaw  c  1350  LPR.    "  The  debatable  hill."    Cf. 

threapland  "  debatable  land."    The  elements  are  O.E.  preapian  "  to  quarrel " 

and  O.N.  haugr  "  hiU."     Trough  (of  Bowland) :    Trogh  c  1350  LPR.     O.E. 

trog  "  trough,"  later  "  a  troughlike  valley." 

Winfold  FeU  (close  to  Threaphaw) :   Whynfell  c  1350  LPR.    M.E.  whinne  "  whin, 

furze  "and  O.N.  fiatt  "  fell." 

Wolfhole  Crag  (1,731ft. ;    N.  of  Threaphaw) :    Wolfakrag,  Wlffakragge  c  1350 

LPR,  Wulfo  crag  1577  Saxton,  Wulfcragge  1577  Harr.    The  earliest  forms  point 

to  O.E.  wulf-halh,  which  might  mean  "  wolf's  corner  or  hiding-place."    But  the 

original  form  may  have  been  wulf-hol  "  wolf's  lair." 

COCKERHAM  PAR.  (part) 

The  district  N.  of  the  lower  Cocker.  On  the  part  of  the  par.  S.  of  the  Cocker 
cf.  p.  166.  The  surface  is  mostly  low  and  level  in  the  W.  with  some  pieces  of 
slightly  higher  land,  but  is  more  elevated  in  the  E.,  where  altitudes  of  some 
500ft.  are  reached. 

1.  Cockerham  (v.)  :    Cocreham  DB,  Kokerham  1190  CC,  1202  AP,  1212  LI, 
1246  LAR,  Cokerham  1332  LS,  Cokirham  1327  LS,  1438  LF  ;  Cokerheim  c  1155, 
a  1160  Ch,  1207  LF,  Kokerheim  1206  LF,  Kokerhaim  1246  LAR.    The  elements 
of  the  name  are  the  river-name  Cocker  and  O.E.  ham,  in  some  early  forms  re- 
placed by  Scand.  heimr.    The  village  stands  near  the  Cocker. 

Crookhey  :  Crochaghe  c  1200  CC,  de  Crochaghe  1260  CC,  de  Crochagh  1314  LI. 
The  place  is  in  a  bend  of  the  Cocker.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  M.E.  crok 
(probably  from  O.N.  krokr)  "  bend  "  and  O.E.  haga  or  O.N.  hagi  "  enclosure." 
Hillam  (old  manor)  :  Hillun  DB.  O.E.  hyllum  "  (at)  the  hills."  Hillam  stands 
at  the  S.  end  of  a  ridge  reaching  75ft.,  on  which  is  Norbrick  (cf.  Norbreck,  Am.), 
and  near  another  smaller  hill. 

Thursland  :  Thurselande  1320  CC,  Thurslond  1340  CC,  Thurlond  1364  CC. 
First  el.  no  doubt  the  pers.  n.  Thor,  Thur  (of  Scand.  origin). 

2.  EUel  (in  the  valleys  of  the  Cocker  and  Conder)  :    Ellhale  DB,  Elhale  c  1155 
Ch,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Elhal  1202  LF,  1246  LAR,  Ellehal  1208  LPR,  Ellale  1212 
LI,  1277  LAR,  1332  LS.    O.E.  Ella  pers.  n.  and  O.E.  halh  "  haugh,  low-lying 
meadow."    There  are  typical  haughs  on  the  bank  of  the  Conder  where  the  church 
and  EUel  Hall  stand. 

EUel  Crag  (at  a  hill  reaching  400ft.) :  Craghouse  1490  TI,  Cragge  1598  Cockerham 
R.  There  is  also  Crag  Hall.  On  crag,  a  Celtic  word,  see  p.  9. 
Galgate  (v.) :  Gawgett  1605  Cockerham  R.  The  name  is  considered  to  mean 
"the  Galloway  road,"  cattle  drovers  from  Galloway  having  given  name  to  the  road 
on  which  the  place  stands  (VHL  VIII.  96).  Cf.  Galwaithegate  CC  976  (Kendal 
or  Cowperthwaite).  Long  Causey  (Langcawsall  1599  Cockerham  R)  may  have 


been  named  from  the  same  road.  Two  Roman  roads  are  considered  to  have 
met  at  Galgate. 

Hubbersty  (now  lost)  :  Hobyrstaih  a  1236  FC  II.,  Hobirstad  a  1250  CC,  Hobyrstad 
c  1254  ib.  First  el.  apparently  the  L.G.  pers.  n.  Huhrecht.  The  second  is  doubtful. 
If  the  place  was  on  the  Conder,  as  the  map  in  VHL  VIII.  indicates,  the  second 
el.  of  the  name  is  probably  O.N.  stod  "  landing-place." 

3.  Thurnham  (on  the  lower  Lune,  bounded  on  the  N.E.  by  the  Conder)  :  Tiernun 
DB,  Thurnum  a  1160  Ch,  1205,  1230  CC,  Thirnum  1301  LF,  1327  LS,  Thirnom 
1332  LS,  Thernum  c  1388  FC.  O.E.  or  O.N.  pyrnum  (dat.  pi.  of  O.E.  pyrne  or 
O.N.  pyrnir]  "  (at)  the  thorn-bushes." 

Crook  :  (pullum  de)  Croc  a  1190,  c  1265  CC,  Crokispul  a  1160  Ch,  Crocpul, 
Crockepul  1364  CC.  Crook  stands  near  a  bend  of  the  Lune.  Cf.  Crookhey  p.  170. 
Glasson  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Conder  and  the  Lune  ;  now  the  port  of  Lan- 
caster) :  (pasturam  de)  Glassene  c  1265  CC,  Glasson  1552  LF  ;  now  [glazan]. 
Glasson  is  in  a  very  low  situation,  but  Old  Glasson  stands  on  a  piece  of  slightly 
higher  land.  The  name  seems  to  be  identical  with  Glazen  (Glazenwood  1-inch 
map)  Ess.  :  (on)  Glcesne  970  Thorpe  517,  Glasene  1204-5,  Glasnes  1219-20,  Glasne 
1223-4  Essex  Feet  of  Fines  (ed.  R.G.  Kirk).  Glazenwood  is  in  Bradwell  near 
Coggeshall,  less  than  a  mile  from  the  Blackwater.  It  is  on  rising  ground,  c  200ft. 
above  sea-level ;  the  ground  along  the  river  reaches  some  130ft.  Glasson  and 
Glazen  are  probably  of  native  origin  and  may  belong  to  O.E.  glees  "  glass  " 
or  rather  to  the  base  * glees  discussed  under  Gleaston  p.  209.  But  the  material 
does  not  allow  of  a  definite  etymology.  Glasson  in  Cumb.  (Glassan  1259,  1278, 
Sedgefield)  is  probably  unrelated.  It  may  be  Celtic,  e.g.,  an  ellipsis  of  such  a 
name  as  Tref  Glassan  "  the  village  belonging  to  Glassan."  Glassan  is  a  known 
Ir.  pers.  name. 

Cockersand  Abbey  :  Cocresha  1207  LPR,  Kokersand  1212  LI,  Cocressand,  Cokere- 
sand  1215  LPR,  Cokersand  1229  LAR,  Kokirsaund  1297  LI.  The  name  means 
"  the  Cocker  sands,  the  sandy  bank  of  the  Cocker."  O.E.  sand  and  O.N.  sandr 
are  both  used  in  the  sense  "  sandy  shore."  The  abbey,  now  in  ruins,  stands  on 
the  shore  near  the  mouth  of  the  Cocker.  The  abbey  was  built  at  a  place  called 
Askel(es)cros  CC  757f. ;  Askel  is  O.N.  Askell  pers.  n. 


This  large  parish,  the  chief  part  of  which  is  situated  on  both  sides  of  the  lower 
Lune,  comprises  14  townships  in  Lonsdale  and  5  in  Amounderness.  The  latter 
are  detached  and  have  already  been  dealt  with.  The  surface  of  the  Lonsdale 
part  varies  considerably.  W.  of  the  Lune  it  is  low  and  mostly  flat.  E.  of  the 
river  it  is  undulating,  and  rises  by  degrees  till  an  elevation  of  some  1,500ft.  is 
reached  in  the  easternmost  part  (in  Over  Wyresdale  and  Quernmore). 
1.  Over  Wyresdale  :  Wyresdale  1246  LAR,  c  1250  CC,  1314  LI,  etc. 

The  township  occupies  a  large  hilly  district  in  the  upper  Wyre  valley  S.E. 
of  Lancaster.  It  is  sparsely  inhabited.  In  early  times  the  district  seems  to  have 
been  used  only  for  pasture.  Several  of  the  divisions  of  the  township  are  still 
called  vaccaries,  as  Greenbank  Vaccary,  etc.  Much  of  it  is  desolate  fell  country. 
The  homesteads  are  chiefly  on  or  near  the  Wyre. 


Abbeystead  :  vaccary  del  Abbey  1323,  1324  LI.  The  name,  which  means  "  the 
site  of  the  abbey,"  preserves  the  memory  of  a  house  of  Cistercian  monks  in 
Wyresdale,  founded  by  monks  from  Furness  Abbey  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II., 
but  soon  removed  (VHL  VIII.,  78). 

Catshaw  :  Cattesagh  1323  LI,  Catteshawe  1324  LI.  O.E.  catt  "  cat "  and  scaga 
"  shaw." 

Dunkenshaw  :    Dunokesagh  1323  LI,  Dunnokschawe  1324  LI.     Cf.  Dunnock- 
shaw  p.  80.    The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  M.E.  dunnok  "  hedge-sparrow." 
Emmetts  :   Emodes  1323,  1324  LI.    The  place  is  in  the  tongue  of  land  E.  of  the 
junction  of  the  Tarnbrook  and  Marshaw  Wyres.    The  name  goes  back  to  O.E. 
eagemotu  "  junction  of  streams." 

Gilberton  (on  the  Tarnbrook  Wyre)  :  de  Gilberdesholm  c  1230  CC,  Litel-,  Over- 
gilbretholm  1323  LI,  Litel,  Overgilbertholme  1324  LI  (old  vaccaries).  The  ele- 
ments of  the  name  are  the  Norman  pers.  n.  Gilbert  and  O.N.  holmr  "  island," 

Greenbank  :  Grenebonk  1323  LI,  -bank  1324  LI.  Probably  "  the  green  hill  or 

Hawthornthwaite  (S.  of  the  Marshaw  Wyre)  :  Haghthornthayt  1323  LI,  Haghe- 
thornthwait  1324  LI,  de  Haghethorntwait  1325  LCR.  O.E.  haguporn  or  O.N. 
hagporn  "  hawthorn  "  and  thwaite  "  meadow,"  etc. 

Lee  Fell,  Higher  and  Lower  :  Mikelegh,  Litelegh  1323  LI,  Mikellegh,  Litellegh 
1324  LI.  O.E.  leah  "  pasture,"  etc. 

Lentworth  :  Lonteworth  1323  LI,  Lenteworth  1324  LI.  L.  stands  N.  of  the  Wyre 
and  near  a  brook,  called  Gallows  Clough.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  an 
old  name  of  the  brook  identical  with  O.E.  leontan,  liontan  (obi.  forms)  704-9 
BCS  123,  the  name  of  a  river  in  Warw.  ;  lentan  854  BCS  477,  931  BCS  675,  the 
name  of  rivers  in  Hants  and  Berks.  This  is  no  doubt  a  Celtic  name,  to  be  com- 
pared with  Welsh  lliant  "  a  stream."  On  worth  "  enclosure,"  etc.,  see  p.  20. 
Marshaw  :  Marthesagh  1323  LI,  Marcheshawe  1324  LI,  Marchshagh,  Marschash- 
heued  c  1350  LPR.  I  suppose  the  correct  form  is  that  of  1323,  and  identify  the 
first  el.  with  O.E.  mearcl  "  marten." 

Ortner  (N.  of  Swainshead,  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Wyre) :  Overtonargh  1323  LI, 
Hortounargh  1324  LI.  The  name  means  "  the  ergh  (or  shieling)  belonging  to 
Overton."  Overton  is  clearly  the  village  of  that  name  on  the  Lune  estuary 
(cf.  p.  175),  situated  at  a  distance  of  over  6  miles  from  Ortner  as  the  crow  flies. 
The  example  seems  to  indicate  that  Over  Wyresdale  was  in  pre-Conquest  time 
common  land  to  the  townships  round  the  lower  Lune.  On  ergh  see  p.  10. 
Swainshead  (in  the  S.W.  part,  S.  of  the  Wyre)  :  Suenesat  DB,  Swaineseste  1199 
LPR,  Swaynesheved  1323f.  LI.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  the  O.N.  pers.  n. 
Sveinn  and  set,  sat  "  a  shieling  "  (see  p.  16).  Swainshead  Hall  stands  on  a  hill 
some  500ft.  above  sea-level. 

Tarnbrook  (on  the  Tarnbrook  Wyre) :  Tyrn(e)brok  1323,  1324  LI.  Tarnbrook 
was  originally,  of  course,  the  name  of  the  brook.  As  e  often  becomes  i  in  N. 
dialects  (cf.  gris<.gres  "grass,"  etc.),  it  seems  plausible  that  Tyrn-  stands  for 
earlier  Tern-  and  is  to  be  derived  from  O.N.  tiyrn  "  tarn."  However,  to  judge 
by  the  map,  there  is  no  tarn  near  the  stream.  It  should  be  added  that  Tarnsyke 
Clough  is  the  name  of  a  brook  that  falls  into  the  Wyre  near  Tarnbrook. 


2.  Quernmore  (E.  of  Lancaster)  :  Quernemor  1228  C1R,  Quernemore  1278  FC  II. 
(orig.),  1323  LI,  Quermore  1342  FC  II.,  Whermore  c  1500  DL  ;    now  [wo-ma]. 
The  township  lies  on  the  W.  slope  of  Clougha  Fell.    The  second  el.  of  the  name 
is  O.E.  mor  "  moor."     The  first  is  O.E.  cweorn  or  O.N.  kvern  "  quern,  mill  " 
or  possibly  "  mill-stone  "  ;   cf.  Quarlton  p.  46. 

Hareappletree  or  Appletree  :   Harapeltre  1323  LI,  Harapultre  1324  LI,  Appultre 

1537  DL.    O.E.  Mr  "  grey  "  and  ceppeltreo. 

Hutton  (old  manor,  the  N.  part  of  the  township  ;  the  name  is  now  lost)  :   Hotun 

DB,  Hoton  1278  FC  II.  (orig.),  Hutton  1557  LF.    Cf.  the  same  name  p.  136. 

Lythe  Brow  (on  a  hill-side  S.  of  Caton)  :   le  Lyht  1278  FC  II.  (orig.).    O.N.  hlid 

"  slope."    In  the  same  document  is  mentioned  the  interesting  name  les  Schyrokes 

"  the  shire  oaks  "  ;   the  name  is  now  lost. 

Rowton  Brook  :  La  Routandebrok  1323  LI,  Routandbrok  1324  LI,  Rowtane  1537 

DL.    Really  the  name  of  the  brook  on  which  the  place  stands.    The  name  means 

"  the  roaring  brook  "  ;    first  el.  the  pres.  part,  routand  from  M.E.  routen  "  to 

roar  "  (<O.N.  rauta)  ;   cf.  Rawtenstall  p.  92. 

Scarthwaite  (now  apparently  lost)  :    Starkthweyt  1278  FC  II.  (orig.),  Sterwhart 

1530  DL.    The  early  forms  do  not  allow  of  a  definite  etymology.    Possibly  that 

of  1530  points  to  O.E.  stirc  "  a  heifer  "  as  the  first  el.  ;  if  so,  Stark-  in  the  earliest 

quotation  must  be  mis  written. 

3.  Scotforth  (S.E.  of  Lancaster,  bounded  on  the  E.  by  the  Conder  ;  v.)  :  Scozforde 
DB,  Scoteford  1204  LF,  Scotford  1212  LI,  1246  IPM,  1323  LF,  1332  LS,  etc., 
Schotford,  Scodford  1301  LF,  Scodeford  1323  LI,  Scotforth  1501  CC.     Scotford 
vil.  stands  near  a  stream  ;    the  village  was  no  doubt  named  from  a  ford  over 
this  stream.    I  take  the  first  el.  of  the  name  to  be  O.E.  Scot  "  Scotsman,"  etc., 
either  in  the  gen.  plur.  or  (originally)  in  the  gen.  sing.    The  name  may  be  com- 
pared with  Galgate  (p.  170)  and  refer  to  Scottish  traffic  along  a  road  through  the 
district  or  to  some  event  in  which  a  Scotsman  or  some  Scotsmen  were  concerned. 
Bailrigg  :    Balrig  a  1254  CC,  de  Ballrugge  1277  LAR,  de  Balrig  1283  LI,  de 
Balerig  1287  LC,  Baleryg  1461  CC,  Baylerygge  1539  CC,  Balerigge  1545  LF  ;  now 
[be'lrig].    B.  stands  on  the  side  of  a  gently  sloping  ridge.    The  second  el.  of  the 
name  is  O.N.  hryggr  "  ridge."    The  first  must  be  a  word  with  a  (M.E.)  long  vowel, 
perhaps  O.N.  bdl,  M.E.  bal  "  a  blazing  pile,  a  bonfire  "  or  more  probably  O.N. 
bali  "  a  gentle  slope  along  the  shore,"  a  word  found  in  Norw.  and  Icel.  place- 
names.     Bailrigg  is  not  on  the  shore  of  the  sea,  but  no  doubt  O.N.  ball  was 
originally  used  of  any  gentle  slope. 

Big  Forth  (S.  of  Scotforth  vil.)  :  de  Biggetheit  1242  LAR,  de  Bigthvait  1246  LI, 
Biggethwayt  1323  LF.  Bigthwaite  clearly  means  "  barley  thwaite  "  (O.N. 
bygg  "  barley  "  and  thwaite  p.  19).  The  identification  of  the  early  forms  given 
with  Big  Forth  is  not  certain,  but  plausible.  Bigthwaite  is  stated  to  be  in  the 
adjacent  Ashton  township.  Big  Forth  is  near  the  Ashton  boundary.  The 
correctness  of  the  identification  is  to  some  extent  corroborated  by  the  fact  that 
it  is  difficult  to  explain  the  name  Big  Forth  if  the  second  el.  is  0. E.  ford,  for  the 
place  is  not  on  a  stream.  A  change  of  Bigthwaite  to  Big  Forth  is  easily  explained 
as  due  to  popular  etymology.  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  at  least  in  Wml. 
-thwaite  is  sometimes  pronounced  [fat] ;  cf.  Ellis  V.  605.  Cf.  also  Gubberford, 
p.  165. 


Burrow  (sometimes  looked  upon  as  a  separate  vill)  :  Burg,  Burgo,  Burgum 
c  1200  CO,  Burgh  1451ff.  CC,  Burgesbroc  c  1200  CO  (a  brook),  (Brentebrec  super) 
Aldeburgh  a  1268  CC,  Burghthwaytethurst  LC  336.  O.E.  burh  "  fortified  place." 
Nothing  appears  to  be  known  about  this  old  burh.  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that 
the  place  stands  on  the  old  Roman  road  between  Ribchester  and  Lancaster,  and 
in  a  fairly  high  situation  (on  Burrow  Heights). 

Hala  Carr  (E.  of  Scotforth,  near  a  brook) :  Helecarre  1658,  Helacar  1659,  Hayley 
Karr  1660  Lancaster  R  ;  now  [e*b  ka-].  I  suppose  Hala  is  identical  with  the 
first  part  of  the  lost  name  Hallatrice  :  Helewadris  1184-90  CC,  Heilewateris 
1190  CC,  Halotryse  1545  LF,  Halatrash  (?)  1659  Lancaster  R.  The  last  syllable 
of  this  is  apparently  O.N.  hris  "  brushwood  "  (or  O.E.  hris  "  twigs,  branches, 
brushwood  ")  ;  cf.  e.g.,  Kelderise  (Scotforth)  CC  804.  This  element  seems  to 
have  been  added  to  a  name  with  O.N.  vad  "  ford  "  as  second  el.  The  first  el. 
is  obscure  ;  possibly  it  is  O.N.  heill  "  luck  "  or  heill  adj.  "  lucky." 
Hazelrigg  :  Hesilrig  c  1200,  c  1250  CC,  Haselrig  c  1210  CC.  H.  stands  on  or  at 
a  ridge.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N.  hesli  "  hazel-bushes  "  or  O.E. 
hcesel  "  hazel  "  and  O.N.  hryggr  "  ridge." 
Langthwaite  :  Langethwayte  LC  336,  Langthwaite  ib.  340.  "  The  long  thwaite." 

4.  Ashton  with  Stodday  (a  low-lying  district  E.  of  the  Lune  estuary  S.  of  Lan- 

Ashton  Hall  :    Estvn  DB,  Eston  1212  LI,  Esseton  1301  LF,  Esshton  1332  LS, 

Asshton  1327  LS,  Assheton  1301ff.  LF.    O.E.  Msctun  "  ash  town." 

Stodday  :  Stodhae  c  1200  CC,  de  Stodaye  1246  LI,  de  Stodehahe  1252  LI,  Stodhag 

1262  LAR,  de  Stodagh  1332  LS,  Stoday  1440,  1448  LF.    O.E.  *stodhaga  "  stud 


Brantbeck  :  Brantebrec,  Brentebrec  c  1250  CC,  de  Brantebre  1246  LI.    M.E.  brant, 

brent  "  steep  "  (from  O.E.  brant  or  O.N.  brattr  <  *brant- ;  cf .  Swed.  brant)  and  O.N. 

brekka  "  slope."    B.  is  on  a  fairly  steep  slope.    The  loss  of  the  r  in  the  second 

syllable  is  due  to  dissimilation. 

Grizehead  (apparently  lost)  :   Grisehevet  c  1250  CC,  de  Grisehed  1332  LS.    O.N. 

griss  "  pig  "  (or  Griss  pers.  n.)  and  O.E.  heafod  "  hill." 

5.  Aldcliffe  (S.W.  of  Lancaster)  :   Aldedif  DB,  1332  LS,  Audeclivam  1094  LC, 
Aldeclyue,  Audeclyviam  c  1190  Ch,  Aldecliue  1212  LI,  1327  LS,  Aldeclyf  1311  IN, 
Auclyff  1577  Saxton,  Awcliffe  1577  Harr.    I  take  the  name  to  represent  an  O.E. 
Aldanclif;   Alda  is  a  known  O.E.  name.    Clif  seems  to  mean  "  a  slope  "  ;   the 
ground  rises  to  100ft.  close  to  Aldcliffe  Hall. 

6.  Lancaster    (town)  :    Landc   1035-1039    Hildebrand    (coin),  Loncastre,  Cher- 
caloncastre  DB,  Lanecastrum  1094  LC,  Loncastra  1127  Ch,  Lancastra  1162ff., 
1176ff.  LPR>  Lancastre  c  1140  Gaimar,  1198  LPR,  1212  LI,  1225  LF,  1246  LAR, 
etc.,  Lancaster  1262,  1292,  1314  LF,  etc.,  Langcastre,  Langkastre  13  cent.  Ind. 
Leland  c  1540  gives  the  local  pronunciation  as  Lancastre,  "  corruptely  spoken 
for  Lunecastre  viii  miles  off  "  ;    Camden  1586  gives   the   local   pronunciation 
Lancaster.    The  name  seems  to  mean  "  the  city  on  the  Lune  "  ;  cf .  however  under 
Lune  p.  168.     Chercaloncastre  in  DB  means  "  Kirk  Lancaster  "  ;    there  are  in 
DB  two  manors  of  Lancaster. 

Bowerham  (old  manor  ;  now  the  S.E.  part  of  Lancaster)  :  Bolerund  1201  LPR, 
Bolerun  1204,  1206  ib.,  Bulerun  1207  ib.,  Bolron  1212  LI,  1450  CC,  Bolrun  1297 


LI,  de  Bolroun  1332  LS  ;  Bolrum  1226  LI,  1212-17  RB,  1215  CO,  etc.  The  name 
seems  to  be  identical  with  Boldron,  Yks.  (  :  Bul(e)run  1280  IPM,  Bolleron  1285 
ib.).  It  appears  to  have  originally  ended  in  -n  ;  the  -m  may  be  due  to  assimila- 
tion to  the  initial  labial  or  to  association  with  names  in  -ham  and  -rum  (p.  16). 
The  first  el.  is  apparently  M.E.  bule  "  bull  "  (probably  a  Scand.  word)  or  possibly 
O.E.  Bula  pers.  n.  The  second  I  identify  with  a  word  run  found  in  Cumb.  and 
Wml.  names,  as  Poteruns  RSB  419,  Stelerun  ib.  163  (cf.  Scandinavians  p.  93f.) 
and  very  likely  to  be  derived  from  O.N.  runnr  "  a  brake  or  thicket." 
Calkeld  Lane  (street) :  Caldekelde  1220-50  FC  II.  "  The  cold  well."  Keld  is 
O.N.  kelda  "  a  well." 

Edenbreck  (in  Lancaster) :  Etenbreck  1285  FC  II  (orig.).  The  second  el.  is 
O.N.  brekka  "  a  slope."  The  first  is  doubtful. 

Priestwath  or  Priesta,  now  Scale  Ford  (VHL  VIII.  13)  :  Prestreguet  1094  LC, 
Prestwath  1317  LC,  1460  FC  II.,  Prestwaith  1371  OR.  The  name  means  "  the 
priests'  ford,"  the  second  el.  being  O.N.  vaft  "  ford,"  which  in  the  earliest 
quotation  is  translated  by  Fr.  guet  (gue).  The  last  form  quoted  seems  to  show 
influence  from  O.N.  veidr  "  fishery,  hunting  ;  place  for  fishing,"  etc. 

7.  Bulk  (N.E.  of  Lancaster,  in  a  bend  of  the  Lune) :    Bulk  1318  LC,  1327  LS, 
1332  LS,  Bulke  1341  IN,  Bowke  1581  DL.    The  ground  slopes  from  some  280ft. 
to  some  30ft.    A  long  ridge,  on  which  is  a  place  called  Ridge  (  :  Rigge  1318  LC), 
runs  from  S.  to  N.     The  name  might  be  identical  with  M.E.  bulk  "  a  heap  " 
(1440,  etc.),  apparently  a  Scand.  word  ;   cf.  O.N.  bulki  "  a  heap,  cargo,"  Swed., 
Norw.  dial,  bulk  "  a  knob,  bump."    If  this  is  right,  the  name  would  mean  "  a 
hill  "  or  the  like  and  refer  to  the  ridge  mentioned.    But  we  might  also  compare 
the  O.E.  bolca  "  a  gangway."    The  name  might  refer  to  a  foot-bridge  over  a 
stream.    Cf.  vadum  de  Bulkes  (Am.)  1330  LC. 

Newton  :   Neutun  DB,  Neutone  1094  LC,  Neuton  1212  LI,  Newton  1389  FC  II. 

The  name  is  now  preserved  in  Newton  Beck.    In  DB  Neutun  represents  Bulk 


Dolphinlees  :  Dolfenlee,  -ley  1533  DL.  The  first  el.  is  the  pers.  n.  Dolfin,  perhaps 

of  Scand.  origin. 

8.  Overton  (W.  of  the  Lune  estuary ;    v.) :    Ouretun  DB,  Ouretonam  1094  Ch, 
Ouerton  1177,  1205  LPR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Overton  1201ff.  LPR,  1212  LI,  etc., 
Orton  1577  Saxton,  1577  Harr.  ;  now  [ovatn,  o'vatn].    Overton  vil.  stands  near 
the  bank  of  the  Lune.    The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  O.E.  ofer  "  shore." 
The  meaning  "  upper  town  "   is  improbable. 

Bazil  Point  (a  promontory  S.  of  Overton)  :  Basul  1199-1206  CC.    The  second  el. 

of  the  name  is  O.E.  hyll  "  hill."    The  S.  end  of  the  point  rises  to  50ft.    The  first 

el.  is  possibly  the  pers.  n.  from  which  Basing  (Hants)  and  the  first  el.  of  Basing- 

stoke  (Hants)  are  derived. 

Colloway  :    Collingeswelle  c  1200  CC.     "  Ceiling's  well  or  brook."    There  is  a 

small  stream  near  the  place.    Colling  is  an  O.E.  pers.  n.,  probably  native. 

Sunderiand  (the  southernmost  part  of  the  township) :  ?  de  Sinderlaund  1246  LAR, 

?  Sunderlond  1262  LAR.     O.E.  sundor-land.     A  meaning  "  outlying,  detached 

land  "  is  plausible.    Cf.  the  same  name  pp.  29,  70. 

Trailholme  :    Threlhame  1663,  Thrilham  1664  Heysham  R.    The  forms,  though 

late,  point  to  an  O.N.  prcelaholmr  "  island  of  the  thralls."    The  place  stands  on  a 


small  elevation  in  low-lying  country.  Cf.  Threleholmes  (N.  Meols)  c  1250  Farrer, 
Hist.  N.  Meols,  p.  10. 

9.  Middleton  (W.  of  the  Lune  ;  v.) :  Middeltun  DB,  Middelton  c  1190  Ch,  1199ff. 
LPR,  Midelton  1212  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.    The  village  has  a  middle  position  between 
Overton  and  Heysham  ;   hence  its  name.     O.E.  Middeltun. 

10.  Heaton  with  Oxcliffe  (W.  and  N.  of  the  lower  Lune). 

Heaton  :  Hietune  DB,  Hetun  c  1160  Ch,  Heton  c  1170  Ch,  1212  LI,  1283  LF,  1332 
LS.  "  The  high  tun."  The  township  is  low-lying,  but  Heaton  h.  stands  on  a 
tract  of  rising  ground,  some  50ft.  above  sea-level. 

Oxcliffe  :  OxeneclifVB,  Oxeclive  1201ff.  LPR,  Oxecliue  1212  LI,  1297  LI,  Oxcliff 
1327,  -clif  1332  LS,  1427  LF,  etc.,  Exdiffe  1577  Harr. ;  now  [okslif ].  The  name 
means  "  the  height  where  oxen  were  kept."  The  small  hamlet  stands  on  a  little 

Melishaw  :  Melanshow  in  an  early  deed  VHL  VIII.  71 ;  now  [melifo*,  meli/a]. 
The  elements  of  the  name  may  be  the  O.Ir.  pers.  n.  Mdeldn  and  O.N.  haugr. 
The  farm  stands  at  a  slight  hill,  which,  however,  has  now  practically  disappeared. 
Ovangle  :  Ovangle  1476,  1586  DL  ;  now  [o'farjgl].  The  place  stands  on  a  slight 
elevation  close  to  an  arm  of  the  Lune  which  separates  the  large  meadow  called 
Salt  Ayre  from  the  mainland.  This  arm  makes  a  wide  bend.  It  seems  plausible, 
therefore,  that  angle  might  be  O.E.  angel  or  O.N.  ongull  "  a  fishing-hook,"  here 
used  as  a  name  of  the  bend  or  the  arm  as  a  whole.  The  first  el.  might  then  be  the 
O.N.  ofan  "  above  "  ;  a  meaning  such  as  "  (the  place)  above  the  bend  "  would 
be  very  suitable.  But  there  are  other  names  containing  an  el.  angle,  with  which 
Ovangle  may  be  compared.  In  Ince  Blundell  there  were  formerly  two  pieces  of 
land  called  Low-angle  and  the  Ox-angle  13  cent.  HS  XXXIII.  12,  17.  The  situa- 
tion of  these  places  is  unknown.  The  meaning  of  angle  at  least  in  Ox-angle  can 
hardly  have  been  simply  "  hook  "  or  "  bend."  But  very  likely  it  is  identical 
with  O.E.  angel,  etc.  ;  this  word  may  have  developed  senses  such  as  "  bend  of  a 
river,"  traces  of  which  are  perhaps  to  be  found  in  Continental  languages  (cf. 
Forstemann),  and  also  "  land  within  a  bend,"  "  river-meadow  "  or  the  like. 
This  may  be  the  sense  of  angle  in  Ovangle,  whose  first  el.  might  then  be  O.E. 
Ofa  pers.  n.  Angel,  the  name  of  the  district  from  which  the  Angles  came,  may 
belong  here  ;  see  on  this  name  especially  Erdmann,  Uber  die  Heimat  und  den 
Namen  der  Angeln,  Uppsala  1891.  Cf.  Angle  (Pembr.)  on  Angle  Bay. 
Salt  Ayre  :  Ayre  is  O.N.  eyrr  "  gravel-bank."  The  word  is  often  found  denoting 
islands  or  water-meadows,  former  sand-banks,  in  the  Lune  valley.  High  and 
Low  Ayre  are  low-lying  meadows,  liable  to  floods,  W.  of  Tunstall.  Green  Ayre 
(Green-aer  1778  West,  Guide  to  the  Lakes  p.  18)  is  now  part  of  Lancaster.  Cf. 
also  under  Skerton.  Salt  Ayre  is  still  partly  submerged  at  high  water. 

11.  Poulton,  Bare,  and  Torrisholme,  on    Morecambe  Bay1;  originally  three 
manors.    The  township  is  also  called  Morecambe  from  the  modern  town  of  this 

Poulton-le-Sands  (old  vil.) :   Poltune  DB,  Pulton  1201  LPR,  1212  LI,  1332  LS, 

1  The  identification  of  Morecambe  Bay  (formerly  Kent  Sands)  with  Ptolemy's  Moricambe, 
which  gave  rise  to  the  name  Morecambe  Bay,  seems  to  have  been  made  first  by  Whitaker, 
History  of  Manchester,  1771  (I,  125).  It  was  accepted  by  West,  Antiquities  of  Furness, 
1774,  and  the  new  name  was  soon  generally  adopted. 


etc.,  Poulton  1226  LI ;  Putton  1200  LPR,  Pilton  1205  ib.  are  no  doubt  corrupt. 
The  old  vil.  stood  near  the  sea,  and  must  have  been  named  from  some  pool  or 
brook  (O.E.  pel,  pull),  perhaps  from  Bare  Beck,  which  falls  into  the  sea  a  little 
to  the  E. 

Bare  (v.) :  Bare  DB,  1094  Ch,  1212  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Bar  1206  LF,  Barre  1220-25 
FC  II.  Probably  O.E.  bearo  "  grove  "  ;  Bar  1206  no  doubt  stands  for  Bar', 
i.e.,  Bare. 

Torrisholme  (h.) :  Toredholme  DB,  Toroldesham  1201  LPR,  Turoldesholm  1204, 
1210  ib.,  Thoraldesholm  1206  LC,  Thoroldesholm,  Thoroudesholm  1212  LI, 
Thoredesholm  1233  LF,  Thorisholme  1323  LI,  -holm  1332  LS,  Torisholm  1322  LF, 
1327  LS,  Torryshulme  1557  LF.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  porold  pers.  n. 
from  O.N.  poraldr  and  O.N.  holmr.  T-  instead  of  Th-  is  due  to  A.N.  influence. 
The  place  is  situated  at  the  S.  end  of  a  ridge  reaching  150ft.  ;  the  surrounding 
country  is  low. 

Hestham  (in  Poulton).  The  name  no  doubt  goes  back  to  earlier  Hestholm  from 
O.N.  hestr  "  horse  "  and  holmr ;  cf.  de  Hestholm  1332  LS  (Marton,  Am.).  The 
place  is  on  a  slight  elevation  in  low-lying  country. 

12.  Skerton  (N.  of  the  Lune  opposite  to  Lancaster)  :   Schertune  DB,  escartonam 
1094  Ch,  Schereton  c  1190  Ch,  Skerton  1201ff.  LPR,  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  1332 
LS,  etc.,  Schaerton  1249  LI,  Skirton  1310  LF,  Skyrton  1557  LF  ;   now  [ska'tn]. 
The  old  village  stands  on  the  bank  of  the  Lune  opposite  to  a  low  flat  islet  called 
Cow  Shard  ;  further  up-stream  are  Stake  Ayre,  Rabbit  Ayre  and  others.    I  have 
no  doubt  the  name  means  "  the  village  at  the  ayre  or  gravel-bank."    The  first 
el.  is  O.N.  sker  "  skerry,"  etc.    The  ayres  were  originally  gravel-banks  such  as 
one  sees  to-day  in  different  parts  of  the  lower  Lune.     In  Engl.  dialects  scar 
(O.N.  sker)  means  among  other  things  "  a  bed  of  rough  gravel  or  stones  ;  a  spit 
of  sand  running  into  a  lake  "  (EDD). 

Beaumont  (the  N.  half  of  the  township)  :  Belli  Montis  1190  FC,  Bellum  Montem 
1292  ib.,  Belmunt  1212  LI,  de  Beaumont  13  cent.  LC,  Beamond  c  1320  LI,  de 
Bemound  1332  LS  ;  now  [bo'mant].  The  name  is  obviously  French  and  means 
"  the  beautiful  hill."  The  place,  which  belonged  to  Furness  Abbey,  is  in  a  fairly 
high  situation  and  well  deserves  the  name. — Neuhuse  DB  is  said  to  have  embraced 
Beaumont  (VHL  VIII.  59). 
Scale  Hall  :  Scale  1577  Saxton.  "  The  hut  "  ;  O.N.  skdli. 

13.  Caton  (N.E.  of  Lancaster,  S.  of  the  Lune  ;    v.) :    Catun  DB,  Catton  1186, 
1197ff.  LPR,  1212  LI,  1273  LAR,  Caton  1185, 1196  LPR,  1327  LS,  1395  LF,  etc., 
Katon  1233  LF,  1251  IPM,  Ration  1664  RW  52  ;   now  [ke'tn].    The  first  el.  of 
the  name  is  no  doubt  a  pers.  n.,  e.g.,  O.E.  C(e)atta  or  O.N.  Kdti.    If  the  modern 
pronunciation  is  not  due  to  the  spelling,  it  is  most  probably  O.N.  Kdti,  as  that 
form  might  account  for  both  the  forms  Catton  and  Caton  ;    see  Layton  p.  155. 
Cf .  Catton,  Norf .  (Catetuna,  Cattuna,  Catuna  DB),  Yks.  (Cattune  DB),  Caton,  Dev. 
Crag  House  :  del  Crag  1332  LS.    Cf.  p.  9. 

Grassyard  or  Gresgarth  :    Gresgarthe  1577   Saxton,   Gresyard,  Girsgarth  1589 

RW  85.    O.N.  gres  "  grass  "   and  gardr  "  enclosure." 

Littledale  (the  S.  part  of  Caton) :  Luteldale  1226  LI,  Liteldale  1251  IPM.    "  The 

little  valley." 

Tongue  Moor  (in  Littledale)  :  Tonge  more  1588  RW  222,  Tangmore  1636  RW  80, 


Tungmore  1639  RW  295.  The  place  is  in  the  tongue  of  land  between  Foxdale 
Beck  and  a  tributary  of  it.  The  first  el.  is  probably  the  O.E.  tang  "  fork  of  a 
river,"  discussed  p.  18. 

Winder  (near  Artie  Beck  ;  now  perhaps  lost,  but  found  in  O.M.  1846-51) : 
Wynder  (family  name)  1501  CC  (Caton).  See  Winder  in  Cartmel  p.  197. 
14.  Gressingham  (a  detached  township  N.  of  the  Lune,  near  Hornby) :  Gher- 
sinctune  DB,  Gersingeham  1183,  1194  LPR,  Guersingueham  12  cent.  LC,  Gersing- 
ham  1204  LPR,  1235  LF,  1285  LAR,  etc.,  Gersinghaim  1204-12  CC  921  (orig.), 
de  Gersinghaym  1246  LAR,  Karsingeham  1212  RB  ;  Gressingham  1206  LPR, 
1246  LAR,  Gressyngham  1341  IN.  The  name  may  be  compared  with  Grassing- 
ton,  Yks.  (Ghersintone  DB),  Gressenhall,  Norf.  (Gressinghal  1275  HR),  Grassendale 
in  Garston  (p.  111).  The  first  el.  seems  to  be  M.E.  gresing,  grasing  "  pasturing, 
pastureland"  ( 1440,  etc.),  a  derivative  of  O.E.  goers  or  O.N.#ras  (gres).  As  regards 
the  interchange  of  Gers-  and  Gres-  cf .  M.E.  gers,  gres  "  grass."  The  second  el.  seems 
to  be  O.E.  ham  ;  cf.  the  isolated  forms  in  -haim,  due  to  Scand.  influence.  But 
O.E.  hamm  is  also  possible.  The  name  seems  to  mean  "  grazing-farm." 
Eskrig  :  Escrig  1202  LF,  escrig  1204-12  CC  921  (orig.).  The  place  stands  on  a 
ridge.  The  name  goes  back  to  an  O.N.  Eskihryggr  "  ash  ridge." 
Higher,  Lower  Snab  :  the  Snabbe  1584  DL,  Snab  1673  RW  316.  The  places  are 
on  a  slope.  Snab  "  a  steep  place  or  ascent ;  a  rugged  rise  or  point  "  is  evidenced 
in  NED  from  1797. 


A  single- township  par.  S.  of  the  Lune,  E.  of  Caton. 

Claughton  (v.) :  Clactun  DB,  Clahton  1208  LF,  1226  LI,  1252  IPM,  1255  IPM, 
Clacton  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  Clauton  1241  LF,  de  Clafton  1246  LAR,  Clagton 
1255  IPM,  Clatton  1257  LAR,  Claghton  1297  LI,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Claughton 
1297  LI ;  now  [klaftn].  Claughton  vil.  is  at  the  foot  of  Claughton  Moor,  which 
rises  steeply  to  some  1,000ft.  above  sea-level.  The  name  is  identical  with 
Claughton  in  Am.,  and  may  like  that  have  for  its  first  el.  a  pers.  n.  Clac  (from 
O.N.  Klakkr)  or  O.N.  klakkr  "  a  hill,"  etc. 


A  district  on  the  sea,  W.  of  Lancaster,  S.  of  Morecambe. 

Heysham,  Higher  and  Lower  (hamlets) :  Hessam  DB,  Hesseim,  Heseym  1094  Ch, 
Hesheim  1180-99  Ch  (orig.),  Hesam  1212-17  RB,  1297  LI,  etc.,  Hessein  1194 
LPR,  Hessem  1201  LPR,  Hesham  c  1190  Ch,  1208  LF,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS, 
etc.,  Hesaim  1212  LI,  Heesam  1246  IPM,  de  Heshaym  1259  IPM,  Hesaym  1272-5 
FC  II.  (orig.)  ;  Heghsham  1323  LI,  Hyseham  1557  LF  ;  magna,  parva  Hesham  LC 
298,  Hesaym  Superiori  1285-8  FC  II.,  Nethir-hessam  1297  LI ;  now  [hrjam],  but 
Ellis,  p.  626,  gives  the  form  [  :fisBm]. 

The  second  el.  of  the  name  seems  to  be  O.E.  ham  rather  than  hamm  ;  it  is 
often  Scandinavianized  to  -haym,  etc.  The  first  is  no  doubt  O.E.  hces.  This  word 
corresponds  to  a  L.G.  word  very  common  in  place-names  (as  Hees,  Haiss,  etc.) 
and  apparently  still  in  living  use  in  the  form  hees  or  hese  ;  the  meaning  seems  to 
be  "  brushwood,  underwood  "  (cf.  Forstemann,  Namenbuch  1196ff.,  Nomina 


Geographica  Neerlandica  III.  338).  The  base  of  the  word  is  *haisio  ;  cf.  Silva 
Ccesia  (=Heserwald)  in  Tacitus.  O.E.  HOBS  is  often  used  in  names  of  swine- 
pastures.  This  seems  to  tell  us  that  at  least  its  original  meaning  was  "  beach 
or  oak  wood."  The  same  stem  is  found  in  M.L.G.  heister,  hester,  M.H.G.  heister1 
"  young  tree,"  especially  "  young  oak  or  beech."  Examples  of  O.E.  has  are  : 
hcese  831  BCS  400  (orig.),  Lingo,  hcese  793  BCS  265  (orig. ;  now  Hayes  in  Midds.), 
Hese  (Kent)  838  BCS  418.  The  O.E.  form  hes(e)  is  due  to  the  Kentish  sound- 
change  CB  >  e,  and  hyse,  hcese,  which  also  occur,  are  inverted  spellings  due  to  the 
changes  y,  CB  >  e  (in  Kentish,  etc.). 

Cross  Copp  (on  a  small  hill  N.  of  Heysham)  :  Crossecoppe  1272-5  FC  II.,  1285-8 
ib.  O.E.  copp  means  "  top,  summit." 

Sugham  Fields  (on  a  slight  elevation,  57ft.  above  sea-level) :  Suggeholm  c  1280 
FC  II.,  LC  292.  The  second  el.  is  O.N.  holmr.  The  first  is  difficult  to  determine. 
O.E.  Sucga  pers.  n.,  sucge  in  O.E.  hegesucge  "  hedge-sparrow,"  dial,  sug  "  a 
morass,  soft,  boggy  ground,  "Swed.,  Norw.  dial,  sugga  "  sow  "  may  be  thought  of. 


A  district  N.  of  the  Lune,  N.E.  of  Lancaster. 

Halton  (township ;  v.)  :  Haltune  DB,  Haltun  c  1225  FC  II.,  Halgton,  Halghton 
1246-51  LI,  Halehton  1251  IPM,  Halton  1243  LI,  1246  LAR,  1252  LI,  1332  LS, 
etc.  O.E.  halh  and  tun.  The  village  stands  on  the  Lune,  where  there  is  a  narrow 
strip  of  flat  ground.  Halh  seems  to  mean  "  haugh,"  i.e.,  "  flat  river  meadow." 
Aughton  (on  the  Lune ;  h.) :  Aghton  1320-46  CS  74,  1458  TI ;  now  [aftn]. 
O.E.  Ac-tun  "  oak  town." 

Holgffl  (on  Holgill  Brook)  :  Hollegyll  1329  LC,  Hollgill  1331  ib.  O.E.  hol(h) 
or  O.N.  holr  adj.  "  hollow  "  and  gill  "  a  ravine." 

Sideyard  or  Sidegarth  (near  Aughton)  :  Sydeyard,  Shydeyard  1323  LI,  Sideyard 
1458  TI.  The  same  name  is  found  in  Caton  :  le  Sigard,  boscum  de  Sidyard  a  1250 
CC.  The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  O.E.  sld  adj.,  with  the  meaning  "  large  "  or  perhaps 
"  distant."  The  second  varies  between  O.E.  geard  and  O.N.  garftr. 
StreUas  :  Stralous  1210-35  FC  II.,  Stralaw(e}s  1366-7  ib.  Strellas  Lane,  S.  Beck, 
and  S.  Bridge  are  elm.  N.W.  of  Halton  vil.,  near  a  couple  of  hills,  one  of  300ft. 
I  suppose  the  name  consists  of  O.N.  strd  (or  possibly  O.E.  *stra  by  the  side  of 
strea)  "  straw  "  and  O.E.  hlaw  "  hill." 

Stub  Hall  :  de  Stub  1212  LI,  Stubbe  1376  LF,  le  Stub  1458  TI.  O.E.  stubb  "  stub, 
stump  of  a  tree." 


The  nucleus  of  this  parish  is  the  tongue  of  land  between  the  Lune  and  the 
Wenning.  To  the  N.  of  the  Lune  is  Arkholme  with  Cawood,  and  S.  of  the 
Wenning  is  a  large  district  consisting  to  a  great  extent  of  fell  country.  Most  of 
the  district  is  hilly. 

1 1  am  inclined  to  believe  that  a  word  corresponding  to  G.  heister  is  the  first  el.  of 
Hesterheugh  (a  hill  at  Yetholm,  Scotland) :  Hesterhoh  12  cent.  Hist.  St.  Cuthbert  (Sim.  Durh. 
p.  139).  As  G.  heister  seems  to  go  back  to  a  base  *haistra-,  Hester-  must,  if  my  suggestion  is 
correct,  be  derived  from  a  side -form  with  an  ion-suffix  (haistrion-) ;  cf.  O.E.  bece  "beech" 
(O.H.G.  buohha),  birce,pyrne  by  the  side  of  beorc,  porn,  etc.  (Kluge,  Stammbildungslehre,  §  83.) 


1.  Melling  with  Wrayton. 

Melling  (near  the  Lune  ;  v.)  :  Mellinge  DB,  Mellynges  1094  Ch,  c  1200  LC, 
Mellingues  12  cent.  LC,  Mellinges  1196f.  LPR,  1271  LAR,  Melling  c  1190  Ch, 
1227  ChR,  1246  LF,  etc.,  Mellyng  1332  LS,  1363,  1375  LF  ;  Mailing  1229  LF. 
Melling  represents  an  O.E.  Mellingas,  a  patronymic  derived  either  from  O.E. 
Moll  or  from  the  stem  Mall-  in  Mailing,  Kent,  and  Suss.  It  is  identical  with 
Melling  in  De,  p.  119. 

Wrayton  (old  manor)  :  Wraiton  1229  LF,  Wretton  1227  ChR,  Wraton  1271  LAR, 
1327,  1332  LS,  de  Wraton  1247  CC.  Further  examples  in  Lindkvist  p.  199. 
First  el.  O.N.  (v)rd  "  corner."  The  place  stands  on  the  Greeta  in  a  situation 
remote  from  the  main  valley. 

Cringleber  (at  a  small  round  hill).  The  name  means  "round  hill,"  the  first  el.  being 
O.N.  kringla  "  circle  "  (cf.  O.N.  kringlu-myrr  "  round  marsh  "),  the  second  O.E. 
beorh  or  O.N.  berg  "  hill."  Cf .  Cringlebarrow  p.  189  and  Cringelborhanes,  etc.,  p.  85. 

2.  Hornby  (v.,  castle  :    near  the  confluence  of  the  Wenning  and  the  Lune)  : 
Hornebi  DB,  1212  LI,  Horneby  1227,  1229  LF,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Hornby 
1297  LI,  1500  LF,  Home  Castelle  c  1540  Leland.    The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  a 
dissyllabic  word,  no  doubt  the  pers.  n.  Home  DB  (probably  Scand.).    It  is  note- 
worthy that  Horni  seems  only  to  be  evidenced  in  E. Scand.  sources. 

3.  Farleton  (on  the  S.  bank  of  the  Lune) :  Fareltun  DB,  1154-89  Ind,  Farletones 
1208  LF,  Farelton  1212  LI,  Farleton  1235  LF,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Farlton  1243  LI, 
ffarleton  1332  LS.   The  name  is  apparently  identical  with  Farleton,  Wml. :  Farel- 
tun DB,  c  1170  Ind.,  Farletone  1190-5  Ch,  Farlton  1227,  Farleton  1244  (Sedge- 
field).    The  first  el.  of  the  name  would  seem  to  be  a  pers.  n.    It  might  be  O.N. 
Faraldr  (cf.  Bjorkman,  Namenkunde).    But  in  view  of  Farlham,  Cumb.  (  :  Farlam 
1169,  etc.,  Farlham  1234,  etc.  :    Sedgefield)  it  is  perhaps  rather  the  somewhat 
doubtful  O.N.  Farle  (cf.  Bjorkman,  op.  cit.)  or  an  O.E.  name  corresponding  to 
it  and  derived  from  the  stem  Fara-  found  in  O.G.  names  (cf.  Forstemann). 
Akefrith  (old  manor ;    now  lost)  :    Farleton  Eichefrid  1154-89  Ind,   Farleton 
Okesrith  (for  -frith)  1246  LF,  Akefrith  man.  1529  DL.    O.E.  dc  "  oak  "  (in  the 
earliest  ex.  Scandinavianized  ;   cf.  O.N.  eik)  andfyrhp  "  frith." 

4.  Arkholme  with  Cawood  (between  the  Lune  and  the  Keer,  N.W.  of  Melling). 
Arkholme  (v.)  :    Ergune  DB,  Argun  1195  LPR,  Argum  1196  ib.,  Erghum  1246 
LAR,  1332  LS,  Hergun  1243  LI,  Ergum  1271  LAR,  1279  ChR,  Arwyn  1519  LF, 
Erholme  1539  LF.     The  dat.   pi.  of  ergh,  argh  "  shieling,  mountain  pasture  " 
(see  p.  10).    The  township  is  hilly  ;   it  reaches  466ft.  at  Cragg  Lot.    Arkholme 
vil.  is  near  the  Lune. 

Cawood  :  (nemus  de)  Kawode  c  1225,  c  1250  CC,  (moss  of)  Cawode  c  1350  LPR. 

Cf.  Cavuda  (silva)  CC  469  (Hoole,  Leyl.)  and  Cawood,  Yks.  (Lindkvist  p.  184). 

First  el.  M.E.  kd  "  jack-daw,"  probably  a  native  word.    Cawood  was  the  forest 

of  the  lords  of  Melling. 

Gunnerthwaite  (near  the  Keer) :    Gunnerthwait  1633  RW  26.     "  The  thwaite 

of  Gunnarr."    Gunnarr  is  a  well-known  O.N.  name. 

Kitlow  (on  a  hill) :    Kydloo  1445  VHL  VIII.  205,  Kitley  1647  RW  309.    This 

might  be  an  old  *Ketilhow,  "  the  how  (O.N.  haugr)  of  Ketill" 

Locka  :   Lochawe  1271  LAR,  de  Loghagh  1325  LCR,  de  Logkagh  1326  ib.    O.E. 

*lochaga  from  loc  "  lock,  enclosure,  fold  "  and  haga  "  enclosure." 


Storrs  :   de  Stordis  1243  LI,  Estrodes  1271  LAR,  the  Storthes  c  1350  LPR,  del 
Starches  1332  LS,  Stones  c  1590  RW  263.    O.N.  stord  ''  brushwood,  underwood." 

5.  Wennington  (h.)  :   Wennigetun,  Wininctune  DB,  Wenington  1212  LI,  W enigton 
1227  ChR,  1271  LAR,  Weninton  1229  LF,  1243  LI,  Wenyngton  1332  LS,  1346 
LF,  etc.     The  hamlet  stands  on  the  river  Wenning,  whose  name  is  evidenced 
from  1165  on,  and  it  would  seem  obvious  that  the  first  el.  of  the  name  is  that  of 
the  river.    But  Old  Wennington  (Old  Wenigton  1227  ChR,  Old  Weninton  1229 
LF)  stands  near  the  Greeta.    If  the  epithet  Old  may  be  taken  to  prove  that  the 
original  Wennington  was  that  on  the  Greeta,  it  does  not  seem  quite  probable 
that  it  was  named  after  the  Wenning.    If  it  is  not,  Wennington,  like  Wennington 
in  Hunts,  must  have  as  its  first  el.  the  patronymic  Wenningas  (from  O.E.  Wenna 
pers.  n.).    I  am  inclined  to  prefer  the  second  alternative.    The  river-name  would 
then  have  to  be  explained  either  as  a  back-formation  from  Wennington  (which, 
in  view  of  the  early  occurrence  of  the  name,  is  somewhat  hard  to  believe)  or 
else  as  an  independent  derivative  of  the  pers.  n.  Wenna  :  "  the  stream  belonging 
to  Wenna,"  no  doubt  the  same  Wenna  as  the  ancestor  of  the  Wennings. 
Button  (on  a  ridge  or  hill  between  Wennington  and  Old  Wennington)  :   Hoton 
a  1227  CO,  Hotunn  a  1242  ib.    First  el.  O.E.  hoh  "  ridge,"  etc.    Cf.  the  same  name 
in  Leyl. 

6.  Roeburndale  (a  wide  tract  of  hill  country  on  both  sides  of  the  Roeburn) : 
Reburndale  1285  IPM,    Rebrundale,    Reynbrundale   1301    FC   II.,    Reburncedal 
1341  IN,  Rybburndale  1372  Gaunt  R,  Roberundale  1528  LF.   "  The  valley  of 
the  Roeburn." 

Harterbeck  (on  a  brook):    Hatherbecke  1576  RW  277,   Harterbeclc  1587  ib., 

Hartherbecke  1609  ib.  24.     The  first  el.  may  be  identical  with  that  of  Harter 

Fell,  Cumb.  (Herterfel  c  1210  FC  II.),  i.e.,  the  gen.  of  O.N.  hiortr  "  hart  "  or 

Hiortr  pers.  n. 

Haylot  (on  the  slope  of  Haylot  Fell) :    Hailett  1584,  Hayloth  1624  RW  228. 

No  doubt  literally  "  hay  lot  "  ;    lot  means  "  allotment  for  grazing  on  a  fell." 

An  early  example  of  this  lot  is  Yuelotesheuede  1228  C1R,  which  means  "  Yew 

Lot  Hill." 

Mallowdale  (near  the  Roeburn,  on  the  slope  of  Mallowdale  Fell) :  Malydall  1574 

RW  277,  Malladale  1640  RW  159.    Probably  simply  "  mallow  dale." 

Outhwaite  (on  the  lower  Roeburn) :    Wlvetheit  1199  ChR,  Ulthuayte  1528  LF. 

Probably  "  the  thwaite  of  Ulf  "  ;    Ulfr  is  a  common  O.N.  name. 

Salter  (on  the  slope  of  Goodber  Fein  :   Salter  1612,  1625  RW  222,  Lower  Salter 

1613  RW  310.    The  name  is  identical  with  Salter  in  Cumb.  (Salterghe  12  cent.), 

a  compound  of  O.N.  salt  sb.  or  saltr  adj.  "  salt  "  and  ergh  "  a  shieling."    The 

meaning  of  the  first  el.  is  not  obvious. 

Scambler  (apparently  lost)  :   Seamier  1536  DL,  Scambeler  1569  ib.    The  first  el. 

is  apparently  the  Scand.  pers.  n.  Skamel  (found  in  O.Dan. ;   cf.  O.N.  Skamkell), 

found  also  in  Scamelbrec  c  1250  Wetherhal  Reg.    The  second  is  no  doubt  ergh  "  a 


Smeer  Hall  :   Smerhawe  1418  TI,  Smearehaw  1639  RW  317.    The  second  el.  is 

probably  O.E.  haga  or  O.N.  hagi  "  enclosure."     The  first  is  apparently  O.N. 

smior  "  butter."     The  meaning  of  the  name  would  be  something  like  "  fat 

pasture."    In  Scand.  place-names  smor  "  butter  "   is  sometimes  used  to  denote 


good  soil  or  the  like.    In  Swed.  dialects  smormdse  means  "  a  pasture  where  cows 
give  the  best  butter."    Of.  Lindroth,  Ortnamn  pa  -rum,  p.  70.    But  the  first  el. 
may  also  be  O.E.  smeoru  with  a  sense  "  mire  "  or  the  like. 
Stauvin  :  Stoneing  1646,  Stouvin,  Stowing  1678  RW  24,  Stowving  1786  Yates ; 
now  [stauvin].     Etymology  obscure. 

Winder  (on  the  slope  of  Caton  Moor)  :  Eye  Winder  1618  RW  317.  Of.  Winder 
in  Cartmel,  p.  197. 

7.  Wray  with  Botton  (a  long  strip  of  hillside  land  along  the  Hindburn). 
Wray  (v.)  :    Wra  1227  ChR,  1229  LF,  1271  LAR,  etc.,  Wraa  1327,  1332  LS  ; 
now  [re*].    The  village  stands  on  the  Hindburn  in  a  rather  remote  and  out-of-the- 
way  situation.    The  name  is  O.N.  (v)rd  "  corner." 

Botton  :  de  Bottun  c  1230  CO,  Botine  1246  LF  I.  95,  Botten  1341  IN  ;  Botnebek 
1235  LF.  Botton  is  the  district  round  the  upper  Hindburn  valley.  The  name 
is  O.N.  botn  "  bottom ;  the  innermost  part  of  a  valley,"  also  used  as  a  place- 
name  in  Iceland.  An  essentially  correct  explanation  is  given  by  Sephton. 
Summersgill  :  Somerscall  1606  RW  222.  "  Summer  scale  or  hut,"  "  hut  for 
use  in  summer  "  (O.N.  sumarr  "  sommer  "  and  skdli  "  hut  ").  The  place  is  on  a 
hill  side. 

Thrushgill  :  Thursgill  1631  RW  317,  Thurskeale  1672  RW  293.  The  elements 
of  the  name  are  apparently  O.N.  purs  "  giant  "  and  gil  "  ravine."  Higher  and 
Lower  T.  are  on  the  steep  slope  W.  of  the  Hindburn.  Cf.  Thursgyll  c  1350  LPR 
(near  Capernwray)  and  Thursegilemos  CO  958  (Bland,  Yks.). 


A  narrow  strip  of  hilly  country  between  the  Hindburn  and  the  Yorkshire 
border,  chiefly  S.  of  the  Wenning.  The  church,  however,  is  on  the  N.  bank  of 
the  river.  There  is  only  one  township. 

Tatham  :   Tathaim  DB,  1215  LPR,  Tateham  1202,  1463  LF,  Thatham,  Thataim 
1212  LI,  Tatham  1226  LI,  1317  LF,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Tatam  1297  LI.    O.E. 
Tata,  a  common  pers.  n.,  and  ham,  sometimes  supplanted  by  O.N.  heimr.    There 
is  no  village  Tatham  ;  it  must  have  been  on  the  Wenning. 
High  Gale  :  Gail  a  1225  CO.    O.N.  geil  "  ravine." 

Gamblesholme  (on  the  Hindburn,  E.  of  Wray) :  Gamelsholme  1661  RW  258. 
First  el.  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Gamall. 

Ivan  :  Ivo  1520, 1597  DL,  Ive  1528  LF,  Ivoth  1603  RW  317,  Iva(h]  1631  RW  277. 
The  place  is  close  to  Ivah  Great  Hill  (647ft.).  The  name  is  obscure  ;  the  second 
el.  may  be  O.N.  hpfud  "  head,  hill." 

Lowgill  :   Lawgill  1520  DL,  1528  LF.    Probably  "  low  ravine." 
Lythe  (on  the  slope  of  Lythe  Fell)  :  Lyeth  1588  RW  37.    O.N.  Mid  "  slope." 
Robert  Hall  (old  seat) :   Robertes  hall  1577  Saxton.    The  place  was  named  after 
Robert  Cansfield,  who  inherited  it  in  1515  at  the  age  of  three  (VHLV 
Whiteray  (on  Whiteray  Beck) :    Wytewra  1235  LF,  Whitraye  1622  RW  311. 
The  place  is  high  up  among  the  hills.    The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N.  hvitr 
or  O.E.  hwit  "  white  "  and  O.N.  (v)rd  "  corner,"  etc. 



Ireby  township  on  the  Yks.  border  belongs  to  Thornton  par.  in  Yks.,  but  is 
reckoned  as  belonging  to  Lancashire,  owing  to  early  connection  with  Tatham. 
The  township  is  situated  E.  of  the  Lune  and  Whittington. 
Ireby  (v.)  :  IreU  DB,  Yreby  1212  LI,  Yrebi  1215  LPR,  Ireby  1241, 1317  LF,  etc., 
Yrby  1297  LI,  Irby  1332  LS.  Of.  Ireby  in  dumb.,  Irby  in  Ches.  The  first  el. 
is  the  pers.  n.  Ire  (O.N.  Iri)  or,  more  probably,  Ira,  the  gen.  of  O.N.  Irar  "  Irish- 


This  parish,  situated  between  the  Lune  and  the  Greeta,  forms  the  N.E.  part 
of  the  hundred.  The  surface  is  level  along  the  Lune,  but  rises  to  considerable 
altitudes  in  the  N.E.  on  the  Yks.  border. 

1.  Cantsfield  (between  Cant  Beck  and  the  Greeta  ;  v.) :  Cantesfelt  DB,  Canceveld 
1202  LF,  Cancefeld  1208,  1229,  1235  LF,  Kancefeld  1243  LI,  Cancefeud  1271 
LAR,  Caunsfeld  1327, 1332  LS,  Cauntefeld  1341  IN  ,  now  [kansfi'ld].    The  early 
forms  are  a  good  deal  influenced  by  Norman  spelling.    We  may  start  from  a  late 
O.E.  Cantesfeld.    The  first  el.  has  some  connection  with  the  name  Cant  Beck. 
But  Cantsfield  vil.  stands  some  way  S.  of  Cant  Beck  on  a  small  tributary  of  the 
latter.    Yet  it  is  no  doubt  possible  to  derive  Cantes-  from  Cant,  the  name  of  the 
brook  (found  from  1202).    On  the  other  hand,  Cant  may  be  a  back-formation 
from  Cantesfeld,  and  the  first  el.  of  the  latter  may  be  *Caw£pers.  n.,  a  side-form  of 
Canta,  which  is  no  doubt  a  pet  form  of  names  such  as  Cantwine  (C entwine). 
I  am  inclined  to  prefer  the  second  alternative.     The  vil.  and  hall  stand  at  a 
piece  of  level  land  extending  to  Cant  Beck. 

Laithbutts  :  Lathebolt  1202  LF.  There  seems  to  have  been  a  place  called  Lathe- 
bote  in  Whittington  :  Lathebote  1219  LF,  -bot  a  1219,  c  1260  CC.  Cf.  also  Lathebot 
c  1200  CC  579  (Ainsdale,  De.).  Laithbutts  is  obviously  identical  with  these  two 
names.  The  first  el.  is  O.N.  hlada  "  barn."  The  second  may  be  Norw.  dial. 
bot  "  a  piece  "  ;  also,  "  a  patch  of  land."  Cf.  bceti  in  place-names  in  the  Faroe 
Islands  (Jakobsen),  a  derivative  of  bot.  But  it  is  curious  that  the  combination 
Lathebot  is  so  common.  Cf.  Lathebot  (Rimington,  Yks.)  1276  PD. 
Scaleber  (on  the  slope  of  a  hiU  near  the  Yks.  border) :  Scaleberg(e)  1202  LF. 
First  el.  O.N.  skdli  "  hut." 

Thurland  Castle  (W.  of  Cantsfield  vil.) :  Thurland  1465  PatR,  1539  CC,  1577 
Saxton,  1586  Camden,  Thorsland  1500,  1514  DL,  Thurlande  1577  Harr.,  Thurs- 
land  1578  RW  104 ;  Fyrrelande  c  1540  Leland.  The  name,  according  to  VHL 
VIII.  232,  does  not  occur  until  1402.  The  first  el.  is  apparently  a  Scand.  name 
in  par-,  pur-.  Possibly  Thurland  is  identical  with  the  Thorolfland  mentioned 
in  CC  903  (1247)  under  Wennington,  which  is  separated  from  Cantsfield  by  the 

2.  Tunstall  (E.  of  the  confluence  of  the  Greeta  and  the  Lune  ;   v.)  :    Tunestalle 
DB,  Tunstall  1235  LF,  1246  LAR,  1271  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Tunstal  1227,  1229, 
1235  LF,  1246  LAR,  Tunstale  1338  LF.    This  is  a  fairly  common  place-name 
occurring  in  various  parts  of  England  (Kent,  Sufi1.,  Staffs.,  Yks.,  Durh.,  etc.). 
The  name  is  identical  with  O.E.  tunsteall  (O.E.  tun  and  steall  "place"),  which 


seems  to  mean  "  site  of  a  farm ;  farmstead."  It  may  be  compared  with  O.E. 
hdmsteall  "  homestead  "  and  O.N.  names  in  -stadr  such  as  Bolstafir,  Bjdrstadr, 
etc.  (Rygh,  Indl.  p.  76). 

3.  Burrow  with  Burrow  (on  the  Lime)  :    Borch  DB,  Burg  1212  LI,  Burg'  1252 
IPM,  Burgh  1259  IPM,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Burros  1577  Saxton,  Burros  1577  Harr. 
There  were  two  manors,  distinguished  as  Over  and  Nether  Burrow  :    Over-, 
Nethirburgh  1370  LF.    Burrow  is,  of  course,  O.E.  burh  "  fortified  place."    There 
are  remains  of  a  Roman  fort  (VHL  II.  p.  519).    A  Roman  road  runs  along  the 
E.  boundary  of  the  township. 

Cowan  Bridge  (at  Leek  Beck) :  Collingbrigke,  Colligbrige  c  1200  CO.  First  el. 
presumably  Colling  pers.  n.  as  in  Colloway  p.  175.  There  is  a  place  Collin  Holme 
in  Tunstall. 

High  Gale  (on  Eller  Beck) :  Gale  1465  PatR,  Overgaile  1606  RW  25.  Gale  is 
O.N.  geil  "  ravine." 

4.  Leek  (the  N.E.  part  of  the  parish  ;   v.)  :    Lech  DB,  Leec  1196  CO,  Lecke 
1212  LI,  Lee  1251  IPM,  Leek  1252  IPM,  1327  LS,  Leek  1332  LS,  1370  LF.    Leek 
vil.  stands  on  Leek  Beck,  and,  of  course,  took  its  name  from  it.    The  source  is 
very  likely  O.N.  Icekr  "  brook."    But  the  name  is  found  so  often  in  England  (cf. 
e.g.,  Leake  Notts.,  Yks.,  Lines.,  Leek  Staffs.,  Warw.)  that  it  is  difficult  to  believe 
that  the  O.N.  word  is  always  the  source.    Partly  the  name  is  probably  a  side- 
form  without  assibilation  of  Leach,  Lache  (Glo.,  Ches.)  from  an  O.E.  word  for 
"  brook  "  found  in  M.E.  as  leche,  lache,  in  Mod.  E.  as  leach,  letch  (NED  s.v.  letch). 
Fairthwaite  (apparently  lost) :    de    Fauerwayt  1262    LF,   Fagherthwayt  1324 
VHL  VIII.  238,  Fayretwhayte  parke  1465  PatR.     "  The  beautiful  clearing," 
O.N./a#y  "  fair  "  and  pveit  (p.  19). 

Old  Town  (estate) :  Allan  (for  -tun)  1212  LI.  "  The  old  tun"  Perhaps  the  oldest 
settlement  in  Leek. 

Todgill  (Todgilber  O.M.  1846-51) :  de  Toddegill  1332  LS,  Todgill  1590  RW  27. 
The  place  stands  in  a  valley  by  a  hill  (547ft.).  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  no 
doubt  tod  "  a  fox  "  (1170  NED),  the  second  O.N.  gil  "  a  ravine." 


A  single-township  par.  W.  of  the  Lune.    The  part  near  the  Lune  is  level. 
Whittington  proper  forms  the  N.  half,  Newton  with  Docker  the  S.  half. 
Whittington  (v.) :  Witetvne  DB,  Witington  1212  LI,  Quitinton  a  1219  CC,  Whiting- 
ton  1246  LAR,  1327  LS,  Wyttinton  1252  IPM,  Whitynton  1332  LS.    No  doubt  an 
O.E.  Hwltingatun,  Hwltingas  being  a  patronymic  derived  from  Hwlta.  Whitting- 
ton was  in  pre-Conquest  time  an  important  place,  the  centre  of  the  great  lordship 
of  Whittington  held  by  Tostig.    The  vil.  is  near  the  Lune. 
Bleaze  Wood  (high  up  on  a  hill-side  W.  of  Whittington) :   Blese  a  1219  CC.    Cf. 
Bleasdale  p.  165. 

Sellet  Hall  :   magnum  Sekhout  a  1219  CC,  a  1268  ib.,  Selleth  hall  1577  Saxton. 
The  place  is  situated  on  the  slope  of  Sellet  Bank,  a  hill  of  379ft.     The  name 
probably   represents  a  Scand.  Selhpfud,  from  sel  "  hut,  shieling  "  and  hofud 
11  a  hill." 
Thirnby  (old  manor  ;  the  name  is  now  lost) :   Tiernebi  DB,  Thirneby  a  1219  CC, 


Thirnebi  a  1268  CC.  Of.  Thrimby,  Wml.  :  Tirneby  1200,  Thirneby  1241  (Sedge- 
field).  The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  an  O.Scand.  pers.  n.  Thyme,  found  as  pirne 
in  a  York  doc.  of  1023  (Bjorkman,  Namenkunde).  The  name  seems  to  be 
evidenced  only  in  E.Scand. 

West  Hall  (old  manor)  :  Westhalle  1416  TI,  West  hall  1577  Saxton.  The  place 
is  W.  of  Whittington  vil. 

Newton  (old  manor)  :  Neutune  DB,  Neuton  super  Lon  a  1219  CC.  "  The  new 

Docker  (h.) :  Dokker  1505,  1507  LF,  Docker  towne  1577  Harr.  The  name  is 
identical  with  Docker,  Wml.  :  Docherga  1294  (Sedgefield).  Its  second  el.  is 
ergh  "  a  shieling  "  (cf.  p.  10).  The  first  is  perhaps  O.N.  dokk  "  a  hollow,  valley  " 
(cf.  Scandinavians  p.  77).  The  hamlet  stands  on  fairly  high  ground  in  a  valley, 
through  which  runs  a  brook. 
Yarlside  is  a  small  round  hill  of  c  250ft.  Cf.  the  same  name  in  Furness  (p.  201). 


A  district  N.  and  N.E.  of  Lancaster,  on  Morecambe  Bay.     The  surface  is 
undulating.     In  the  E.  elevations  of  some  400ft.  are  reached. 
1.  Slyne  with  Hest  (N.  of  Lancaster). 

Slyne  (v.) :  Sline  DB,  Asselinas  1094  Ch,  Slynes  c  1190  Ch,  Slina  1177  LPR, 
Slin  1185  LPR,  Sline  1203  LPR,  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Slyne, 
Slyndale  1200-10  FC  II.,  Slyne  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Slene  1248-51  LI,  de  Slen  c  1250 
CC,  de  Slene  1332  LS  ;  de  Sleen  c  1200,  a  1240  CC  ;  now  [slain].  Slyne  stands 
on  a  ridge.  Near  Slyne  Hall  is  a  small,  prominent  hill. 

The  early  forms  point  to  a  M.E.  Sline  (with  short  i)  ;  [slain]  must  be  a 
spelling-pronunciation.  Related  names  are  perhaps  Slynehead  p.  107,  Slindon, 
Staffs.  (Slindone  DB),  Slindon,  Suss.  (Eslindone  DB).  But  the  last  two  may  have 
as  first  el.  *slind-,  with  d  lost.  I  believe  Sline  goes  back  to  an  O.E.  *slinu  or  the 
like,  related  to  Norw.  dial,  slein  "  gently  and  evenly  sloping  terrain,"  sleina 
"  to  glance  aside  ;  to  slope."  These  contain  a  stem  parallel  to  hlin-  in  O.E. 
hlinian  "  to  lean,"  Goth,  hlains  "  hill,"  Norw.  Uin  "  slope,"  etc.,  Lat.  clino,  etc. 
(Torp-Fick  111).  Interchange  of  initial  sk-  and  k-  and  the  like  is  a  well-known 
phenomenon  in  Aryan  languages  ;  cf.  Noreen,  Urg.  Lautlehre  201  ff.,  Brugmann 
I.  §  818,  and  especially  Johansson  PBB  XIV.  289ff.,  where  O.E.  slind,  Ir.  sliss 
"  side  "  by  the  side  of  O.N.  hlib,  Lat.  clino,  etc.,  are  pointed  out.  O.E.  *slinu 
may  have  meant  "  a  slope  "  ;  this  seems  a  suitable  meaning  here.  A  meaning 
"  hill  "  is  also  possible  ;  cf.  especially  Goth,  hlains.  As  regards  the  formation 
of  the  word  we  may  compare  O.E.  cinu  "  chink  "  by  the  side  of  O.E.  cinan 
"  to  burst." 

Hest  (with  Hest  Bank,  h.) :  Hest  1177ff.  LPR,  1212  LI,  1332  LS,  etc.,  Heste 
1327  LS,  Heest  1246  LI,  Ernst  1557  LF  ;  now  [hest].  This  is  apparently  another 
interesting  old  name  containing  an  otherwise  lost  word.  The  form  Heest  points 
to  a  word  with  a  long  vowel,  O.E.  Hcest  or  Hest.  The  name  is  to  be  compared 
with  the  Cont.-Germ.  Haist  dealt  with  by  Forstemann,  p.  1198,  and  considered 
by  him  to  belong  to  the  L.G.  hees  (see  Heysham).  O.E.  *hcest  very  likely  had  about 
the  same  meaning  as  hces.  It  may  be  the  first  el.  of  Hesthope  (Shrops.)  1341  IN. 


Stapleton  Terne  (old  manor) :  Stopeltierne  DB,  Stapiturnam  1094  Ch,  Stapil- 
thorne  a  1189  FC  II.,  Stapelthorn  c  1190  Ch,  Stapelthurn  1201  LPR,  -e  1212  LI, 
Stapilterne  1201  (orig.),  1220-40  FC  II.,  Stapelthiern  1226,  Stappilterne  1297  LI. 
O.E.  stapol  "  pillar,  post  "  and  pyrne  "  thornbush."  Cf.  to  stapola  dome  901 
BCS  596,  to  dam  dome  deer  se  stapul  stent  CD  1096.  The  meaning  seems  to  be 
"  the  thornbush  by  the  staple."  The  change  to  Stapleton  Terne  is  due  to 
association  with  tern  "  tarn." 

Ancliffe  :  Ancliffe  1537  FC  II.,  Lytell,  Great  Anclyff  1539  ib.  Ancliffe  Hall  is 
on  a  slope.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  doubtful.  It  may,  of  course,  be  the 
well-known  O.E.  pers.  n.  Anna. 

2.  Bolton-le-Sands  (v.) :   Bodeltone  DB,  Boeltone  1094  Ch,  Bothelton  c  1190  Ch, 
1201,  1202  LPR,  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Bohtheltun  1201-16  FC  II.  (orig.), 
Bouelton  1256-8  LI,  Boulton  1206  LPR,  1226  LI,  -e  1248  LI,  1310  LF,  Bolton 
1265  IPM,  1297  LI,  1327,  1332  LS,  etc.    O.E.  bopl  "  dwelling  "  and  tun ;   cf. 
p.  8.    The  addition  le-Sands  refers  to  the  situation  of  the  village  near  the  sands 
of  Morecambe  Bay. 

The  ground  must  formerly  have  been  to  a  great  extent  marshy,  to  judge  by 
numerous  names  in  -myre  "  mire,"  found  in  early  sources,  as  Enge-,  Wedholm- 
myre  LC  177.  In  the  marshy  land  were  several  pieces  of  higher  land  designated 
by  names  in  -holm.  Examples  are  :  Calfholme  c  1240  FC  II.,  Gerefholm  1204 
LPR  (Grefholm  c  1245  CC)  "  the  greave's  holm,"  Serlesholme  1323  LI  "  the  holm 
of  Serle." 

Dertren  (in  Dertren  Lane,  Yate) :  Dritern  (for  Driteru,  i.e.,  -rum)  1204  ChR, 
Driterum  1204ff.  FC  II.  O.N.  or  O.E.  drit  "  dirt "  and  rum,  perhaps  "  a  clear- 
ing." The  change  -m>-n  has  a  perfect  analogy  in  Dendron  p.  209.  The  nasal 
seems  to  have  been  assimilated  to  the  dental  consonants  in  the  words. 
Hawkshead  :  Houkeshout  1220-50  CC,  Haukesheued  1230-50  FC  II.  O.N.  Haukr 
pers.  n.,  and  O.N.  hofud  "  head  ;  hill,"  later  replaced  by  Engl.  head.  Cf.  Hokes- 
welleLC  182,  Haukeswelle  ib.  215  (in  Bolton-le-Sands),  which  has  the  same  first  el. 
Hatlex  :  in  Magnis  Hakelakes  1230-5  FC  II.,  in  Parvis  Hakelakes,  Litel-,  Mekel- 
hakelakes  1246-67  ib.,  de  Hakelakes  1250-70  FC  II.  139  (orig.),  Hadex  1586  RW 
93,  Hakles  1526,  Hackleek  1557  LF  ;  now  [hatliks].  Hatlex  farms  are  on  a  brook 
called  Hatlex  Beck.  The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  no  doubt  lake  sb.  "a  small 
stream."  The  first  may  be  a  pers.  n.,  e.g.,  O.E.  Hacca  or  O.N.  Haki,  or  possibly 
hackle  "  stickleback  "  (found  from  1655,  but  probably  a  native  word  representing 
O.E.  *hacule,  *hecile ;  see  NED).  The  plur.  form  is  probably  due  to  the  fact 
that  there  are  (or  were)  two  farms  of  the  name. 

Inglebreck  :  Hingelbrec  c  1200  CC,  Ingelbrec  1201-16  FC  II.  (orig.).  Probably 
O.N.  Ingolfr  or  Ingialdr  pers.  n.  and  brekka  "  hill,  slope." 

Ramshead  (apparently  lost) :  Ramesheued  c  1204  FC  II.,  -e  c  1242  ib.,  Ramshouth 
LC  242,  Rameshout  c  1320  LI.  O.E.  ram  "  ram  "  or  Ram  pers.  n.  and  O.E. 
heafod  or  O.N.  hofud  "  hill." 

3.  Kellet,  Nether  and  Over  (townships  and  villages  S.E.  of  Carnforth)  :   Chellet 
DB,  13  cent.  RSB  453,  Kellet  1194f.  LPR,  1242,  1246  LAR,  1297   LI,  etc., 
Kelled  1199f.  LPR,  c  1200  CC,  Kelleth  1212  LI,  Keleth  1235-45  FC  II.,  13  cent. 
Ind,  Kellett  1246  LAR,  Kellit  1257  LAR,  de  Kellettes  LC  150.    Kellettam  inferi- 
orem  LC  173,  Netherkellet  1299,  1343  LF,  1332  LS,  -kellett  1327  LS,  Nether 

WARTON  PAR.  187 

Kellettes  1297  LC.  Ovrekellet  1277  LAR,  Overkellet  1278  LAR,  Kelkt  superiori 
c  1275  CO,  Ovirkellet  1285-7  CO,  Ouerkellet  1332  LS. 

Wyld  derives  the  name  from  O.N.  kelda  "  spring  "  and  hlid  "  slope."  In 
Anglia  Beiblatt  XXIII.  189  I  have  expressed  some  doubt  as  to  the  correctness 
of  this  etymology.  Wyld  bases  his  etymology  on  the  form  de  Keldelith  LC  150 
(deed  from  c  1225,  but  in  a  late  transcript).  I  am  not  convinced  that  Keldelith 
refers  to  Kellet.  There  is  a  Kelleth  in  Wml.,  which  is  often  written  Keldelyth 
and  the  like  in  early  sources  (see  Sedgefield).  Very  likely  Keldelith  in  LC  refers 
to  Kelleth.  Yet  I  now  believe  Wyld's  derivation  is  correct ;  the  analogy  of 
Kelleth  seems  to  me  convincing.  The  early  reduction  of  the  original  form  may  be 
due  partly  to  the  base  having  been  O.N.  *Keldhlid,  where  the  d  would  easily  be 
dropped  between  the  Vs,  partly  to  A.N.  influence.  The  early  change  of  -d  to  -t 
is  apparently  due  to  A.N.  influence  (cf.  Zachrisson,  A.N.  Infl.  p.  951).  The  name 
then  means  "  the  slope  of  the  spring."  Over  Kellet  stands  by  Kellet  Seeds  (470ft.); 
Nether  Kellet  is  on  the  slope  of  a  hill.  The  spring  which  gave  name  to  the  place 
may  have  been  that  mentioned  CC  907  :  Yerleskelde  "  the  earl's  spring." 
Addington  (in  Nether  Kellet)  :  Addington  1786  Yates.  I  have  found  no  earlier 
forms  of  the  name.  Addington  1311  quoted  by  Wyld  is  a  mistake  for  Adlington, 
Le.  If  it  is  an  old  name  in  the  district,  it  probably  represents  O.E.  Addinga  tun. 
Birkland  Barrow  :  Berchlundberghe,  Berkelondberh,  Birkelundeberh  1200-50  CC, 
Birklundberg'  1230-40  FC  II.  Cf.  Birkelundewra  1268-75  CC.  The  place  stands 
on  a  hill.  The  name  is  a  compound  of  Birkelund  (O.N.  birkilundr  "  birch  copse  ") 
and  O.N.  berg  or  O.E.  beorh  "  hill." 

Capernwray  (h.,  hall)  :  de  Coupmanwra  c  1200  LC,  Koupemoneswra  1212  LI, 
de  Caupemanneswra  1228  C1R,  de  Copmannewra,  de  Coupmanewro  1246  LAR, 
Copynwra  c  1350  LPR  ;  now  [ke-pnre-].  See  further  Lindkvist,  p.  146.  O.N. 
kaupmadr  "  merchant,"  here  perhaps  used  as  a  pers.  n.  (Lindkvist,  Bjorkman, 
Personennamen)  and  O.N.  (v)rd  "  corner,"  etc.  The  place  stands  in  a  remote 
situation  near  a  brook  falling  into  the  Keer. 

Helks  Wood  (near  Birkland  Barrow)  :  le  Helkis  c  1270  CC.  Helks  in  Lane,  and 
Yks.  dialects  means  "  large  detached  crags  ;  a  confused  pile  or  range  of  rocks  " 
(EDD).  Helk  is  apparently  from  O.N.  helkn,  holkn  "  barren,  rocky  ground." 
The  loss  of  n  probably  took  place  in  English,  as  no  form  without  n  is  evidenced 
in  Scand.  languages.  Helks  Wood  is  on  the  slope  of  a  hill  reaching  400ft. 


A  district  N.  of  Lancaster  on  the  lower  Keer  and  Kent  Sands.  Most  of  it 
is  hilly,  but  there  is  some  flat,  partly  marshy  country,  especially  on  the  Keer 
and  the  Kent  estuary. 

1.  Carnforth  (S.  of  the  lower  Keer  ;  v.)  :  Chreneforde  DB,  Corneford  1212  BF, 
Kerneford  1246  LAR,  1312  LF,  1332  LS,  etc.  (the  usual  early  form),  Carneforde 
1356,  Corneford'  c  1388  FC.  The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  O.E.  ford  ;  the  vil. 
stands  on  the  Keer.  The  first  el.  I  take  to  be  a  form  of  O.E.  cran  "  crane  "  ;  cf . 
the  common  name  Cranford.  It  might  be  a  sideform  with  e,  identical  with  cren 
in  Barbour.  But  it  is  quite  possible  that  e  (in  Kern-,  etc.)  is  merely  an  inverted 
spelling  for  a,  due  to  the  fact  that  in  A.N.  e  often  became  a  before  r,  especially 


in  a  pretonic  position.  Chreneforde  in  DB  has  an  exact  parallel  in  Crenefort 
by  the  side  of  Cranefort  DB  (Suffolk).  As  regards  the  form  Kerneford  we  may 
compare  early  forms  of  Cranwich,  Norf. :  Kernewiz  1275  HR,  Kernewiss  1283  AP. 
Metathesis  is  found  in  O.E.  cornuc,  for  cronuc,  cranuc,  a  derivative  of  crew. 
Cf.  also  Cornbrook,  p.  27. 

2.  Warton  with  Lindeth  (N.  of  the  Keer,  on  Morecambe  Bay). 

Warton  (the  E.  part ;  v.)  :  W artun  DB,  Warton  1246  LAR,  1285  LAR,  1332 
LS,  etc.  Probably  O.E.  Weard-tun,  from  weard  "  guard  "  ;  cf.  Warton,  Am. 
The  village  stands  at  the  foot  of  the  dominating  Warton  Crag  (534ft.),  an 
ancient  beacon  hill,  on  which  there  are  remains  of  an  old  earth- work.  But  O.E. 
warod,  weard  "  shore  "  is  also  a  possible  first  el. 

Hubberthorne  (now  lost)  :  de  Huberthorne  1246  LI,  de  Hubrightthorn  1302  VHL 
VIII.  178,  Hoburthornes  1416  TI.  The  first  el.  is  the  L.G.  pers.  n.  Hubreht, 
Hubrecht,  as  in  Hubbersty,  p.  171. 

Hyning  :  del  Heyning  1299  LI.  Cf.  le  Haynigne  (Yks.)  Percy  C  247,  le  Henyng 
(Bolton-le-Sands)  LC  186,  190.  The  name  is  identical  with  haining  "  enclosure  " 
(1535,  etc.)  ;  cf.  hain  "  enclosure  "  (1205ff.),  hain  "  to  enclose  "  (15  cent.)  from 
O.N.  hegna  "  to  fence  "  (NED). 

Maureholme  (a  lost  old  manor) :  Maureholme  (cultura)  c  1240  FC  II.,  Moureholm 
1324  IPM,  Morholm',  Moreholme  1356  FC,  Maureholme  1431  FA.  See  further 
Lindkvist,  p.  148,  who  derives  the  name  from  O.N.  maurr  "  ant  "  and  holmr 
"  island,"  etc.  M.  is  supposed  to  have  stood  on  a  hillock  E.  of  Warton. 
Tewitfield  (or  -mire) :  Tewhitmyre  c  1388  FC,  Tuwhitfeld  1500  DL.  First  el. 
tew(h)it  "  lapwing  or  pewit." 

Lindeth  (the  W.  part) :  Lyndeheved  1344,  1347  OR,  Lyndhevede,  Lindheved, 
Lindehevede  1356  FC,  Lyndesheved  1412  FC,  Lynteth  1501,  Lyndeth  1537  CC. 
O.E.  lind  "  lime-tree  "  and  heafod  "  head  ;  headland."  L.  occupies  a  steep 
headland.  The  change  of  -d  to  -th  may  be  due  to  association  with  the  word  heath. 
Fleagarth  :  Flegarth  1548  DL.  The  first  el.  is  doubtful.  O.N.  fld  "  a  small 
ledge  on  a  hill-side  "  may  be  suggested. 

3.  Borwick  (N.E.  of  Carnforth,  on  the  N.  bank  of  the  Keer  ;  v.) :   Bereuuic  DB, 
de  Berwik  1228  C1R,  Berewyk  1285  LAR,  1323  LI,  -wik  1327  LS,  Berwik  1332 
LS,  1518  DL,  -wyk  1446  LF,  Barwyc  hall  1577  Harr.    O.E.  berewic  "  berewick, 
demesne  farm  "  ;  cf.  Barton  p.  38.    The  change  of  e  or  a  to  o  is  remarkable,  but 
late  ;    Borwyc  1255  LI  is  probably  corrupt  for  Berwyc. 

4.  Priest  Button  (N.E.  of  Borwick  ;    v.)  :    Hotune  DB,  Hoton  1327,  1332  LS, 
1382  LF,  Presthoton  1406  CR,  1438,  1443  LF.    Cf.  Hutton  p.  136.    The  village 
stands  at  a  spur  of  land  in  a  sheltered  position.    Priest  was  added  to  distinguish 
the  place  from  Hutton  Roof  in  Kirkby  Lonsdale  (Wml.).    The  manor  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  rector  of  Warton. 

5.  Yealand  (W.  of  Burton  in  Kendal ;  there  are  two  townships,  old  manors  and 
villages,  Yealand  Redmayne  and  Yealand  Conyers)  :    Jalant  DB,  de   Y  aland 

1206  LC,  Yaland  1200-25  CC ;    Hielande  1202  LF,  Hieland  1204-12  CC  (orig.), 

1207  LF  ;    Yeland  1190  CC,  1208  LF,  1212  LI,  1243  LI,  etc.,  leland  1227  LF, 
Yelond  1246  LF,  1332  LS  ;    Yholand  1246  LAR  ;  Mukelelond,  Litylelond  1323  LI, 
Elandes  1577  Saxton  ;    Yeland  Redman  1395  LF,  1341  IN,   Yeland  Coygners 
1301  LF,  1341  IN,  Yeland  Conyers  1353  LF  ;  now  [jeland]. 

WARTON  PAR.  189 

The  etymology  depends  upon  whether  the  early  forms  Hieland(e),  Yholand 
are  to  be  disregarded  or  not.  An  inorganic  H-  is  not  uncommon  in  early  forms 
of  names,  but  in  this  name  they  are  unusually-  frequent.  If  the  name  originally 
began  in  H-  I  would  derive  it  from  O.E.  Healand  ;  if  not,  from  O.E.  Ealand. 
The  villages  are  situated  on  the  E.  slope  of  a  ridge  ;  "  high  land  "  is  an  accurate 
name.  On  the  other  hand,  Leighton  Beck  is  less  than  a  mile  N.  of  Yealand 
Conyers  village  and  forms  the  N.  boundary  of  the  township  ;  but  the  inter- 
vening land  is  occupied  by  White  Moss.  O.E.  Ealand  would  mean  "  the  land  by 
the  stream."  The  first  alternative  seems  to  me  distinctly  preferable.1  We 
must  in  any  case  assume  that  O.E.  ea  became  [ja]  and  [je].  Hea-  would  have 
become  [hja],  and  by  loss  of  [h]  in  this  unusual  position  [ja].  A  change  of  ea 
to  ya,  ye  is  found  elsewhere  ;  see,  e.g.,  Zachrisson,  A.N.  Infl.  p.  65f.  The  relation 
between  Yaland  and  later  Yeland  is  not  sufficiently  clear. — After  the  Conquest, 
Yealand  was  divided  into  two  manors  named  from  the  families  by  which  they 
were  held. 

Cringlebarrow  Wood  (on  a  hill  S.W.  of  Yealand  Redmayne).  Cf.  Cringleber, 
p.  180. 

Hilderston  (near  Leighton  Beck)  :  Hildriston  a  1190  CC,  Hildrestona  1190  CC, 
de  Hildreston  1260  CC,  Hildrestonheuet  a  1220  CC.  The  first  el.  is  obviously 
an  O.E.  pers.  n.  in  Hild-,  perhaps  Hildered,  found  in  the  time  of  Canute,  or 
Hilderic,  as  in  Hildersham,  Cambr.  (Hildricesham  DB). 

Leighton  (old  manor)  :  Betheleghton  1246  LF,  de  Lecton  1255  LT,  Leghton  1301  LF, 
Legkton  Conyers  1325  LF  ;  now  [le'tn].  O.E.  leactun  "  garden."  Bethe-  in  the 
earliest  quotation  may  stand  for  Beche-,  i.e.,  Beck  ;  cf .  Leighton  Beck.  Leighton 
Hall  stands  a  good  way  from  Leighton  Beck  stream,  and  Leighton  is  a  part  of 
Yealand  Conyers,  which  is  separated  from  Leighton  Beck  by  Yealand  Redmayne. 
We  must  assume  that  in  early  days  Leighton  extended  as  far  as  Leighton  Beck, 
as  it  could  give  that  brook  its  name.  This  is  corroborated  by  the  fact  that 
Leighton  House  stands  N.  of  Leighton  Beck  (in  Wml.).  Probably  Leighton  was 
in  pre-Conquest  time  the  name  of  the  whole  district  occupied  by  the  Yealands. 
But  Bethe-  might  also  be  a  form  of  the  name  Beetham.  Leighton  before  the 
Conquest  belonged  to  Beetham  lordship  (Wml.).  Early  forms  of  Beetham2  are  : 
Biedvn  DB,  Bethum  1190-9  Ch. 

Waitholme  (on  an  elevation  in  mossy  land).    Cf.  Waitham,  p.  198. 
Yealand  Storrs  (near  Yealand  Redmayne  and  Storrs  Moss)  :     Yelondstorthes 
1558  LF,  Yealand  Stors  1593  RW  126.    Cf.  Storrs,  p.  181. 
6.  Silverdale  (on  Morecambe  Bay  ;  v.) :  Selredal  1199  ChR,  1246  LF,  de  Sellerdal 
1246  LAR,  Sellerdal  1341  IN,  Celverdale  1292  PW,  Siluerdale  1320-46  CS  74, 
Silverdale  1382,  1507  LF.3    Silverdale  proper  is  no  doubt  the  valley  in  which 
the  church  stands.    The  name  simply  means  "  silver  valley."    It  refers  to  the 
silver-grey  rocks  which  form  a  prominent  characteristic  of  the  place.     Such 

1  Wyld  suggests  as  first  el.  the  O.E.  word  corresponding  to  G.  gau  (O.E.  -ge,  etc.).    This 
would  not  account  for  the  early  forms. 

2  Beetham   is  apparently  a  Scand.  name,  identical  with  (2nd-,  Ut)bjoe  in  Bergenhus, 
Norway  ;  cf.  Wthbiwdom  1482.    Bjoe  is  O.N.  Biddar,  pi.  of  bjddr  "  a  table,"  etc.  The  name 
refers  to  flat  ground  (NG.  xi,  90f.). 

3  Forms  such  as  Syfrethelegh  1202,  Siuerdelege  1241  LF,  refer  to  a  place  in  De. 


lime-stone  rocks  are  found  especially  in  the  high  ridge  N.  of  the  church  (called 
Silverdale  Nab  by  West,  Guide  to  the  Lakes,  1778),  at  the  cove  near  the  sea 
where  Cove  Hall  is,  and  in  the  hill  E.  of  the  church.  No  doubt  these  cliffs  were 
formerly  to  be  seen  in  more  places  than  they  are  now. 

Challen  Hall  :  Challendhall  1574  RW  301  ;  now  [t/alon  ho'l].  Chalkn  is  probably 
a  family  name  ;  cf.  Challen  in  Bardsley. 


This  parish  is  in  Wml.  with  the  exception  of  one  township. 
Dalton  :   Dalton  a  1225  CC,  1228,  1235  LF,  etc.    The  place  seems  to  have  been 
named  from  the  valley  N.  of  Dalton  Hall. 

Deerslet  or  Deerslack  :  de  Duresslet  1324  LI,  Durslett  1451, 1461  CC.  Apparently 
O.E.  deor  or  O.N.  dyr  "  deer  "  and  O.N.  sletta  "  flat  ground,"  whence  Yks. 
dial,  sleet  "  a  flat  meadow  ;  a  level  moor  "  (EDD). 


This  district,  which  is  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  hundred  by  a  strip  of 
Westmorland,  forms  the  southernmost  part  of  the  Lake  District.  It  is  bounded 
on  the  E.  by  the  Kent  estuary,  the  Winster,  and  Lake  Windermere,  on  the  W. 
by  the  Duddon,  on  the  N.  by  the  Duddon  and  the  Brathay.  It  consists  to  a  great 
extent  of  fell  country,  and  abounds  with  lakes  or  tarns,  rivers  and  streams, 
and  hills  with  distinctive  names.  Settlements  of  importance  are  found  chiefly 
in  the  southern  parts,  and  to  some  extent  in  the  river  valleys  and  on  the  lakes. 

Names  of  Rivers 

Winster  (a  trib.  of  the  Kent) :  Wynster  1577  Saxton,  Winstar  1577  Harr.  Cf. 
Winstirthwaytes  1249  (Sedgefield),  stated  to  be  an  early  form  of  Winster  in 
Kendal,  also  Wynster  1538  RW  215  (a  place).  I  identify  the  name  with  Vinstra, 
the  name  of  two  rivers  in  Norway.  Vinstra  is  derived  by  Bugge  (in  Rygh, 
N.E.  342)  from  the  adj.  vinstri  "  left."  The  Winster  may  have  been  called  "  the 
left  one  "  in  contradistinction  to  the  Leven,  which  forms  the  W.  boundary  of 
the  Cartmel  district,  while  the  Winster  forms  the  E.  boundary.  Or  the  com- 
parison may  have  been  with  the  Gilpin  in  Wml.,  which  runs  parallel  to  the 
Winster  ;  the  point  of  view  would  then  have  been  that  of  people  coming  up  the 
Kent.  The  derivation  from  the  Brit,  words  found  in  Welsh  gwyn  "  white  " 
and  O.Bret,  staer  "  water  "  suggested  by  McClure,  p.  150,  is  rendered  impossible 
by  the  fact  that  the  Winster  has  dark  brown  water. 

Eea  or  Ay  (runs  through  the  Cartmel  district).  No  early  forms  have  been 
found.1  The  present  pronunciation  [e'J  points  to  O.N.  a  "  river  "  as  the  source 
rather  than  O.E.  ea. 

1  West,  Guide  to  the  Lakes,  2nd  ed.  1780,  and  Antiquities  of  Furness,  2nd  ed.  1813,  gives 
the  Eau,  "  pronounced  commonly  Eea,"  as  the  name  of  the  Leven  after  its  junction  with  the 
Crake.  Stockdale,  Annales  Caermoelenses,  p.  542,  states  that  the  Kent  is  called  the  "  Ea  " 
in  its  passage  over  the  sands. 


Leven  (empties  Lake  Windermere  into  Morecambe  Bay)  :  leuenam  1157-63  Ch 
(orig.),  Leven  1196  LF,  Levenam  1196  FC,  Levene,  Leuene  1246  LAR.  The  name 
Leven  is  found  elsewhere.  Bartholomew  mentions  one  Leven  in  Yks.  and  three 
in  Scotland.  There  is  every  reason  to  suppose  that  the  Engl.  and  the  Scotch 
Leven  are  identical  in  origin.  The  Scotch  Leven  occurs  in  early  sources  as 
Lemain  (g.  Lemna),  and  is  thus  identical  with  Ir.  Lemain  (see  Hogan).  The 
names  are  derived  from  a  word  meaning  "  elm,"  O.Ir.  lem,  Welsh  llwyf,  etc. 
The  v  in  Leven  is  due  to  Brit,  lenition. 

Crake  (empties  Coniston  Water  into  the  Leven)  :  crec  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Crate 
1196  LF,  Crec,  Crate  1196  FC,  Craik  13  cent.  FC  ;  now  [kre'k].  There  is  a  river 
of  the  same  name  in  Wml.  :  Craik  1247,  Craik,  Crayc  1257  FC.  The  name  is 
perhaps  preserved  in  Crake  Hall  near  Skelsmergh.  I  suppose  the  name  Crake 
is  cognate  with  Welsh  craig  "  rock,"  earlier  creic  in  Penncreic  LL  229.  It  may  be 
a  derivative  of  that  word,  or  it  may  go  back  to  a  Brit,  name  of  the  type  Afon 
Creic  "  the  rocky  stream  "  or  the  like.  The  river  in  parts  of  its  course  has  a 
rocky,  stony  bed,  and  it  runs  past  rocky  hills.  It  is  also  possible  that  the  river 
was  named  from  some  place  called  Creic.  The  place  Craikeslith  near  the  Crake, 
mentioned  in  a  Final  Concord  of  1196,  may  have  been  named  from  the  Crake, 
but  also  from  one  of  the  hills  W.  of  the  Crake.  A  similar  explanation  no  doubt 
holds  good  for  the  Wml.  Craik. 

Dulas  :  Water  of  Dulas  (in  Finsthwaite)  1565  West,  App.  ix.  The  stream  that 
runs  past  Stott  Park  and  falls  into  Lake  Windermere  may  be  meant.  The 
name  seems  identical  with  Douglas  p.  126,  but  appears  in  a  later  form. 
Levy  Beck  (falls  into  the  Leven  estuary).  No  early  forms  have  been  found. 
Lebby  Beck  1867  Morris.  An  earlier  name  of  the  stream  is  given  by  Harr.  1577  : 
The  Rawther.  This  seems  to  be  most  probably  corrupt  for  Rawthey,  i.e.,  O.N. 
Raud-d  "  the  red  river." 

Duddon  (falls  into  the  Irish  Sea) :  Dudenam  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Duden  c  1180 
Ch,  12  cent.  RSB,  Dudene  13  cent.  RSB,  Dodyn  c  1280  RSB,  Dodyne,  Doden, 
Dodin  c  1300  FC  ;  Duthen  1196  LF  ;  now  [dudn].  I  believe  the  name  is  a  com- 
pound, the  second  el.  being  O.E.  denu  "  valley."  If  so,  the  compound  was 
obscured  at  an  .early  date,  as  indicated  by  spellings  such  as  Dodyn.  The  first 
el.  may  be  an  old  Brit,  river-name  identical  with  Celt  *dubo-  "  black  "  (Welsh 
du,  etc.).  Cf.  Duff  in  Ireland  (Hogan,  s.v.  dub,  dubh)  and  Dove  Ford,  p.  220. 
As  regards  the  disappearance  of  the  final  v  we  may  compare  Douglas  in  Ley  land. 
The  river  Duddon  has  clear  water,  but  a  dark  bottom.  Or  the  first  el.  may 
possibly  be  the  O.E.  pers.  n.  Dudda  or  Dudd. 

Steers  Pool  (a  trib.  of  the  Duddon) :  Styrespol  1235  LF,  Sterispul  c  1300  FC. 
O.N.  Styrr  pers.  n.  and  pool  "  a  stream  "  (cf.  p.  15). 

Otterpool  (in  Angerton)  :  Otrepul,  Otirpul,  Otterpul  FC  I.  325ff.,  Otrepole  1424 
FC  II.  "  The  otter  pool."  Cf.  the  same  name,  p.  95. 

Lickle  (a  trib.  of  the  Duddon) :  Licul  c  1180  Ch.  Cf.  de  Likyl  1246  LAR.  The 
name  seems  to  be  a  compound  with  O.N.  hylr  "  pool  "  as  second  el.  Hylr, 
like  pool,  may  have  come  to  be  used  also  of  a  slowly-moving  stream.  The  lower 
course  of  the  river  is  characterized  by  numerous  wide  bends.  It  seems  plausible, 
therefore,  that  the  first  el.  may  be  O.N.  lykkja  "  a  loop." 

On  the  Lickle  is  a  place  called  Croglinhurst,  no  early  forms  of  which  have  been 


found.     The  first  el.  Croglin-  is  identical  in  form  with  Croglin,  the  name  of  a 

river  in  Cumb.    If  Croglinhurst  is  an  old  name,  it  seems  extremely  probable  that 

the  Lickle  was  once  called  Croglin. 

Brathay  (falls  into  Lake  Windermere)  :    Braitha  1157-63  Ch  (orig.)..  1196  LF, 

Braiza  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Brayza  1196  FC  ;   now  [bre'Si].     O.N.  Breidd  "  the 

broad  river,"  as  suggested  by  Collingwood,  Scand.  Britain  p.  213.    The  lower  part 

of  the  river  is  remarkably  broad.    The  river  gave  name  to  Brathay  Hall :  Braihey 

1577  Saxton. 

Yewdale  Beck  (falls  into  Coniston  Water) :    Ywedalebec  1196  LF.      Yew  is, 

of  course,  O.E.  iw  "  yew." 

Names  of  Lakes 

No  sufficiently  early  forms  have  been  found  of  Gaits  Water1  (Gait  is  very 
likely  a  pers.  n.  of  O.N.  origin,  as  suggested  by  Wyld),  Helton  Tarn,  Levers 

Blelham  Tarn  (in  Hawkshead)  :  Blalam  terne  1537  Beck  Ixv,  Blalam  Terne 
1539  FC  II.  ;  now  [blelam].  The  first  el.  is  O.N.  Udr  "  blue,  black  "  ;  this  suits 
the  case.  The  second  cannot  be  determined  with  the  material  at  our  disposal. 
Possibly  it  is  the  word  lum  "  a  pool,"  found  several  times  in  Bl. 
Coniston  Water  or  Thurston  Water  :  turstiniwatra  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Thurstaine- 
water  1196  LF.  See  further  Lindkvist,  p.  96.  The  first  el.  is  the  O.N.  pers.  n. 
porsteinn  or  rather  pursteinn.  The  lake  was  named  from  a  previous  owner. 
See  also  under  Coniston  infra.  The  name  Thurston  Water  was  formerly  applied 
also  to  the  river  Crake  or  to  its  upper  part.  Thurstane  Water  in  Egton  (a  fishery) 
is  mentioned  in  FC  II.  605  (1539).  West  (1774)  tells  us  that  the  Crake  was  called 
Thurston  or  Coniston  water  as  far  south  as  Lowick  Bridge  or  Under  Nibthwaite 
(p.  xxxii).  Thurston  Vale  is  the  name  of  the  valley  S.  of  Coniston  Water 
in  O.M.  1846-51. 

Elterwater  (a  tarn  on  the  N.  boundary,  partly  in  Wml.) :  heltewatra,  Elterwat' 
1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Elteswater  1196  LF,  FC,  Helterwatra  1196  FC,  Elterwater 
FC  I.  393,  Elterwaterpark  1539  FC  II.  The  name  probably  represents  an  O.N. 
* Elptarvatn  (cL  Swed.  Amtervatten),  the  first  el.  being  the  gen.  sg.  either  of  O.N. 
elptr  "  swan  "  or  of  Elptr,  a  river-name  derived  from  it.  Elpt  is  a  common 
element  in  Scand.  names  of  lakes  and  rivers.  See  the  detailed  discussion  of  the 
name  in  NoB  VIII.  86f.,  and  cf.  Noreen,  NoB  I.  5fi.  The  change  of  Elptar- 
to  Elter-  is  regular ;  cf .  the  loss  of  /  in  halter  from  O.E.  hcelfter  and  O.Norw. 
alt<alpt  (Noreen,  Aisl.  Gr.  §  281).  Engl.  water  seems  to  have  replaced  an 
original  O.N.  vatn,  as  it  often  has  in  Shetland  names  (Jakobsen  p.  163).  It  may 
be  added  that  another  example  of  the  el.  Elter-  seems  to  occur  in  N.  Lane., 
viz.,  Elter  Holme,  the  name  of  a  slight  headland  in  Esthwaite  Water. 
Esthwaite  Water.  See  p.  218. 

Standing  Tarn  (N.E.  of  Dalton  in  Furness)  seems  to  have  been  formerly  Green 
Tarn  :  greneterne  c  1535,  Greneterne  1537  Beck  Ixvi. 

1  Goats  Tarn  1774  West  (Map),  Goats  Water  1786  Yates,  Goats-water  1843  Jopling ;  Gaits 
Water  1849  The  Old  Man. 

2  Lever  Water  1774  West  (Map),  Levers  Tarn  1786  Yates,  Levers  Water  1830  Leigh  ;  now 
[li'vez  wo'te]. 


Windermere  :  ?  Wonwaldremere1  c  1130  Sim.  Durh.,  Winendemere,  Wynandrem' 
1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Winandermer  1196  ~LF,.Winendremer  1196  LF,  1246  FC, 
Wynandermer  1272 IPM,  Winnandermare  1282  FC,  the  Winander  Water  1577  Harr. 
The  first  el.  of  the  name  must  be  identical  with  that  of  Winderwath,  the  name 
of  a  place  near  Great  Asby  in  Wml.  :  de  Vinanderuuat'  c  1277  CWNS  XX.  74, 
Wynandeswath  1288  ib.  IX.  325  ;  cf.  also  Sedgefield.  Windermere  and  Winder- 
wath are  far  apart  and  must  have  been  named  independently  of  each  other. 
This  shows  that  Windermere  cannot  have  as  its  first  element  an  old  name  of  the 
lake,  as  might  be  supposed.  In  all  probability  Winder-  is  a  pers.  n.,  as  has  been 
suggested  by  Wyld  and  others.  This  is  all  the  more  probable  as  personal  names 
are  the  first  el.  of  the  names  Thurston  Water  and  Ullswater  in  Cumb.  (Ulveswatre 
1324  IPM).  Ullswater  is  a  lake  of  about  the  same  size  as  Windermere.  But 
Winder-  cannot  be  the  gen.  of  an  O.N.  *Wignandr  :  a  name  corresponding  to 
O.E.  Wignod  would  have  had  the  form  *Wignannr.  There  is  no  O.N.  name  to 
which  Winander-  may  be  with  certainty  referred.  But  the  O.Swed.  Vinnunder, 
Vinandus,  found  in  Finnland  ( Vinandus  de  Tenalum  1329,  Vinnunder  i  Vinnund- 
bdle  1410  ;  cf.  Lundgren-Brate),  may  be  the  name  sought  for.  Vinandus  1329 
is  also  called  Vinaldus,  and  Brate  is  inclined  to  believe  that  the  name  is  Low 
German.  But  Vinandus  must  be  identical  with  Vinnunder,  as  the  two  names 
were  borne  by  persons  from  the  same  district,  and  Vinnunder  seems  to  be  in  all 
probability  an  old  Swed.  name  (Vinunder,  g.  Vinandar).  It  would  seem  to  be  a 
name  analogous  to  Anunder  and  the  like  ;  see  Noreen,  NoB  I.  143ff,  i.e.,  a  name 
with  O.N.  vondr  "  staff  "  as  second  el.  The  chief  objection  against  this  etymology 
is  the  fact  that  the  el.  Vin-  (O.N.  vinr  "  friend  ")  is  not  with  certainty  evidenced 
in  Scand.  names  as  a  first  el.  If  Wonwaldremere  Sim.  Durh.  belongs  here,  it 
seems  to  point  to  the  second  el.  having  orice  begun  with  a  w.  This  would  go  very 
well  with  the  etymology  suggested,  for  names  in  -vondr  sometimes  retained  v 
in  certain  forms.  The  Saxon  form  Winwadremer  given  by  Camden  1587  cannot 
be  traced.  I  believe,  then,  that  Winander-  represents  the  gen.  sg.  of  an  0. Scand. 
Vinundr,  gen.  Vinandar. 

Names  of  Hills,  etc. 

Apart  from  names  of  minor  hills  which  have  given  names  to  places,  very  few 
hill-names  have  been  found  in  early  sources.2 

1  The  identification  is  not  certain.  The  entry  in  which  the  name  occurs  refers  to  the  year 
791.     If  Windermere  is  meant,  the  name  cannot  well  have  formed  part  of  a  contemporary 

2  The  absence  of  names  such  as  Wetherlam,  Old  Man,  etc.,  in  early  sources,  is  remarkable. 
It  is  curious  that  West,  in  his  Antiquities  of  Furness  1774,  and  Guide  to  the  Lakes  1778, 
does  not  mention  the  names  of  any  Furness  hills,  though  he  was  a  resident  of  Tytup  Hall, 
N.  of  Dalton-in-Furness,  and  enumerates  a  great  many  Cumberland  and  Westmorland  hills. 
The  first  mention  of  hill-names  such  as  Old  Man  I  find  in  Yates's  map  of  1786  :   Dow  Crag, 
F airfield,  Grey  Friar,  Stickle  Pyke,  Scar  (=Walney  Scar),  Weatherlom,  Yewdale  Cragg,  also 
Old  Man  Quarry.     Smith's  New  and  Accurate  Map  of  the  Lakes  1800  has  Fairfield,  Grey 
Friar,  Old  Man,  and  his  map  of  the  county  of  Lancaster  1801  adds  Stickle  Pyke  and  Weather - 
ton  (!).     Wetherlam  I  find  in  the  map  in  Wordsworth's  Guide  to  the  Lakes,  3rd  ed.,  1822  ; 
in  the  text  occurs  Walna  Scar.    Leigh's  Guide  to  the  Lakes  1830  has  Walney  Scar. 

Of  the  names,  Grey  Friar  is  self-explaining.    Stickle  in  Stickle  Pike  is  O.E.  sticol  "  lofty  ; 
steep."     The  hill  is  steep  and  pointed.    Names  such  as  Dow  Crags,  Fairfield,  Wetherlam 



Caw  (1,735ft.  ;  in  Dunnerdale  and  Seathwaite)  :  Calfheud  1170-84  Ch.  The 
early  form  seems  to  mean  "  the  top  of  Caw."  Calf  is,  of  course,  O.E.  calf  or 
O.N.  kalfr  "  calf."  A  reasonable  theory  is  that  the  word  calf  is  here  used  in 
the  same  way  as  when  it  denotes  a  small  island  situated  near  a  larger  one.  This 
has  actually  been  suggested  by  Collingwood,  OWNS  XVIII.  p.  94,  though  he 
thinks  Calfheud  refers  to  a  point  on  Dow  Crags.  The  fells  W.  of  Coniston  Water 
consist  of  a  mountainous  range  with  peaks  such  as  Coniston  Old  Man  (2,633ft.), 
Wetherlam  (2,502ft.)  and  others,  with  the  minor  height  called  Caw  further  south. 
To  anyone  who  has  seen  the  fells,  e.g.,  from  the  S.E.,  I  think,  it  will  seem  very 
plausible  that  Caw  could  be  looked  upon  as  the  "  calf  "  of  the  more  northern 
group.  The  loss  of  the  -/  of  Calf  may  have  taken  place  in  such  a  combination 
as  Caw  Pike. 

Flan  Hill  (N.  of  Ulverston)  :  Flan  (the  name  of  a  place)  1597  RW  81 .  There  is 
a  M.E.  word  flan  (<O.N.  flan)  "  a  sudden  gust  of  wind  "  c  1475  (NED).  A 
hill-name  Flan-how  or  the  like  seems  quite  plausible,  and  Flan  1597  may  be 
an  elliptic  form.  Perhaps  the  Norw.  name  Flamberget  (Flanberg  1723)  has  the 
same  first  el.,  but  the  author  of  NG  XVI  gives  a  different  suggestion. 
Latterbarrow  (Hawkshead).  No  early  forms  are  on  record.  In  Scandinavians, 
p.  91,  I  suggest  that  Latter-  in  this  and  some  other  names  may  be  early  Ir.  lettir 
11  a  hill,  a  slope."  I  find  now  that  Latter-  at  least  in  some  of  these  names  can  be 
explained  in  another  and  simpler  way.  There  is  an  O.N.  word  Idtr  (<J*lahtra-) 
meaning  "  lair  of  an  animal,"  and  letre  in  Norw.  dialects  means  "  small  house 
or  shelter  for  animals,  especially  pigs  "  (Aasen).  Swynlatermire  (Asby,  Wml.) 
CWNS  XX.  73  very  likely  contains  O.N.  Idtr  in  the  sense  "  lair  of  wild  swine  " 
or  "  pig-sty."  One  of  these  senses  seems  plausible  in  Latterbarrow,  La.  and  Cumb., 
and  in  Latterhead,  Cumb.  Also  Hulleter  in  Colton  (p.  216)  may  very  well  con- 
tain this  Idtr,  the  first  el.  being  e.g.  O.N.  holl  "  hill."  But  it  seems  very  difficult 
to  believe  that  Whinlatter  in  Cumb.  (the  name  of  a  hill  of  1,696ft.)  can  be  so 
explained.  I  find  that  the  identification  of  Latter-  with  O.N.  Idtr  is  suggested  by 
Collingwood  in  Thorstein  of  the  Mere  (1895). 

Tarn  Hows  (N.  of  Coniston  Water) :  Ternehowys  1538  FC  II.,  Ternehowes 
1560  ib.  O.N.  tiprn  "  tarn  "  and  the  plur.  of  O.N.  haugr  "  hill."  The  hills  were 
named  from  the  tarns  close  by. 

Wrynose  Hawse  (on  the  border  between  Lane,  and  Cumb.)  :  Wreineshals, 
Wraineshals  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Wrenhalse  1157-63  FC,  Wranishals  c  1180  Ch, 
Wreneshals  1196  LF,  Wrenosse  hill  1577  Saxton.  The  second  el.  of  Wrynose  is 
hause  (O.N.  or  O.E.  hals)  "  a  narrower  and  lower  neck  or  connecting  ridge  between 

cannot  be  explained  without  earlier  forms.  Old  Man  probably  contains  the  common  words 
old  and  man,  but  their  exact  meaning  is  doubtful.  Perhaps  the  most  probable  explanation 
is  that  man  is  here  used  in  the  sense  "  a  cairn  or  pile  of  stones  marking  a  summit  "  (cf.  NED), 
and  that  the  name  originally  referred  to  the  mediaeval  beacon  (Collingwood,  CWNS  18,  p.  93). 
Another  possibility  is  the  following.  Old  Man  is  a  miners'  term  for  an  old  vein  that  has 
become  exhausted  or  has  been  abandoned  for  a  long  time  (NED,  EDD).  It  is  no  doubt 
an  adaptation  of  G.  alter  mann,  used  in  the  same  sense  (Grimm  Wbch,  Mann  14).  In  Yates's 
map  Old  Man  occurs  only  in  the  name  Old  Man  Quarry,  though  it  is  possible  the  words  at  the 
same  time  do  service  as  the  name  of  the  hill-top.  Old  Man  Quarry  may  have  been  named 
from  an  "  old  man,"  Old  Man  being  subsequently  taken  to  be  the  name  of  the  hill.  But  Mr. 
Collingwood  tells  me  there  are  no  traces  of  any  old  mines  near  the  top  of  the  Old  Man. 


two  heights  or  summits  ;  a  col.  .  .  .  Generally  at  the  head  of  two  stream 
valleys  which  descend  opposite  sides  of  the  hause,  forming  a  pass  over  the  ridge 
or  mountain  chain  at  this  point  "  (NED).  This  description  suits  Wrynose  Pass  (or 
Hawse)  to  a  nicety.  The  Duddon  and  Brathay  both  rise  at  Wrynose  and  flow 
different  ways.  After  the  second  el.  of  Wrynose  had  been  obscured  Hawse 
was  added  again.  The  first  el.  may  be  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  (V)reini,  a  by-name 
from  (v)reini  "  stallion  "  (Wyld)  ;  O.Swed.  Vrene  may  have  existed  (Bjorkman, 
Namenkunde).  But  I  find  it  at  least  as  probable  that  the  first  el.  is  simply  the 
O.N.  (v)reini  "  stallion."  It  may  be  the  name,  as  suggested  by  Collingwood, 
who  thinks,  however  (OWNS  XVIII. ),  that  the  base  of  the  name  may  be  vrein- 
hestshals,  that  the  name  alludes  to  the  fact  that  the  road  is  one  which  needed  a 
strong  horse.  But  the  name  may  equally  well  have  been  given  owing  to  some 
accident  that  once  befell  a  stallion  at  the  spot  or  the  like. 

Lonsdale  N.  of  the  Sands  falls  into  two  parts,  separated  by  the  Leven  and 
Lake  Windermere.  The  Eastern,  smaller  part  consists  only  of  Cartmel  parish, 
while  the  Western  part,  the  Furness  district,  consists  of  several  parishes. 


Early  forms  of  the  name  :  Ceartmel  12  cent.  MS  Gale  (Sim.  Durh.  231)  ; 
Cartmel  12  cent.  Hist.  St.  Cuthbert  (Sim.  Durh.  141),  Cartmel  1177,  1189,  1194 
LPR,  1215  ChR,  etc.,  Carmel  1188  LPR,  Karmel  1190  CC,  Kartemel  1199  ChR, 
Kartmel  1206ff.  LPR,  1270  ChR  ;  Caertmel  c  1188  Ind  ;  Kertmell  1157-63  Ch 
(orig.),  Kertmel  1188  Ind,  c  1190  Ch  (orig.),  1205  LPR,  1279  LF,  etc.,  Cermel 
1187  LPR,  Kertemel  1297  LI.  Curtmel  1169  LPR  is  no  doubt  miswritten. 

The  name  is  used  of  the  parish,  village  (or  town),  and  priory  of  Cartmel.  No 
doubt  it  originally  denoted  the  village.  For  the  etymology  it  is  of  importance  to 
establish  whether  the  first  syllable  originally  had  the  vowel  a  or  e.  Forms  such 
as  Kertmel  are  probably  more  common  in  early  sources  than  Cartmel  and  the  like. 
But  the  earliest  forms  are  probably  Cartmel,  Ceartmel,  those  heading  the  list. 
These  are  found  in  MSS  of  the  12th  cent.,  but  very  likely  represent  late  O.E. 
forms.  They  render  it  likely  that  the  O.E.  base  was  Cartmel  or  Ceartmel.  Kertmel 
is  probably  a  traditional  spelling,  the  e  being  a  so-called  inverted  spelling  (cf. 
Carnforth,  p.  187). 

The  name  is  probably  Scandinavian.  The  fact  that  Cartmel  is  stated  in  the 
Hist,  of  St.  Cuthbert  to  have  been  given  in  677  by  King  Ecgfrith  to  St.  Cuthbert 
might  point  to  the  name  being  British  or  at  least  pre  Scandinavian  ;  but  there 
is  no  proof,  even  if  the  statement  is  trustworthy,  that  the  place  was  called 
Cartmel  at  that  early  date.  The  second  el.  is  no  doubt  O.N.  melr  "  a  sand-bank." 
Cartmel  vil.  stands  on  the  Eea.  There  are  not  now  any  sand-banks  or  sand-hills 
in  the  neighbourhood,  but  very  likely  there  were  formerly.  The  slight  bank 
between  the  two  arms  of  the  Eea  may  very  well  have  been  a  sand-bank,  especially 
as  the  stream  has  a  sandy  bottom.  The  first  el.  I  identify  with  O.E.  ceart,  found 
in  place-names  (Chart,  Kent,  Surrey),  Norw.  kart  (O.N.  *kartr)  "  rough,  rocky, 
sterile  soil."  The  meaning  of  O.E.  ceart  was  probably  about  the  same  as  that  of 
kartr.  Cartmel  may  be  a  compound  of  O.N.  kartr  and  melr.  Or  the  O.E.  name 
of  the  place  may  have  been  Ceart :  if  so,  we  must  assume  that  Cartmel  was 


coined  by  Scandinavians  adding  melr.  Close  to  the  town,  on  the  W.,  is  a  piece  of 
rocky  ground,  Cartmel  Park,  which  would  be  accurately  described  as  a  ceart 
or  kart.  This  may  have  been  called  O.E.  Ceart.  Another  possibility  is  that 
Cart-  is  an  old  name  of  the  Eea,  as  suggested  by  Bradley,  EHR  26  p.  822.  If 
so,  it  is  probably  to  be  compared  with  the  (somewhat  doubtful)  Norw.  river 
name  Kart-,  dealt  with  by  Rygh,  Norske  Elvenavne,  and  presumably  to  be 
derived  from  kart. 

Cartmel  is  not  in  DB,  but  is  evidently  represented  by  Cherchebi,  a  name 
equivalent  to  the  later  Churchtown,  a  name  of  Cartmel  vil.  :  Churchtowne  1585 
Cartmel  R.  Cherchebi  is  O.N.  Kirkiubyr  "  church- village." 

The  ground  of  the  district  varies  considerably.  The  S.  part  and  the  country 
along  the  Leven  estuary  are  very  low,  and  were  in  early  times  to  a  great  extent 
uninhabitable.  The  Eea  valley  is  broad  and  level.  On  both  sides  of  it  are 
irregular  ridges,  the  eastern  one  of  which  continues  as  Cartmel  Fell  to  the  N. 
boundary  of  the  parish.  Much  of  the  district  is  fell  country. 
1.  Lower  Allithwaite  (the  S.E.  part;  v.)  :  Hailiuethait  1162-90  FC  II.  (orig.), 
Aliuthwait  1200-20  FC  II.,  Alefthuayth  1225-45  LPD  II.  192,  Alithwit  1327  LS, 
Alyutwait  1332  LS.  See  further  Lindkvist  p.  106.  Lindkvist  explains  the  name 
as  a  compound  of  O.N.  Eilifr  pers.  n.  and  thwaite.  This  is  perhaps  right,  but  the 
preponderance  of  A-  in  early  forms  is  remarkable.  Perhaps  we  have  to  assume 
a  side-form *Alifr  by  the  side  of  Eilifr',  cf.  Noreen,  Altisl.  Gram.  §  54,  3,  a. 
Birkby  Hall  (fairly  high  on  a  hill  slope)  :  Britby  1489  PatR,  Bretby,  Brykby  1522 
DL,  Birtby  1537  LR,  Birkeby  1589  DL.  This  name,  like  Birkby,  Cumb.  (Bretteby 
13  cent.  RSB  285)  and  Yks.  (Bretebi  DB),  means  "  the  settlement  of  the  Britons," 
and  represents  an  O.N.  Bretabyr. 

BlenketFarm  :  Blenkett  1609  Cartmel  R.    The  name  seems  identical  with  Blenket 
Rigg,  the  name  of  a  hill  (810ft.)  in  W.  Cumb.    The  elements  may  be  the  Brit, 
words  corresponding  to  Welsh  blaen  "  point,  end,  top,"  O.Bret,  blaen  "  summit," 
and  Welsh  coed  "  wood,"  etc.    Perhaps  "  the  end  of  the  wood." 
Boar  Bank  (on  a  hill  slope  N.W.  of  Allithwaite  vil.) :    Borebancke  1598  DL, 
-banke  1604  Cartmel  R.    Bank  means  "  hill  "  ;   the  first  el.  is  doubtful. 
Honeythwaite  (in  O.M.1846-51  more  correctly  Unithwaite)  Wood  (S.E.  of  Cartmel) : 
Unythawyte  1537  LR.    The  first  el.  seems  to  be  O.N.  unytr  or  O.E.  unnyt  "  use- 
less, worthless." 

Humphrey  Head  (a  conspicuous  headland  in  the  S.) :  (terra  de)  Hunfrid'heved, 
Hunfridesheved  1199  ChR,  Hunfrideshefed  1215  ib.,  Umfrayhede  1537  LR, 
Oumfray  head  1577  Saxton,  Houmfret-,  Hunnifrethead  1592  DL.  O.E.  Hun/rid 
pers.  n.  (later  associated  with  Humphrey),  and  O.E.  heafod  "  head-land." 
Kent's  Bank  (on  Kent  Sand)  :  Kentsbanke  1491,  Kentisbanke  1537  LR.  "  The 
bank  of  the  river  Kent." 

Kirkhead  (a  headland  E.  of  Humphrey  Head) :  Kirkhead  1571,  Kirkitt  ende 
1608  Cartmel  R.  The  name  seems  to  indicate  that  there  was  once  a  church  at 
the  place.  Cf.  Kierkepol  1199,  Kirkepol  1215  ChR,  which  seems  to  have  been  the 
name  of  a  neighbouring  pool. 

Outerthwaite  :  Oolterthwait  1612  Cartmel  R,  Vtterthwait  1600  RS  XII.  "  The 
outer  meadow  or  clearing."  The  place  stands  a  good  way  from  Cartmel,  just 
where  the  moss  begins. 


Rosthwaite  (near  the  Eea)  :  Rostwhait  1609,  Rostatt  1617  Cartmel  R.  O.N. 
hross  "  horse  "  and  thwaite. 

Templand  :  Templond  1491,  -lande  1537  LR.  The  suggestion  by  J.  Stockdale, 
Annales  Caermoeleuses  1872  (p.  592)  that  this  is  T'hempland  "  the  hempland  " 
seems  very  plausible.  The  definite  article  in  Lane,  dialects  is  t\ 
Wraysholme  Tower  :  Wrasome  1431  FA,  Wroxsom,  Wresom  1598  DL,  W rays- 
holme  1600  RS  XII.  The  old  peel  is  situated  on  a  slight  ridge  in  the  old  moss- 
land.  This  renders  it  likely  that  the  name  has  as  second  el.  holme  "  an  island." 
Close  by  are  places  called  Holme  (The  Holme  1606  Cartmel  R  ;  on  a  slight 
elevation)  and  Rougholme  (Rougholme  1589  DL).  The  first  el.  may  then  be 
O.E.  wrdse  "  a  lump,  knot  "  or  possibly  the  gen.  of  O.N.  (v)rd  "  corner."  But 
the  early  material  is  not  conclusive.  Wraysholme  might  also  be  e.g.  the  dat.  pi. 
of  O.E.  wrdse.  The  name  would  then  refer  to  the  ridge  mentioned  and  one  or 
two  small  knolls  close  by. 
2.  Lower  Holker  (the  S.W.  part). 

Holker  (h.),  Holker  Hall  :  (pasture  in)  Holkerre  1276  LAR,  Holker  1342,  1394 
LF,  1332  LS,  Howker  1577  Saxton  ;  now  [ho'ka].  The  original  Holker  was  no 
doubt  near  Holker  Hall ;  the  name  came  to  be  extended  to  the  districts  now 
called  Lower  and  Upper  Holker,  the  old  Walton.  The  elements  of  the  name 
are  O.E.  holh  or  O.N.  hoi  adj.  or  sb.  "  hollow  "and  can  "  fen,"  etc.  (O.N.  kiarr). 
The  ground  is  low  close  to  Holker  Hall  with  many  hollows  and  depressions. 
Cark  (v.)  :  Karke  1491  LR,  1587  RW  179,  Carke  1537  LR,  Nethercarke  1626 
RW  154.  Cark  is  situated  on  the  S.  slope  of  a  ridge,  which  at  least  a  little  way  N. 
is  rocky.  The  name  is  perhaps  to  be  derived  from  the  Brit,  word  appearing  ae 
O.W.  carrecc  "  a  cliff,  rock,"  Welsh  carreg  "  stone,  rock  "  ;  cf.  Ir.  carric  "  a  rock." 
The  Celtic  word  is  common  in  place-names.  Another  possibility  is  that  Cark 
is  an  old  name  of  the  Eea.  If  so,  the  name  may  be  compared  with  Welsh  carrog 
"  a  brook,  stream."  Cark  is  on  the  Eea,  and  a  good  way  N.  there  is,  on  one  of 
the  arms  of  the  Eea,  a  hamlet  High  Cark  (p.  199). 

Cowpren  Point  (the  S.W.  point  of  the  Cartmel  peninsula)  :  Gowborn  head  1577 
Saxton.  Etymology  doubtful.  The  guess  that  this  is  an  O.N.  kauprann  "  market 
booth  "  may  be  permitted. 

Daughtarn  :  Dawthorne  1604  Cartmel  R,  Dowthorn  1623  RW  172.  The  place 
stands  by  a  hill  close  to  Cark  railway  station.  The  etymology  of  the  name  is 
doubtful.  The  second  el.  seems  to  be  rather  O.E.  or  O.N.  porn  than  O.N.  tiorn 
"  tarn." 

Flookborough  (v.) :  Flokeburg  1246  LAR,  Flokesburgh  1394  LF,  Flokeberew 
1395  FC,  Flokeburgh  1508  LF,  Fluckburgh  1537  LR.  The  place,  now  a  fishing- 
village,  was  formerly  a  borough.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  probably  the  O.N. 
pers.  n.  Floki  (thus  Wyld).  Bjorkman,  Namenkunde,  seems  to  prefer  derivation 
from  O.E./oc  a  kind  of  fish.  According  to  VHL  VIII.  270  flukes  are  caught  at 

Quarry  Flat  :  Quarelflate  1537  LR.  Quarel  is  an  old  form  of  the  word  quarry. 
On  flat  see  p.  11. 

Winder  :  de  Winderghe  1225-45  LPD  II.  192,  de  Wynder  1279  LF,  Chanon, 
Ravynse  Wyndor  1491,  Chanon  Wynder,  Ravenswynder  1537  LR.  The  places  are 
situated  on  slight  elevations  in  the  old  marsh  (Winder  Moor),  which  is  about 


20ft.  above  sea-level.  Winder  is  a  compound  of  O.N.  vindr  or  O.E.  wind  and 
ergh  "  a  pasture  "  and  "  a  hut  on  a  pasture  "  ;  cf.  p.  10.  The  name  probably 
means  "  a  hut  for  shelter  against  the  wind."  The  same  name  occurs  twice  in 
SLo,  and  also  in  Cumb.  and  Wml.  The  el.  Ravens-  represents  the  gen.  of  the 
pers.  n.  Raven  (O.N.  Hrafn).  A  portion  given  to  the  canons  of  Cartmel  got 
the  distinctive  name  Chanon  Winder. 

3.  Upper  Holker  (E.  of  the  upper  Eea).    The  E.  half  is  hilly,  while  the  W.  part 
consists  of  low  and  flat  country  along  the  Leven. 

Walton  Hall  :  Walletun  DB,  Waletona  1190  CO,  de  Walton  1342  LF.  Walton 
formerly  no  doubt  included  the  whole  of  Holker.  The  place  is  situated  fairly 
high  at  some  distance  from  the  Eea  and  Cartmel.  The  name  represents  O.E. 
Walatun  "  the  tun  of  the  Britons." 

Backbarrow  :  Bakbarowe  Mill  1537  LR,  Bak(e}barayfell  1538  DL.  The  place 
stands  near  the  Leven.  Old  Backbarrow  is  slightly  further  N.  ;  it  is  no  doubt 
the  original  Backbarrow.  I  suppose  the  elements  of  the  name  are  O.E.  bcec 
or  O.N.  bak  "  back  "  and  O.E.  beorh  or  O.N.  berg  "  hill."  The  name  may  mean 
"  the  hill  with  the  backlike  top  "  or  the  like.  Such  a  name  would  well  describe 
the  ridge  at  the  foot  of  which  Old  Backbarrow  stands.  The  following  passage 
from  Leland  (VII.  7),  not  referring  to  Backbarrow,  may  be  worth  quoting  : 
"  ther  was  a  coppe  in  the  hille  as  a  bakke  stonding  up  aboue  the  residue  of  the 

Bigland  Hall  :   Biglande  1537  LR.    "  The  barley-field  "  (O.N.  bygg  "  barley  "). 
Frith  :  the  Frith,  Frithhall  1537  LR.    O.E.fyrhp,  gefyrhpe  "  frith,  wood."  ' 
Howbarrow  (at  the  foot  of  a  hill  of  557ft.)  :  Howbarray  1591  RW  48,  Howebarrow 
1634  RW  11.    Apparently  O.N.  haugr  "  mound  "  and  O.N.  berg  or  O.E.  beorh 
"  hill." 

Mungeon  (E.  of  Bigland  Hall)  :  Mungeon  1625  Cartmel  R,  Mungion  1640  RW  21 . 
Etymology  obscure. 

Speel  Bank  (at  Speel  Bank,  a  hill  of  600ft.)  :  Spilbanck  1593,  Speelbanke  1606 
Cartmel  R,  Spillbanke  1593  RW  48.  The  first  el.  seems  to  be  M.E.  spile  "  play, 
sport."  Cf.  the  common  Gr.  place-name  Spielberg,  earlier  Spiliberch,  etc.  (Forste- 
mann).  The  second  el.  is  bank  "  a  hill." 

Waitham  Moss  (N.W.  of  Holker) :  Waythom  moors  1537  LR,  Waithome,  Watham 
1591  DL.  Probably  O.N.  veidi-holmr  "  an  island  where  hunting  is  carried  on." 
Cf.  Waytheholm'  1189-99  Holme  Cultram  Chartulary  (MS)  p.  158,  and  Wait- 
holme  Moss  in  Yealand  and  Waitham  in  Angerton  (pp.  189,  222). 

4.  Broughton  in  Cartmel  (N.  of  Cartmel)  :    Brocton  1276  LAR,  Broghton  1314, 
1321,  1429  LF,  1332  LS.    Field  and  Wood  Broughton  are  situated  on  the  two 
arms  of  the  Eea,  which  gave  the  place  its  name,  O.E.  Broctun.    The  township 
comprises  part  of  the  broad  Eea  valley  and  a  hilly  district  to  the  E. 
Aynesom  (on  the  Eea)  :  Aynson  1491,  Ayneson  1537  LR,  Aynsam  1592  Cartmel 
R,  Aynsome  1597  RW  107.    No  doubt  O.E.  dnhusum  or  O.N.  einhusum  "  at  the 
lonely  houses."    Cf.  Ancoats,  p.  35. 

Grange  (town)  :   Grange  1491  LR.    Self- explaining. 

Hampsfield  (h.),  Hampsfield  Hall  :  de  Hamesfell  1292-9  FC  II.,  -fell'  c  1300  FC, 
Hamesfell  1314  LF,  Hampesfell  1537  LR,  Hamfeldhall  1577  Saxton ;  now 
[hamsfi'ld].  Hampsfield  took  its  name  from  Hampsfell,  now  [hamsfel],  a  long 


ridge  (727ft.)  ;    Hampsfield  is  on  the  slope,  Hampsfield  Hall  at  the  foot  of  the 

ridge.     The  elements  of  the  name  are  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Hamr,.  found  also  in 

Hampsthwaite,  Yks.  (Lindkvist,  p.  110,  Bjorkman,  Namenkunde),  and  O.N. 

fiall  "  fell."    The  form  -field  is  due  to  association  with  the  word  field. 

Head  House  :  Headhouse  1579  Cartmel  R.    The  place  is  on  a  yery  conspicuous 

hill  (560ft.)  with  a  round  cop.    Head  is  O.E.  heafod  in  the  sense  "  hill." 

The  High  (on  the  high  land  N.  of  Grange)  :  Theigh  1596,  The  Highe  1604  RW  237, 

172,  The  Hee  1604  Cartmel  R.    Dial,  high  sb.  means  "  a  height,  hill." 

Slack  (in  a  long  broad  valley  N.  of  Grange)  :   Slacke  1592  RW  139,  1601  DL  ; 

now  [80  slak].    O.N.  slakki  "  valley."    Near  Slack  is  Eggerslack. 

5.  Upper  Allithwaite.  The  township  is  N.  of  Broughton  township.    The  district 
must  formerly  have  been  held  together  with  Allithwaite.    The  old  name  of  the 
district  was  Newton. 

Newton,  or  High  Newton  (v.y,  and  Nether  Newton  (h.) :  Neutun  DB,  Newton  1537, 

Over,  Nether  Newton  1491  LR.    "  The  new  tun."  Newton  is  situated  comparatively 

high  and  some  way  off  from  the  main  valley. 

Lindale  (h.)  :  Lindale  1246  LAR,  Lyndale  1497  LF,  1537  LR.    L.  is  situated  in 

the  deep  valley  of  Lindale  Beck,  called  the  Gill  in  O.M.  1846-51,  far  from  any  of  the 

old  villages.    The  name  cannot  mean  "  flax  division  "  (O.E.  lin  and  geddl).    Its 

elements  are  O.E.  lind  "  lime-tree  "  and  dale  "  valley."    There  are  numerous 

lime-trees  in  the  upper  part  of  the  valley. 

Buckcrag  :   Buckcragg  1576  Cartmel  R.    The  place  stands  at  a  rocky  hill,  stated 

to  bear  a  certain  resemblance  to  a  buck. 

Castlehead  :    Castlhead  1592  Cartmel  R,  Castleheade  1638  RW  174.     "  Castle 

hill."    Castlehead  is  on  a  little  bluff  close  to  the  Winster.    There  was  formerly 

a  peel  at  the  place,  called  Atterpile  Castle  (VHL  VIII.  269). 

6.  Staveley  (S.  of  Lake  Windermere  ;   v.)  :   de  Stavelay  1282  FC,  Staveley  1491, 
1537  LR.    O.E.  Staf-leah  ;   cf.  p.  29. 

Ayside  (h.) :  Aysshed  1491,  Ay  sett  1537  LR,  Ayshead  1573, 1592  Cartmel  R,  Aysyde 
1591  DL,  Esyd  1599  RW  268.  The  hamlet  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  high  ridge  and 
on  a  stream  called  Ayside  Pool,  one  ci  the  head-streams  of  the  Eea  ;  there  are 
also  hillocks  close  to  the  hamlet.  The  forms  are  too  late  to  allow  of  a  definite 
etymology.  Wyld  identifies  the  name  with  de  Aykesheued  1279  LF,  and  that 
may  be  correct,  but  there  is  a  place  Oak  Head  near  Ayside  on  a  little  hill,  which 
may  be  meant ;  cf.  Ackehead  a  1603  DL.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  may  be  O.N. 
a  "  river  "  (cf.  Eea)  or  O.N.  eik  "  oak  "  ;  the  second,  set  "  a  shieling  "  or  O.E. 
heafod  "  hill." 

High  Cark  :  Ouer  Carke  1606  Cartmel  R,  Over  Carke  1623  RW  39.  The  place 
stands  at  one  of  the  head-streams  of  the  Eea,  now  called  Muddy  Pool,  and  close 
to  a  small,  but  rocky  and  prominent  hill.  Derivation  of  the  name  from  the  Brit, 
word  found  in  O.W.  carrecc  "  cliff,  rock  "  is  extremely  plausible  ;  cf.,  however, 
Cark  p.  197. 

Fiddler  Hall  :  F idler  Hawe  1589  DL,  Fidlerhawe  1611  Cartmel  R.  Probably 
"  the  fiddler's  hillock  "  (O.N.  haugr  "  hill  ").  The  place  stands  on  a  small  hill. 
Seattle  :  Settyll  1491,  1537  LR,  Seatle  1593  Cartmel  R  ;  now  [se'tl].  Seattle 
stands  on  a  fairly  broad  and  flat  ridge  sloping  gently  towards  the  S.  The  name 
would  seem  to  be  identical  with  Settle,  Yks.  (Setel  DB),  i.e.,  O.E.  setl  "  abode, 


dwelling."    But  the  Mod.  form  to  some  extent  tells  against  this.    Also  the  form 

Seitill  1508-9  quoted  in  VHL  VIII.  281    is   noteworthy.     Earlier  material  is 


Sow  How  (N.E.  of  Staveley,  at  a  hill  of  800ft.)  :  Sowhowe  1598  DL,  1606  RW  233. 

First  el.  O.E.  sugu  or  O.N.  syr  (ace.  su)  "  sow." 

7.  Cartmel  Fell  :  Cartmelefell  1537  LR,  Carpmanfell  1577  Saxton.    The  district, 

as  the  name  indicates,  is  hilly. 

Birkett  Houses  :   Birkett  Houses  1665  RW  10.    Birket  is  no  doubt  for  Birkhead. 

The  place  is  on  a  broad  ridge. 

Burblethwaite  Hall  (near  the  Winster) :    Burbelthwayt  1351  VHL  VIII.  282. 

The  name  may  be  identical  in  origin  with  Burbladthwait  1204  FC  II.,  Burblad- 

thwayt  c  1343  ib.  (Burton    in    Lonsdale).     Burblad  looks  like  a  plant-name, 

perhaps  of  the  same  meaning  as  burblek  (Wml.),  i.e.,  Petasites  vulgaris.    But  the 

first  el.  of  Burblethwaite  may  be  burblek. 

Hartbarrow  :  de  Hertbergh  1332  LS,  Hertbarrowe  1537  DL.    O.E.  heorot  or  O.N. 

hiprtr  "  hart  "  and  O.E.  beorh  or  O.N.  berg  "  hill." 

Ludder  Burn  (on  the  slope  of  a  hill  and  near  a  brook)  :    Litterburne  1537  LR, 

Ludderburn'3 1619  RW  191.    Litter-  may  be  miswritten  for  Luter- ;  if  so,  I  would 

identify  the  first  el.  with  O.E.  hluttor  "  clear,  pure."    A  different  etymology  is 

suggested  in  Scandinavians  p.  91. 

Rosthwaite  :  Rossethwayte  1537  LR.    Cf.  p.  197. 

Rulbuth  or  Rulbuts  :    Rulbuth  1508  VHL  VIII.  283,  Rullesburgh  1537  LR. 

Apparently  an  O.N.  pers.  n.  such  as  Hrolfr  and  bud  "  booth." 

Thorfinsty  Hall  :   Thorfinsty  1275  VHL  VIII.  282,  Thorpanstye  1537  LR,  Thor- 

fensty  1577  DL.    The  place  is  at  the  foot  of  the  fells  not  far  from  the  Leven. 

The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N.  porfinnr  pers.  n.  and  O.N.  stigr  or  O.E.  stig 

11  path."     Cf.  Brancepeth,  Durh.  ("  the  path  of  Brand  ")  and  similar  names 

in  Mawer. 


Early  forms  :  Futhpernessa  c  1150  Richard  of  Hexham  (MS  13  cent.),  ffuder- 
nesium  1127  Ch,  Fudernesium  1127-33  Ch  (1398  PatR),  de  Fodernesio,  Fudernesio 
1127  FC  II.  ;  ffurnesio  1153-60,  1157-63  Ch  (orig.) ;  furnesio  1155,  1189-94 
Ch  (orig.)  ;  Fornesio  1158  Ch  (oug.),furneis  1194-99  Ch  (orig.),  Furneis  1169ff. 
LPR,  1196  LF,  1212  LI,  1246  LAR,  etc.,  Furneys  1295  ChR,  Furnais  1246  LAR  ; 
Fumes  1170ff.  LPR,  1252  ChR,  etc.,  Forness  1246  LAR  ;  Fourneys  1343  LF, 
Fournes  1336  FC  ;  Furneals  1201  LPR,  Furneis  1205  ib.,  Fornell  1246  LAR. 
Other  variants  might  be  added.  Now  [fa'nas]. 

The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  clearly  ness  "  head-land,"  probably  O.N. 
nes.  The  spellings  in  -neis,  -nels,  etc.,  are  due  to  A.N.  influence.  The  first  el. 
is  difficult.  It  is  probable  that  the  name  was  originally  applied  to  some  special 
point  and  later  extended  to  the  whole  district,  though  it  is  true  the  southern  part 
of  the  district  may  be  described  as  a  peninsula.  The  original  Furness  was 
probably  the  southernmost  point,  the  present  Rampside,  for  the  first  el.  of  the 
name  Furness  seems  to  be  identical  with  that  of  Fouldray,  the  ancient  name  of 
Peel  Island  outside  Rampside.  Early  forms  of  Fouldray  are  :  Fotherey  c  1327 

DALTON  PAR.  201 

FC  II.,  Fotheray  c  1400  FC,  Foderaye  1537  LR,  (the  pyle  oi)foudray  1577  Saxton, 
the  Fouldra  1577  Harr.,  Fouldrey  1586  Camden. 

Wyld  suggests  as  first  el.  of  Furness  O.E./odor  "  fodder."  This  may  seem  to 
be  to  some  extent  borne  out  by  the  early  forms  of  Fouldray,  though  O.N./ddr 
or  O.E./odbr  should  be  substituted  for  O.l&.fddor.  This  etymology  may  be  correct. 
But  the  early  occurrence  of  forms  in  u  is  remarkable  ;  I  have  found  no  spellings 
of  u  for  earlier  6  in  other  Lane,  names  until  much  later.  Further,  O.N.  fodr 
does  not  seem  to  have  been  used  as  a  place-name  element  in  Norway  or  Iceland. 
It  seems  probable  to  me  that  we  have  to  start  from  a  base  with  u.  McClure's 
suggestion  (p.  77f.)  that  Fuder-  is  identical  with  Gael.  Fothur,  a  word  considered 
to  mean  "  wood,"  is  perhaps  not  absolutely  impossible,  but  at  any  rate  not 
immediately  convincing. 

Starting  from  the  supposition  that  the  original  form  was  Futher-,  I  suggest 
the  following  etymology.  There  are  in  Norway  traces  of  a  name  Fu(d)  applied 
to  small  islands,  as  Fua  a  skerry,  Fudeholmen  an  islet ;  cf.  Fuvig  (NG  IX.  66). 
It  is  suggested  that  the  name  maybe  O.N./w#(Norw./w,  Swed.  dial./w,/o,  Scotch 
fud)  "  podex."  Fouldray  may  have  been  originally  called  Fud,  and  from  it 
the  neighbouring  headland  was  called  *Fudarnes.  Later  we  must  assume  that 
the  name  of  the  island  was  extended  to  *Fudarey.1  The  isle  has  a  rounded  shape. 
Its  surface  is  on  the  whole  flat,  but  there  is  a  long  fairly  deep  depression  running 
from  S.  to  N. 

It  is  easy  to  understand  why  the  headland  was  named  from  Peel  Island,  and  not 
from  the  larger  Foulney.  While  Foulney  rises  only  to  22ft.  above  sea-level  and  was 
hardly  more  than  a  sandbank  a  thousand  years  ago,  Peel  Island  is  42ft.  above 
sea-level.  The  reason  why  the  cons,  d  was  lost  in  Furness,  while  it  was  retained 
in  Fouldray,  is  probably  that  Futher-nes  had  the  chief  stress  on  the  second  ele- 

The  Furness  district  falls  into  two  parts.  The  southern  part,  called  Low 
or  Plain  Furness  (Lowfurnes  1546  DL,  Playne  Furneys  1582  ib.).  is  undulating, 
hills  or  ridges  alternating  with  valleys,  but  no  higher  elevations  than  c  1,000ft. 
are  reached.  The  northern  part,  Furness  Fells  or  High  Furness  (Montanis  de 
Furnesio  1196  LF,  Fournes-fell'  1338  FC,  Heigh  Fumes  1584  DL),  is  a  fell 
district,  where  elevations  of  over  2,500ft.  are  common. 


Dalton  par.  forms  the  S.W.  part  of  the  Furness  peninsula.  It  is  not  divided 
into  townships,  but  was  formerly  divided  into  four  byrlaws  or  bierleys.  It  seems 
plausible  that  this  is  an  old  Scand.  division,  as  the  name  bierley  is  a  Scand.  word 
(O.N.  byjarlog  "  village  law,"  possibly  also  "  a  law  district  "). 

1.  Dalton  (town)  :   Daltune  DB,  Daltonam  1189-94  Ch  (orig.),  Dalton  1246  LAR, 
Dalton  in  journals  1332  LS  ;  now  [do'tn,  doltn].    The  town  is  in  a  broad  valley 
among  hills  ;  hence  the  name. 

2.  Yarlside  (the   S.E.  part,  E.  of   Barrow-in-Furness)  :    Yerleshed   Cott   1509, 
Yerlyssyde   cote   c  1525  Beck  304,  328,    Yerlesyde  (hamlet)  1537,    Yerlessyde 

1  Cf.  Nottero  (Norway )<  Njdtarey,  a  compound  of  Ni6t  (g.  -ar),  an  earlier  name  of  the 
island,  and  ey  (NG  VI.  233). 


(close)  1539  FC  II.  The  name  is  clearly  identical  with  Yarlside  in  Wml.  (Jerlesete 
1235  OWNS  XIV.  394),  the  elements  being  O.N.jarl  "  earl  "  (or  O.E.  eorl)  and 
set  "  a  hill  pasture."  Yarlside  is  a  fairly  common  hill-name  in  England  ;  cf. 
Scandinavians  p.  32f.  Yarlside  seems  to  have  been  near  Stank.  The  iron  mines 
in  the  rather  conspicuous  hill  E.  of  Park  House  S.  of  Furness  Abbey  are  now 
called  Yarlside  Mines,  and  Yarlside  Road  is  that  between  Dalton  and  Roose. 
Yarlside  may  have  been  on  the  hill  mentioned.  Cote  in  the  earliest  examples 
means  "  a  sheepcote."  In  this  division  is  Furness  Abbey. 
Crivelton  :  Cliuerton  DB,  Criueltonam  1155,  1158  Ch  (orig.),  Crinelton  1246 
LAR,  Cryvelton  1336  FC  II.,  Creviltona  1400  FC.  The  name  is  now  lost,  and  the 
situation  of  the  place  is  unknown.  No  doubt  it  was  near  Newton.  If  the  DB 
form  is  trustworthy,  the  base  of  the  name  may  be  an  O.E.  clifwara  tun  "  the 
village  of  the  cliff-dwellers  "  ;  cf.  Cleworth  p.  101.  Newton  is  in  a  remote  valley 
among  hills.  If  Crivel-  is  the  more  original  form,  I  have  no  definite  suggestion 
to  make. 

Newton  (S.  of  Dalton  ;  v.) :  Newtona  1191-8  FC,  Neuton  1190, 1336  FC.  Newton 
and  Crivelton  were  originally  distinct  places,  as  both  are  mentioned  together  in 
old  sources.  Later  Crivelton  was  merged  in  Newton,  and  in  FC  I.  451  there  is 
the  express  statement  that  Crevylton  was  the  old  name  of  Newton. 
Fordbottle  :  Fordebodele  DB,  fordebotle  1155  Ch  (orig.),  fortebothle  1189-94  Ch 
(orig.),  Fordebotle  1246  LAR.  The  name  is  lost.  The  place  no  doubt  stood  at  a 
ford  over  the  stream  that  runs  past  Roose.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.E. 
ford  and  botl  "  house,  dwelling." 

Roose  (N.E.  of  Barrow  ;  v.) :  Rosse  DB,  Ros  1155,  1157-8,  1189-94  Ch  (orig.), 
1246  LAR,  Roos  1336  FC  II.,  Ruse  FC  I.  451,  Rwse  1537  LR  ;  now  [nrz, 
nrs].  Roose  is  an  old  Brit,  name,  identical  with  Welsh  rhos  "  moor,  heath, 
plain,"  Bret,  ros  "  tertre  en  general  reconvert  de  bruyeres  "  (Loth),  Ir.  ros 
"  promontory  ;  wood."  The  Brit,  word  is  often  used  as  a  place-name.  The 
long  vowel  in  Roose  is  due  to  Brit,  lengthening ;  cf.  Jones  p.  72.  Rhos  in 
Pembrokeshire  is  stated  in  Owen's  Pembrokeshire  III.  268  to  be  called  also  Roose. 
The  meaning  of  the  word  in  the  present  case  is  probably  "  moor."  The  hill  N.E. 
of  Roose  may  well  once  have  been  a  moor,  i.e.,  a  hill  covered  with  furze  and 
heather.  Roosecote  (Rusecote  1509  Beck  304)  means  "  the  sheepcote  belonging 
to  Roose." 

Billingcote  (N.E.  of  Furness  Abbey)  :  Byllingecote  1509  Beck  305,  Billingcote 
1588  RW  122.  Another  name  is  byllynge  c  1525  Beck  325  ;  cf.  Lytel-,  Grete- 
byllyng  1539  FC  II.  The  place  stands  on  the  slope  of  a  hill  (304ft.),  called  The 
Billings  (Beacons-billing  1843  Jopling).  I  suppose  Billing  is  an  old  hill-name, 
identical  with  Billinge  in  Blackburn,  and  probably  derived  from  O.E.  bill 
"  sword." 

Holebeck  :  Holebecke  1597  RW  47.  Old  Holebeck  stands  E.  of  Roose  on  a 
small  brook,  which  runs  in  a  fairly  deep  valley.  "  The  hollow  brook,"  "  the 
brook  in  the  hollow." 

Newtown  (in  the  S.  on  low  ground) :   Newtowne  1537  LR. 
Peaseholmes  :    Pesholme  1509  Beck  304.     The  place  stands  near  the  sea  on  a 
piece  of  ground  rising  over  the  surrounding  land.    O.E.  pisu  "  pease  "  and  holm 
"  island." 

DALTON  PAR.  203 

Rampside  (h.)  :  Rameshede  1292  FC,  Ramesheved  1336  FC  II.,  Rameshevede 
1400  FC,  Ramsyde  1539  FC  II.  ;  now  [ramsaid].  Rampside  was  originally  the 
name  of  the  southernmost  point  of  the  Furness  peninsula.  The  first  el.  may  be 
the  pers.  n.  Ram  found  in  Ramsbottom  ;  if  so,  head  means  "  headland."  But 
I  think  it  more  likely  that  it  is  O.E.  ram  "  ram,"  and  that  the  name  was  given 
owing  to  a  resemblance  between  the  headland  and  a  ram's  head.  The  name 
then  means  "  the  ram's  head." 

Stank  (h.)  :  Stanke  1509  Beck  304,  1537  LR.  Probably  M.E.  stank  "  a  pond  or 
pool,"  found  from  the  14th  cent.  (O.Fr.  estanc).  There  are  disused  iron  mines 
in  the  hamlet ;  the  name  may  refer  to  an  old  mine-pit. 

Waltoncote  :  Walton  Cote  1509,  W altoncot  c  1525  Beck  305, 327.  No  doubt  named 
from  an  old  village  or  homestead  called  Walton. 

3.  Hawcoat  (the  S.W.  part ;  h.)  :  Hawcote  c  1535  Beck  326,  1537  LR, 
Haycot  1538  FC  II.,  Hay  cote  1577  Saxton  ;  now  [ho'ko't].  Haw-  is  probably 
O.E.  haga  or  O.N.  hagi  "  enclosure  "  ;  coat  means  "  sheepcote."  Hawcoat  is 
on  fairly  high  ground  (W.  of  Furness  Abbey)  ;  this  would  to  some  extent  support 
the  theory  that  Hietun  DB  (O.E.  Heatun  "  the  high  tun  ")  is  an  old  name  of 

Sowerby  Hall  :  Sourebi  DB,  Soureby  1338  FC  ;  now  [sauarbi].  The  place  stands 
on  low  ground  near  Duddon  Sands.  O.N.  Saurbyr ;  cf.  Sowerby  (Am.)  p.  161. 
Beacons  GUI  (in  O.M.  1846-51 ;  S.  of  Furness  Abbey,  E.  of  Newbarns) :  Bechanes- 
gile  1190-1220  FC  II.,  Bekanesgill  FC  I.  21.  The  valley  in  which  Furness  Abbey 
stands  was  formerly  called  Bekansgill.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N. 
Bekan  (from  Ir.  Beccdn)  pers.  n.  and  gil  "  a  ravine."  The  name  was  applied  to 
the  whole  valley.  "  Bekingill  between  Ramsyde  and  Sowthende  "  (1539  FC  II. 
594)  was  a  fishery ;  Beck,  p.  Ixv,  quotes  from  a  document  of  1537  "  Oyster- 
garth  athedd  and  Bekyngyll." 

Bouth  Wood  (N.W.  of  Furness  Abbey)  :  Bouth  1509  Beck  304,  Bowthe  Parke, 
Bowthowse  1539  FC  II.  O.N.  bud  "  booth." 

Breast  Mill  Beck  (near  Furnesss  Abbey)  :  Byrstmewekhowse  (for  Byrstmelbek-) 
c  1535  Beck  327,  Bristmylbeck  1526  West  98,  Byrsomelbek  1535  ib.  102,  Burmel- 
beck,  Byrfemelbeckhowse  1539  FC  II.  The  place  is  near  Poaka  Beck,  which  in 
O.M.  1846-51  is  here  called  Breast  Mill  Beck.  Breast-mill  in  Yks.  dial,  means 
"a  water-mill  of  which  the  water  goes  in  at  the  side  or  breast  to  turn  the 
wheel  "  (EDD).  Close  by  is  Millwood  :  Milnewood  1338  FC. 
Cocken  :  de  Cokayn  14  cent.  FC,  Cokayn  1336  FC  II.,  Kokayn  1336,  1400  FC  ; 
now  [kokin,  kokn].  Lindkvist,  p.  193,  derives  the  name  from  M.E.  Cokaygne, 
name  of  an  imaginary  country,  the  abode  of  luxury  and  idleness,  a  French  name. 
If  it  is  true,  as  suggested  by  W.  B.  Kendall  in  the  report  of  the  Barrow  Naturalists' 
Field  Club,  vol.  XII.,  p.  401,  that  the  clearing  of  the  Cocken  land  was  accom- 
plished by  the  monks  of  Furness  Abbey,  this  derivation  has  much  probability. 
The  name  is  no  doubt  jocular. 

Dane  Ghyll  (E.  of  Hawcoat  in  the  valley  of  a  stream)  :  Danegyll  c  1535  Beck  327, 
Danglefiat,  Dangylle  1539  FC  II.    The  second  el.  is  O.N.  gil  "  a  ravine."    The 
first  is  doubtful ;    O.N.  Danr  pers.  n.  or  Danir  "  Danes  "  ? 
Hindpool  :   Hyndpull  1539  FC  II.    The  place  stands  at  a  little  bay  called  Hind 
Pool.    O.E.  hind  the  animal  and  pol,  pull  "  pool." 


Rakes  Moor  (N.E.  of  Hawcoat,  on  high  land) :    Rakesmore  1539  FC  II.    Rake 

(O.N.  rdk)  means  "  a  path  ;   pasture-ground." 

Robsawter  (O.M.  1846-51)  :  Robsawter  1539  FC  II.   The  place  was  N.  of  Hawcoat. 

Sawter  may  be  identical  with  Salter,  p.  181.    On  loss  of  I  see  p.  22. 

Salthouse  :  Salthus  1247  FC,  Salthous  1336  FC  II.    "A  house  in  which  salt  was 

made  or  stored." 

Sinkfall  :  Synkefall  1539  FC  II.    I  take  the  elements  of  the  name  to  be  a  M.E. 

*senk  "  hollow  "  (a  Scand.  word  :  cf.  Norw.  dial.  s0kk,  senk  f.,  Swed.  dial,  sdkk  f., 

sdnka  "  hollow,  little  valley  "),  perhaps  the  source  of  E.  sink  "  a  basin  where 

waters  collect  and  form  a  bog,"  and  fall  "  a  clearing  "  ;    cf.  p.  10.     Sinkfall 

stands  close  to  a  depression  in  the  ground. 

Sandscale  :   Landschale  (!)  1292  FC,  Sandescale  1336  FC  II.    Sandscale  stands 

on  low  ground  near  the  Duddon  Sands.    The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  obviously 

O.N.  sandr  (or  pi.  sandar)  or  Engl.  sand  "  sandy  beach."    The  second  is  O.N. 

skdli  "  hut." 

To  Hawcoat  bierley  belong  the  islands  S.  of  the  Furness  peninsula. 
Barrow  :  Barrai  1190,  1191-8  FC,  Barmy  1292  FC,  1336  FC  II.,  Insula  de 
Oldebarrey,  Barrahed,  Barrahaw  1537  LR,  Old  barro  Insula,  Barrohead  1577 
Saxton  ;  now  [bara].  Barrow  was  originally  the  name  of  a  small  island,  later 
called  Old  Barrow,  and  recently  joined  with  the  mainland.  The  island  gave  name 
to  the  town  of  Barro w-in-Furness,  which  is  chiefly  on  the  mainland.  Barrahed 
1537  is  no  doubt  the  point  opposite  Barrow  island.  Barrahaw  may  have  as  its 
second  el.  O.E.  haga  "  enclosure." 

Barrow  probably  represents  a  Scand.  Barrey,  whose  second  el.  is  O.N.  ey 
"  island."  This  name  is  evidenced  elsewhere.  Barra  (Barru  11  cent.  Johnston, 
Pl.N.  of  Scotland)  is  one  of  the  southernmost  of  the  Hebrides,  and  Barra  Head 
is  a  promontory  at  the  S.  extremity  of  the  Barra  islands.  From  Barra  may  be 
derived  the  O.N.  epithets  Barreyjarskdld  and  (Alfdis  hin)  barreyska  (Landnama), 
usually  referred  to  Barrey  in  the  Shetlands  (Finnur  Jonsson,  Aarb.  1907,  pp. 
177,  246).  Barrey jarfj  or  dr,  mentioned  in  a  Saga,  proves  the  existence  of  a  Barrey 
in  the  Shetland  group  (Jakobsen,  Aarb.  1901,  p.  170)  ;  it  may  be  the  present 
Fair  Isle.  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  the  first  el.  of  the  name  can  be  either 
O.N.  barr  "  corn,"  in  historical  time  an  exclusively  poetical  word  and  not  with 
certainty  found  in  Norw.  place-names,  or  O.N.  barr  "  pine-needles."  I  am  in- 
clined to  believe  that  it  is  the  Celtic  barr  "  top,  summit  "  (Welsh  bar,  Ir.  barr). 
The  meaning  "  summit  "  is  not  suitable  in  the  case  of  Barrow,  but  the  Celtic 
word  may  also  have  had  such  a  sense  as  "  extreme  point,  headland  "  ;  cf.  the 
meaning  "  source  of  a  stream,"  found  in  Ir.  place-names  (Joyce,  Irish  Names  of 
Places  III.  130).  Or  the  name  may  have  been  transferred  to  Barrow  from  one 
of  the  other  Barreys. 

Foulney  :  Fowley  1537  Beck  Ixv,  the  Fola  1577  Harr.,  Foulney  1577  Saxton, 
Fouley,  Fowley  1667  CWNS  X.  278  ;  now  [fo'lni].  The  island  formerly  "  bred 
innumerable  fowl  of  divers  kinds  "  ;  cf.  the  graphic  description  in  a  document 
of  1537  quoted  in  VHL  VIII.  310.  The  name  means  "  bird  island  "  (O.N.  fugl 
or  O.ft.fugol  "  bird,"  and  O.N.  ey  or  O.E.  eg  "  island  ").  Fugley  is  a  well-known 
Scand.  name.  The  change  of  Fouley  to  Foulney  seems  due  to  influence  from 

DALTON  PAR.  205 

Peel  Island  was  named  from  the  peel  castle  on  the  island.  On  the  old  name 
Fouldray,  etc.,  see  p.  200. 

Roa  :  the  Roa  1577  Harr.  ;  now  [ro'a].  Earlier  forms  are  wanted.  But  very 
likely  Roa  is  O.N.  Raudey  "  the  red  island  "  ;  cf.  Roe  in  the  Shetlands  (Jakobsen, 
Aarb.  1901,  p.  171f.). 

Walney  :  Wagneia(m)  1127,  1127-33  Ch,  1190  FC,  Wageneia  1155,  1189-94  Ch 
(orig.),  Wagneya  1200  ChR,  Wannegia  1246  LAR,  Waghenay  1336  FC  II.,  Wawenay 
1404  CR,  Waynow  1537  LR,  Wanowe,  Wayno  1539  FC  II.,  the  Wauay  1577  Harr., 
Walney  1577  Saxton.  I  derive  the  name  from  an  O.N.  Vogney,  the  first  el.  being 
O.N.  vogn  "  grampus.  Orca  Gladiator."  The  grampus,  according  to  VHL  I. 
210,  is  still  a  visitor,  even  if  a  rare  one,  to  Morecambe  Bay.  The  name  may  have 
been  given  because  grampuses  used  to  be  seen  near  the  island.  But  it  is  also 
possible  that  the  name  was  given  in  allusion  to  the  shape  of  the  island  ;  like  the 
grampus,  it  is  long  and  narrow. 

Several  minor  places  on  Walney  are  mentioned  in  early  sources. 
Biggar  :  Bigger  1292  FC,  Bygger  1537  LR,  1539  FC  II.  The  first  el.  of  the  name 
seems  to  be  O.N.  bygg  "  barley."  The  second  might  be  ergh  "  a  pasture  ;  a  hut  " 
(cf.  p.  10).  The  combination  does  not  seem  quite  convincing,  but  it  is  possible 
some  cultivation  of  barley  may  have  been  carried  on  at  a  place  chiefly  used  for 
pasture.  Or  O.N.  geiri  or  O.E.  gdra  "  a  triangular  piece  of  land  "  may  possibly 
be  thought  of. 

Idlecote  :   Idell  cote  1509  Beck  305,  Idelcote  1539  FC  II.    W.  B.  Kendall,  Report 
of  the  Barrow  Naturalists'  Field  Club  XIII.  47f.,  states  that  the  sheepcote  was 
erected  on  two  common  fields  that  had  been  left  to  lie  idle.     I  cannot  judge 
whether  this  is  a  trustworthy  statement. 
North  Scale  :  Northscale  1247  FC,  1292  FC. 
4.  Above  Town  (N.  of  Dalton  town). 

The  bierley  is  also  called  Sanct  Elen  birlay  1537  FC  II.  It  was  then  named 
from  St.  Helen's  chapel,  N.W.  of  Dalton.  Cf.  Sanct  Elen  doube  1537  FC  II. 
(doube=dub  "  a  pool  "),  Sayntellyngarth  1539  ib.  The  bierley  had  two  divisions  : 

Ireleth  division  (the  W.  part). 

Ireleth  (h.)  :  Irlid  1190  FC,  (grangiam  de)  Ireleyth  c  1200  FC,  Irelith  1292  FC, 
Irlyfhe  1336  FC  II.,  Yerlethcote  1539  FC  II.  ;  now  [aiale}>].  The  pers.  n.  Ire 
(prob.  Scand.  ;  cf.  Bjorkman,  Namenkunde)  or  the  gen.  of  O.N.  Irar  or  O.E. 
Iras  "  Irishmen  "  and  O.N,  hlidoi  O.E.  hlid"  slope."  Ireleth  stands  on  a  hill-slope. 
Killerwick  :  Chiluestreuic  DB,  Kilverdiswic  1190  FC,  -wik  1191-8  FC,  Killerwyk 
1336  FC  II,  Killerwith  1509  Beck  305.  The  name  is  lost.  The  place  seems  to 
have  been  merged  in  Elliscales,  near  which  it  was  presumably  situated.  The 
first  eL  of  the  name  is  the  pers.  n.  Kilvert,  which  is  apparently  of  Scand.  origin 
(Bjorkman,  Personennamen  and  Namenkunde),  but  of  obscure  history.  The 
second  el.  must  be  O.E.  wic,  perhaps  in  the  sense  "  cattle-farm." 
Askam  (near  the  Duddon  estuary)  :  ?  Askeham  1535  DL.  Perhaps,  like  Askham 
in  Wml.  (Askum  1232,  Sedgefield),  O.E.  cescum  or  O.N.  askum  "  at  the  ashes." 
But  a  base  Ask-holm  is  equally  possible.  There  seems  no  reason  to  believe  that 
the  form  Ascum1  quoted  by  Wyld  from  LC  (1326)  belongs  here.1 

1  Ascum  is  here  used  as  a  surname.  Sir  John  de  Ascum  was  proctor  of  the  rector  of  St. 
Michael's  (Am.). 


Dunnerholme  :  Dunreholm  c  1220  FC,  Dunerholme,  Donnerholme  1252  FC  I.316f. 
The  place  stands  at  a  rocky  eminence  rising  60ft.  above  sea-level,  on  the  low 
shore  of  the  Duddon  estuary.  An  el.  Dunner-  is  found  also  in  the  name 
Dunnerdale,  which  very  likely  has  as  its  first  el.  a  form  of  the  river-name  Duddon  ; 
see  p.  223.  As  Dunnerholme  is  on  the  Duddon,  the  same  etymology  seems 
plausible  for  the  first  el.  of  Dunnerholme.  But  there  is  in  early  sources  a  third 
name  with  a  first  el.  Dunner-,  viz.,  Dunermersk  c  1245,  Dunner "mersk  c  1270 
FC  II.  (orig.).  The  place  seems  to  have  been  in  Martin  ;  if  so,  this  Dunner- 
cannot  be  from  Duddon.  I  have  no  definite  suggestion  to  offer  as  regards  this 
element.  Possibly  we  may  compare  certain  etymologically  obscure  Norw. 
names,  e.g.,  the  now  lost  Dunnarstabir  (NG  3,  p.  271).  The  O.E.  pers.  n.  Dunnere, 
found  once  in  The  Battle  of  Maldon,  does  not  seem  to  me  a  probable  source. 
Elliscales  (N.W.  of  Dalton)  :  Aylinescal  1211-22  LPD  II.  170,  Alinscalis,  Alin- 
scales  c  1230  FC,  Alescales  1539  FC  II.  See  further  Lindkvist  p.  192.  The  first 
el.,  clearly  a  pers.  n.,  is  identified  by  Lindkvist  with  M.E.  Ayline<Aylwine, 
by  Wyld  with  O.E.  Mlwine.  But  the  early  loss  of  w  is  somewhat  remarkable, 
and  I  am  inclined  to  believe  that  it  is  rather  O.F.  Alein1  (with  reduction  of  ei 
to  i  in  the  unstressed  syllable)  or  the  corresponding  Ir.  Ailene.  The  second  el. 
is  O.N.  skdli  "  hut." 

Goldmire  (W.  of  Dalton,  on  a  stream) :  Goldmyers  1517  DL,  Goldemyre  1539 
FC  II.,  (water-course  of)  Goldmyre  1538  FC  II.  Gold-  may  be  O.E.  golde  the  name 
of  a  yellow  plant,  perhaps  also  used  of  the  marsh-marigold  ;  cf .  Golborne, 
p.  99  ;  -mire  is  O.N.  myrr  "  marsh." 

Greenscoe  :  Greneschow  1338  FC,  Grenescogh  1400  FC.  O.N.  grcenn  "  green," 
and  skogr  "  wood." 

Haume,  High  and  Low  (or,  Green)  :  Howehom  1336, 1400  FC,  Greneham,  Heyham 
c  1535  Beck  325,  The  Hygham,  the  Greneham  1539  FC  II.,  Greenehawme  1596 
RW  178  ;  now  [a*m].  High  Haume  is  high  up  on  the  slope  of  High  Haume  hill 
(510ft.)  ;  Low  H.  is  on  its  lower  slope.  I  suppose  this  is  O.N.  haugum  "  at  the 
hills."  Possibly  Hougun  DB,  identified  by  Dr.  Farrer  with  Millom,  Cumb., 
refers  to  this  place.  There  are  several  smaller  hills  near  Haume.  Another 
possibility  is  that  the  name  is  a  compound  of  O.N.  haugr  "  hill  "  and  O.E.  hamm 
"  enclosure."  But  it  is  doubtful  if  the  O.E.  word  was  still  in  use  in  the  district 
in  the  Scand.  time. 

Hagg  :  Hogg  1338,  Hagge  1400  FC,  Hagspryng  1537  Beck  Ixvi.  E.  dial,  hag 
11  an  allotment  of  timber  for  felling,  a  certain  portion  of  wood  marked  off  to  be 
cut  "  (EDD),  from  O.N.  hogg  "  felling  of  trees." 

Mousell  (on  Butts  Beck) :  Moushil  1271  FC,  Mousell  1509  Beck  305,  Mowsell 
1539  FC  II.,  Moyselsprynge  1537  Beck  Ixvi ;  now  [mo'zal].  The  place  is 
at  a  hill.  The  elements  of  the  name  seem  to  be  O.E.  mus  "  mouse  "  and  hyll 
"  hill."  The  modern  pronunciation  is  remarkable.  Sprynge  1537  is  spring 
"  a  copse,  grove  .  .  .  ;  a  plantation  of  young  trees,"  etc.  (NED). 
Roanhead  :  Ronheved  1338  FC,  Ronhevede  1400  FC,  Ronehede  1539  FC  II.  ;  now 
[roned].  The  place  is  situated  near  Sandscale  Haws,  a  spit  of  sand  projecting 
into  the  Duddon  estuary ;  this  may  originally  have  been  called  Roanhead.  If 

1  The  form  Alaynschdes  quoted  by  Wyld  from  AD  I.  refers  to  a  place  in  Durham.    The 
date  should  be  1393-4  instead  of  1206. 

DALTON  PAR.  ^  207 

so,  the  second  el.  means  "  headland."    But  more  likely  the  place  was  perhaps 

named  from  the  slight  hill  near  which  it  stands  ;  in  this  case  head  means  "  hill." 

The  first  el.  is  possibly  M.E.  rone  "  a  brake  or  thicket  "  (NED). 

Stewnor  :    Stonenernbech  c  1190  FC  II.,  p.  791,  Stonerbek  1412  FC,  Stevenor, 

Stevener  1603  RW  122,  168  ;    now  [stjirne].     Stewnor  Bank  and  S.  Park  are 

high  up  among  the  hills  in  the  N.  part  of  the  division.    Stewnor  Beck  may  be  the 

present  Poaka  Beck.     I  take  Stonenern-  to  be  miswritten  for  Stoueneru-  (in 

LPD  II.  166  it  is  actually  spelt  Stonenerubech)  and  to  be  identical  with  Steveney, 

Cumb.  :   Stouenergam  12  cent.  RSB.    The  first  el.  is  O.N.  stofn,  stufn  (or  O.E. 

stofn}  "  a  stump,  stem,"  the  second  being  ergh  "  a  hill  pasture." 

Thwaite  Flat  :    Watefiatt  c  1535  Beck  325,  Watflat  1539  FC  II.    Cf.  pp.  11,  19. 

Lindal  with  Martin  division  (the  E.  part). 

Martin  (N.  of  Dalton,  near  Poaka  Beck  ;  v.)  :  Meretun  DB,  1185-1200  LPD  II. 
174,  Mertona  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Merton  1190  FC,  Meretona  c  1200  FC  II.,  Parva 
Mertona  1249  FC  II.  (orig.)  ;  now  [ma'tn].  O.E.  Meretun  "  lake  town."  There 
are,  or  were,  two  or  more  tarns  near  Martin.  In  FC  II.  p.  753  we  read  (in  an 
original  document  of  c  1225)  of  "  unam  acram  circa  Sephet'ne  et  unam  rodam  in 
capite  Tame  "  and  of  "  lacum  qui  Tame  vocatur,"  and  the  same  document 
mentions  Potfurlang  "  the  furlong  at  the  pot  or  pool."  Sepheterne  clearly  means 
"  rush  tarn,"  the  elements  being  O.N.  se/(Engl.  dial,  seave)  "  rush  "  and  O.N.  tiorn 
"  tarn."  There  is  a  place  Tarn  Flat  £  mile  S.  of  Martin  (  :  ?  Terneflat  1332  FC). 
Orgrave  (old  manor)  :  Ouregraue  DB,  Oregraua  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Orgraf  1190- 
1200  FC  II.,  Oregrave,  Houegrave  1235,  Oregrave  1246  LF,  (molendinum  de) 
Orgrave  1247  FC  II.  (orig.).  Orgrave  has  been  merged  in  Lindal,  but  the  name  is 
preserved  in  Orgrave  Mill  Cottages  on  Poaka  Beck  near  Tytup  Hall.  Early 
documents  frequently  mention  iron  mines  in  Orgrave  and  the  neighbourhood, 
and  Lindal  is  still  a  mining  centre.  This  tells  us  that  the  name  Orgrave  is  a  com- 
pound of  O.E.  ora  "  ore  "  and  grcef  "  grave  "  and  means  "  ore-pit."  I  find  that 
the  correct  explanation  was  given  by  Collingwood  as  early  as  1902  (The  Lake 
Counties,  p.  66).  The  name  gives  the  important  information  that  iron  mining 
must  have  been  carried  on  in  the  district  since  before  the  Conquest.  The  original 
Orgrave  may  have  been  at  Eure  Pits  S.W.  of  Lindal ;  Eure  is  the  form  of  ore 
to  be  expected  in  N.  dialects  ;  cf.  [fliuo(r)]  "  floor  "  N.Lanc.  (E.  D.  Gr.  p.  444). 
Lindal  (v.)  :  (grangia  de)  Lindale  c  1220,  (grangia  de)  Lindal  c  1225  FC  II., 
Lindale  1292  FC,  Lyndale  1336  FC  II.  ;  now  [lindl].  The  name,  like  Lindale  in 
Cartmel,  probably  means  "  lime-tree  valley."  The  village  stands  in  a  valley 
or  hollow,  but  the  name  may  also  refer  to  the  deep  valley  W.  of  the  church.  In 
FC  I.  241  the  name  is  explained  as  "  the  division  or  portion  of  the  Common-land 
divided  off  for  the  purpose  of  growing  lin,  line,  or  flax."  This  etymology  is 
founded  on  a  passage  in  which  mention  is  made  of  portions  of  Orgrave  common 
field,  among  others  "  dim.  rodam  versus  Lindale  ad  Raulith."  But  versus  may 
mean  "  in  the  direction  of,"  and  the  passage  does  not  prove  that  Lindale  was  in 
Orgrave  common  field.  The  place  is  often  called  a  grange,  which  shows  that  it 
did  not  belong  to  the  common  field. 

Tytup  Hall :  Tytope  1537  FC  II. ;  now  [taitap].  Earlier  material  is  wanted.  The 
second  el.  may  very  well  be  O.E.  hop  in  the  sense  "  a  valley."  The  place  is  in  the 
valley  of  Poaka  Beck.  The  first  el.  might  be  an  O.E.  pers.  n.  *Tyta;  cf.  Tytel. 



The  S.E.  part  of  the  Furness  peninsula,  on  Morecambe  Bay.  Like  Dalton, 
Aldingham  is  not  divided  into  townships,  but  three  subdivisions  are  recognized  : 
Aldingham.  Gleaston,  and  Leece  with  Dendron. 

Aldingham  was  the  principal  seat  of  the  lordship  of  Muchland,  which  embraced 
Aldingham  and  parts  of  Urswick  par.  (VHL  VIII.  3005.).  The  name  Muchland 
appears  late  ;  the  first  quotation  in  VHL  (Michel-land)  dates  from  1498  ;  cf. 
Micheland  1514  Ind,  Michellande  1533  FC,  Michell's  Land  1536  DL.  The  name 
is  generally,  and  already  in  1774  by  West  (p.  25),  explained  as  Michael's  land, 
the  first  lord  of  Muchland  having  been  Michael  le  Fleming,  who  held  it  in  1127. 
This  seems  correct,  only  the  late  appearance  of  the  name  is  curious. 
1.  Aldingham  (on  the  sea  ;  h.) :  Aldingham  DB,  1212  LI,  1269  LAR,  1327  LS, 
Aldingeham  1292  PW,  Aldyngham  1332  LS,  1336,  1389  LF,  Aldinghame  1341 
FC,  Audingham  1587  RW  174.  O.E.  Aldinga  ham  "  the  ham  of  the  Aldingas 
or  descendants  of  Alda." 

Hart  Carrs  (near  Leece)  :  Hert  DB,  Hertcarr  1418  CR,  Hert  Park  1536  DL.  If 
the  old  name  was  Hert,  we  may  compare  Heorot  the  name  of  HroSgar's  hall  in 
Beowulf,  Hart  the  name  of  a  parish  in  Durham  (Hert  1130-5  YCh  671),  Swine  in- 
Yks.  (Swine  DB,  Swyna  1163-72  YCh  1362).  But  Hart  in  Durh.  is  perhaps  not 
a  safe  analogy,  as  there  are  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  place  Harton  (Heortedun 
Sim.  Durh.),  and  Hartlepool  (Heruteu  "  Insula  Cervi  "  in  Bede).  The  name 
would  seem  to  be  O.E.  heorot  "  hart."  Names  of  animals  used  as  place-names 
are  occasionally  found  in  Norway  :  Hjorten  "  the  Hart  "  NG  XIII.  353,  Ron 
(<Hundr  "  dog  ")  NG  I.  43.  The  reason  why  places  got  names  such  as  these 
is  as  a  rule  by  no  means  apparent. 

Baycliff  (h.)  :  Bellecliue  1212  LI,  Belediue,  -dyue  1269  LAR,  Beeldyff,  -hagges 
1418,  Beadiff  1585  RW  105.  The  place  stands  on  a  slope  c  100ft.  above  sea-level 
near  Morecambe  Bay.  The  second  el.  is  clearly  O.E.  dif  "  a  slope."  The  first 
is  rather  doubtful.  The  earliest  quotation  points  to  O.E.  Bella,  a  known  name. 
But  if  the  form  Beeklyffis  trustworthy,  it  might  be  O.E.  bcel  "  fire,  blaze." 
Newbigging  (at  two  slight  elevations  in  very  low  surroundings) :  Neubygging, 
Newebigginge  1269  LAR.  Bigging  "  building ;  hut  "  is  a  derivative  of  big 
vb.  from  O.N.  byggia  "  to  build  ;  dwell." 

Roosebeck  (h.) :  Rosbech  1227  FC  II.,  Rosebec,  -beke  1269  LAR,  Rosebek  1418 
CR.  The  hamlet  stands  in  the  S.  part  of  the  parish,  close  to  a  brook,  which 
forms  the  boundary  against  Dalton.  This  brook,  which  rises  not  far  from 
Roose  (in  Dalton  par.),  must  formerly  have  been  called  Roose  Beck. 
Scales  (on  a  hill ;  h.)  :  Scales  1269  LAR,  1418  CR,  del  Scales  1332  LS.  O.N. 
skdli  "  a  hut." 

Seamill  (on  the  sea) :  Semilne,  Semilln  1269  LAR,  Sey  Mill  1536  DL. 
Sea  Wood  (near  the  sea) :   Marina  Silva  1282  CWNS  XII.  234,  Le  Sewod  1418 
CR,  Seywood  Park  1528  DL.    Seawood  Scar  (in  the  sands  outside  Sea  Wood) 
seems  to  be  le  Whytescarre  in  Marina  Silva  1282  CWNS  XII.  235.    Scar  is  O.N. 
sker  "  skerry." 

Sunbrick  :  Swinebroc,  Swynebrok  (no  doubt  for  -brek)  1269  LAR,  Swynbreke 
1282  CWNS  XII.  235,  Sonbrek  1418  CR,  Swinebreake  1584,  Sunbreke  1583  RW 


212,  216  ;  now  [sunbrik].  The  place  is  in  the  N.  part  of  the  parish  on  the  slope 
of  a  prominent  ridge  of  400ft.  called  Birkrig  (Byrkeryg  1282  OWNS  XII.  234). 
O.N.  svin-brekka  "  slope  where  swine  are  kept." 

Windhill  (on  a  hill  N.  of  Aldingham) :  ?  W indul  1180-90  FC  II.  (orig.),  Whynhill 
1418  OR,  Windle  1605  Aldingham  R.  "  Windy  hill  "  ;  cf.  Windle  in  De.  The 
form  of  1418,  however,  may  point  to  "  whin  hill." 

2.  Gleaston  (W.  of  Aldingham) :    Glassertun  DB,  de  Glestona  13  cent.  RSB, 
Cleston,  de  Cleyston,  de  Clesdon  1246  LAR,  Magna,  Parua  Gleston,  Gleseton 
1269  LAR,  Gleston  1389,  1450  LF,  c  1540  Leland,  Glayston  1577  Saxton,  Glaiston 
1577  Harr.  ;   now  [glrstn].    Gleaston  hamlet  stands  on  a  brook  at  the  foot  of 
Beacon  Hill  (286ft.).    Gleaston  castle  is  a  little  way  to  the  N. 

It  seems  we  have  to  assume  as  the  first  el.  of  the  name  a  form  Gles-  or  (in 
view  of  the  DB  orm  and  the  mod.  pronunciation  rather)  Gles-  from  O.E.  Glees-. 
The  latter  base  would  have  to  be  derived  from  the  root  glis-  in  O.E.  (jlisian, 
glisnian,  etc.,  O.N.  glis  "  gleam,"  etc.  The  base  Gles-  (or  Gles-)  would  belong  to 
Germ,  glas-,  glees-  with  much  the  same  meaning ;  cf .  the  Norw.  place-names, 
Glesnes,  Glceserud,  O.N.  glcesiligr  "  shining  "  etc.  (NG  XI.  262).  The  el.  Gles- 
might  be  an  old  name  of  the  brook,  which  has  clear  water.  Or  a  beacon  fire 
might  have  been  called  glees  or  the  like  ;  cf .  Beacon  Hill.  Or  Gles-  may  refer  to 
the  situation  of  the  place.  The  hamlet  is  in  a  sheltered  position  with  hills  to  the 
W.,  N.,  and  E.,  but  with  a  free  southern  aspect  "  The  light,  sunny  place  " 
would  be  a  suitable  name.  Glesnes  in  Norway  is  thought  to  have  possibly  got 
its  name  in  allusion  to  its  high  free  situation  with  a  southern  view.  Or  a  mean- 
ing "  glade,  clearing  "  may  be  thought  of.  Glesefeld  (in  Line.)  1291  TE  may 
have  the  same  first  el.  as  Gleaston. 

3.  Leece  with  Dendron  (S.W.  of  Aldingham). 

Leece  (v.) :  Lies  DB,  Les,  Lees  1269  LAR,  Lees  1327,  1332  LS,  Leghis  1341  FC, 
Lece  1577  Saxton  ;  now  [li's].  Apparently  the  plur.  of  O.E.  leak  "  lea,  pasture," 
etc.  With  the  DB  spelling  Lies  may  be  compared  the  DB  Hieton. 
Dendron  (h.) :  ?  Dene  DB,  Denrun,  Denrum  (printed  Deu-)  1269  LAR,  Denrum 
1412  FC,  Deuron  1418  CR,  Dendron  1584  RW  58  ;  now  [dendorn].  If  Dene  DB 
belongs  here,  the  original  name  may  have  been  O.E.  denu  "  valley,"  or  in  this 
case  rather  "  hollow,  level  ground  among  hills."  The  second  el.  of  Dendron 
seems  to  be  O.E.  or  O.N.  rum  "  room,"  here  perhaps  "  clearing  "  ;  cf.  p.  16. 
The  same  change  of  -m  to  -n  is  found  in  Dertren,  p.  186. 


A  district  N.  and  W.  of  Aldingham,  E.  of  Dalton  par.  There  is  no  division 
into  townships. 

Urswick  (E.  of  Dalton  town)  :  Ursewica  c  1150  FC,  Hursewic  1189  Ch,  1212  LI. 
Wrsewik  1190  FC,  Ursewic  1194  Ind,  c  1205  FC  II.  (orig.),  1212  LI,  Vrs(e)wich, 
vrs(e)wic  1198-1208  Ch  (orig.),  Urswyk  1246  LAR,  1413  LF,  Ursewik  1269  LAR, 
Vrsewyk  1327,  -wik  1332  LS  ;  Magna  Urswic  1180-90  FC  II  (orig.),  Great  Urswyk 
1277  LAR  ;  Parva  Urswik  1257  LAR,  Little  Ursewyk  1299  LI.  There  are  two 
villages  and  old  manors  :  Great  (or  Much)  and  Little  Urswick.  Great  Urswick, 
which  is  no  doubt  the  earlier  settlement,  stands  round  the  upper  end  of  a  large 



tarn.  The  earliest  forms  of  the  name  point  to  early  M.E.  Urse-  (rather  than 
Ures-)  as  the  first  element.  I  believe  this  is  the  old  name  of  the  tarn,  O.E. 
*Ursce  "  the  bison's  lake  "  ;  cf.  Swed.  Ursjon  (Hellqvist,  Svenska  Sjonamn, 
p.  679f.).  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  wic  "  village,  homestead,"  etc. 
Quernbarow  Fields  (still  found  in  West's  map  1774) :  Querneberg  1227  LF, 
Wharneborow  (-barowe)  Feld  1539  FC  II.  The  elements  are  O.E.  cweorn  or 
O.N.  kvern  "  mill,"  etc.,  and  O.E.  beorh  or  O.N.  berg  "  hill  "  ;  cf.  Quarlton, 
p.  46. 

Bardsea  (N.  of  Aldingham  ;  old  manor,  v.)  :  Berretseige  DB,  Berdeseia(m)  1155, 
1158,  1189-94  Ch  (orig.),  Bardeseia  1202  LF,  Berdesey  1246  LAR,  Berdeseye 
1269  LAR,  1348  LF,  Berdese  1269  LAR  ;  now  [ba'dza,  ba'dzi].  The  village  is 
Dn  the  slope  of  a  hill.  Below  it  is  a  flat  triangular  piece  of  ground  on  the  sea- 
shore, which  may  formerly  have  been  partly  under  water.  At  the  E.  end  is  a 
slight  hill,  called  Wadhead  Scar.  The  second  el.  of  the  name,  O.E.  eg  "  island," 
etc.,  no  doubt  refers  to  this  piece  of  land.  The  first  el.  is  clearly  a  pers.  n.  If 
the  DB  form  is  to  be  trusted,  it  may  be  assumed  to  have  been  a  dissyllabic  name, 
perhaps  O.E.  Beornred.  If  it  was  monosyllabic,  we  may  compare  the  O.E. 
Beard  which  seems  to  enter  into  Beardshaw,  Bl. 

Bolton  (S.  of  Little  Urswick ;  old  manor)  :  Bodeltun  DB,  Botheltun  1180-90 
FC  II.  (orig.),  Bowolton  1235  LF,  Boulton  1299  LI,  1304  LF,  Bolton  c  1300  FC, 
1432  LF.  O.E.  Bopltun  ;  cf.  p.  8.  The  name  is  now  preserved  in  Bolton 
Chapel  (ruined)  and  Bolton  Heads  (a  hill).  There  is  no  vil.  or  hamlet  of  the  name  ; 
Hawksfield  farm  is  on  or  near  its  site. 

Stainton  (S.E.  of  Dalton  town  ;  old  manor,  v.) :  Steintun  DB,  de  Steynton  1246 
LAR,  Steynton,  Staynton  1269  LAR,  Stayntonam  1276  FC  ;  now  [stentn].  The 
name  means  "  stone  village,"  "  the  village  with  the  stones."  On  the  village 
green  are  numerous  stones  of  various  sizes,  some  huge  blocks  of  remarkable 
shape.  They  are  obviously  erratic  blocks,  and  some  have  deep  cavities  or 
channels  formed  by  the  action  of  running  water.  An  inhabitant  told  me  they  are 
thought  to  have  been  washed  up  by  the  flood.  The  correct  etymology  was  given 
by  West  1774.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  O.N.  steinn  or  O.E.  stdn,  later  Scan- 

Adgarley  (h.  ;  now  in  Stainton,  which  it  adjoins) :  Eadgarlith  1180-90  FC  II. 
(orig.),  Adgareslith  1212  LI,  Adgerlith,  -lyth  c  1300  FC  ;  now  [adga'li].  O.E. 
Eadgar  pers.  n.,  and  O.E.  hlid  or  O.N.  hlid  "  slope."  The  place  stands  on  a 


A  district  W.  of  Ulverston,  N.  of  Urswick.    The  surface  gradually  rises  till 
altitudes  of  700  to  1,000ft.  are  reached  in  the  N. 

Pennington  (v.) :  Pennigetun  DB,  Penig-,  Penytona  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  Peninton 
1187f.  LPR,  Penigtvn  1198-1208  Ch  (orig.),  Peniton  1202  LF,  Pennitona  1201-6 
LPD  II.  161,  Penyngton  1327, 1332  LS  ;  now  [penitn].  The  name  seems  identical 
with  Pennington  in  Hants  :  ?  Pannigtun  973  BCS  1297,  Penitone  DB.  Its  first 
el.  is  no  doubt  O.E.  peni(n)g  "  penny."  There  were  presumably  fiscal  reasons 
for  such  a  name.  Analogous  examples  are  given  by  Johnston,  Pl.N.  of  Scotland 
s.v.  Peninnghame. 


Cowran  :    Goran  1623  Pennington  R,  Coren   1666   RW   71  ;     now    [kauran]. 

Perhaps  "  cow-house,"  from  O.N.  kyr  (g.  pi.  kua)  or  O.E.  cu  and  O.N.  rann 

"  house." 

EUabarrow  :   Ellerburghe  1332  FC,  Ellerbarrowe  1542  DL.    O.E.  ellern  "  elder  " 

or  O.N.  elri  "  alders  "  and  M.E.  bergh  "  hill." 

Ewe  Dale  (in  the  far  N.) :    Ulvedale,  -bech  1189-1209  LPD  II.  166,  Ulvedale 

(vacherie)  1352  FC,  Uldale  1408  FC  II.    O.N.  Ulfadalr  "  valley  of  the  wolves." 

The  identification  of  the  early  forms  with  Ewe  Dale  is  not  absolutely  certain, 

but  Ulvedale  is  stated  to  have  been  in  the  far  N.  of  Pennington. 

Holebiggerah  :    Holbigwra  1332  FC,  Hole  Bigway  1538  FC  II. ;    now  [(h)o'l 

bigre-].     Near  this  was  Bigwra  1332  FC.     Bigwra  is  O.N.  bygg  "  barley  "  and 

(v)rd  "  corner,"  etc.    The  place  is  in  a  deep  valley. 

Kirkstead  (near  Lindale)  :  Kirkested  1332  FC.    "  The  site  of  the  church."    There 

must  have  been  a  church  at  the  place. 

Loppergarth  (close  to  Pennington  church) :  Lopgarth  1595  RW  107,  Loppergarth 

1642,  Laupergarth  1643  Pennington  R.    First  el.  possibly  dial,  louper  "  jumper  ; 

vagabond,"  etc.,  from  O.N.  hlaupari, 

Rathmoss  :    Rathmosse  1656  Pennington  R.    Near  by  is  Rath  vale.    Rath  is  no 

doubt  O.N.  raudr  "  red  "   or  a  derivative  of  it.    The  places  are  near  the  upper 

Levy  Beck,  formerly  apparently  Rawthey  ;   cf.  p.  191. 

Walthwaite  (on  a  hillside)  :    de  Walthwayt  1260-80  FC  II.,   Walthwaiteforthe, 

Walthwaitforde  1332  FC  ;  now  [wo-tyat].    Wai-  is  probably  O.N.  vollr  "  pasture, 

meadow  "  ;   Norw.  void,  Swed.  vail  are  often  used  of  a  meadow  at  a  shieling  or 

of  a  shieling.    The  place  is  near  a  brook. 

Whinfield  (h.)  :  Quinfel'  1329  FC,  Whinfell  1587  RW  229.    The  place  stands  at 

a  hill  (308ft.).    The  elements  of  the  name  are  M.E.  whin  "  gorse  "  and  O.N.  fiall 

"  fell." 


This  large  parish  forms  a  long,  comparatively  narrow  strip  of  land,  which 
reaches  to  the  N.  boundary  of  the  county.  It  is  bounded  on  the  E.  by  the  Leven 
estuary,  the  Crake.  Coniston  Water,  and  Yewdale  Beck.  The  western  boundary 
follows  a  chain  of  hills,  which  separate  Ulverston  from  Kirkby  Ireleth  par.  In 
the  S.  is  some  comparatively  low  land,  but  the  ground  rises  quickly.  In  the  N. 
are  hills  such  as  Coniston  Old  Man,  Wetherlam,  and  others.  The  villages  and 
homesteads  are  mostly  in  the  E.  part. 

1.  Ulverston  (town)  :  Vlurestun  DB,  Oluestonam  1127ff.  Ch,  Olueston  1155, 
1189-94  Ch  (orig.),  Ulveston  1191-8  FC,  1246,  1273  LAR,  Olueston  1196  LF  ; 
Ulverston,  Uluereston,  Uluerestune  pul  1180-4  Ch,' Ulverston  1246  LAR,  1309  LF, 
etc.,  Uluereston  1271  LAR,  Ulueriston  1277  LAR,  Vluereston  1332  LS  ;  Ulreston 
1246,  1336  LF,  Vllerston  1327  LS  ;  U'ston  1867  Morris.  The  early  forms  without 
r  are  no  doubt  chiefly  due  to  omission  of  an  abbreviation-mark  for  er.  Partly 
Norman  influence  may  be  assumed.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  is  either  the  com- 
mon O.E.  pers.  n.  Wulfhere,  with  loss  of  W  owing  to  Scand.  influence,  or  O.N. 
Ulfarr,  as  suggested  by  Bjorkman,  Personennamen.  I  am  inclined  to  prefer 
the  first  alternative. 
Conishead  Priory  (S.E.  of  Ulverston,  on  Leven  Sands) :  Cuningesheued  1180-4 


Ch,  Conigeshevede,  Conyngeshevede  1180-4  Ch  (orig.j,  Chunghishewid  1194-9  Ch 
(orig.),  Cunning eshevet,  -heved  1208  FC,  Cuningesheued  1235  LF,  Coningisheued 
1246  IPM,  Cuningesheued  1246  LAR,  Kunisheved  1245  LPD  II.  192  ;  now 
[kunized].  The  present  (modern)  mansion  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  short  ridge 
or  hill  with  fairly  steep  sides,  on  the  N.  slope  of  which  is  Big  Head  Wood.  The 
second  el.  of  the  name,  head  (O.E.  heafod),  means  "  hill  "  and  refers  to  this  hill. 
The  first  el.  is  O.N.  *kunungr,  konungr  "  king,"  which  has  very  likely  replaced 
O.E.  cyning ;  cf.  Coniscliff,  Durh. :  Ciningesclif  Chr.  (E.),  Cunesclive  1203 

Dragley  Beck  (h.)  :  Dracklebecke  1596  RW  241  ;  now  [dragla  bek].  Dragley 
appears  as  Drakelow  c  1270  FC  II.  The  hamlet  stands  on  Levy  Beck.  Drakelow 
is  no  doubt  identical  with  Drakelow  in  Derby  :  cet  Dracan  hlawen  942  (Johnston). 
It  probably  means  "  the  hill  or  mound  of  the  dragon."  There  may  have  been  a 
legend  about  a  dragon  attached  to  the  place. 

Gascow  :  [Gars]chownab  1180-4  Ch,  Garthscoh,  -lac  1220-46  Ch,  Gartschou  1272-8 
LPD  II.  193  ;  now  [gaska].  The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N.  gardr  "  fence  ; 
enclosure  "  and  skogr  "  wood."  There  is  a  small  pointed  hill  behind  the  farm  ; 
this  is  the  nab  referred  to  in  the  earliest  example  (O.N.  nabbr,  nabbi  "  peak  or 
knoll  "). 

Hasty  Gill  (a  long  valley  N.W.  of  Ulverston,  at  the  head  of  which  a  height  of 
700ft.  is  reached)  :  Hastigale  1368  FC,  Hastagale  1412  FC  (Index).  The  second 
el.  seems  to  be  O.N.  geil  "  narrow  glen."  The  first  el.  is  doubtful,  especially  as 
the  early  forms  vary.  If,  as  seems  probable,  Hastigale  is  the  more  correct  form, 
we  may  think  of  O.N.  hdstigi  "  stallion  "  or  *hdstigr  "  high  path."  But  better 
material  is  wanted. 

Roshead  or  Rosside  (N.W.  of  Ulverston,  in  Hasty  Gill) :  (villa  de)  Reuesath, 
Ruesath  c  1270  FC  II.,  de  Ressat  1332  FC,  Rosset  a  1412  FC,  Rossett  1537  LF, 
Russett  1552  LF.  I  believe  the  elements  of  this  name  are  O.N.  Refr  pers.  n. 
and  set,  sat  "  shieling  "  ;  cf.  p.  16.  The  change  of  e  to  o  is  abnormal. 
Swarthmoor  Hall  :  Swartemore  1537  LR,  Swarthmore  1537  FC  II.,  Swartmore 
1595  RW  216,  Swartmoor  1867  Morris ;  now  [swa*]?mu8r].  Probably  O.E.  sweart 
"  black  "  and  mor.  The  place  was  named  from  Swarth  Moor,  now  drained, 
which  gave  name  also  to  Swarthmoor  village  in  Pennington. 
Trinkeld  (S.W.  of  Ulverston) :  Hindekeld  1180-4  Ch,  Trandekeld  1319  LPR 
3571,  (cursum  fontis  quae  vocatur)  Trankelde  FC  I.  424,  Trynkell  1539  FC  II., 
Trenkelt  1598  RW  216,  Trinkelt  1615  RW  107  ;  now  [triqkald,  trig  keld].  O.N. 
prdndr  (or  rather  prdndi ;  cf.  Bjorkman,  Namenkunde)  pers.  n.  and  kelda 
"  spring  "  (thus  in  the  main  Wyld).  A  copious  well  rises  at  the  place,  and  from 
it  a  rivulet  runs  eastward.  The  sound-development  of  the  name  is  remarkable. 
The  change  of  a  to  i  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  a  was  long.  This  was 
palatalized  to  [e*]  and  shortened  early  enough  to  take  part  in  the  change  of  [e] 
to  [i]  before  nk.  The  regular  Tr-  instead  of  Thr-  is  due  to  the  change  of  pr  >  tr 
found  in  parts  of  Lane,  and  Wml.  (Wright,  E.D.Gr.  §  313). 
2.  Mansriggs  (N.  of  Ulverston  ;  h.) :  Manslarig  c  1520  VHL  VIII.  356,  Mans- 
larigges  1539  FC  II.,  Mansriggs  1577  Ind  II.  The  district  occupies  some  ridges 
and  hills.  The  first  el.  of  the  name  cannot  be  determined  with  the  material 


3.  Osmotherley  (N.  of  Ulverston)  :   Asemunderlawe  1246  LAR,  de  Asmundrelau 
1341  IN,  de  Osmoundrelawe  1332  LS,  Osmunderley  1539  FC  II.,  Easmotherlei 
1588  RW  50  ;   now  [ozmuoali].    See  Lindkvist  p.  4  and  Wyld.    Jsmundar,  the 
gen.  of  O.N.  Asmun&r  (later  anglicized  to  Osmund-),  and  O.E.  hlaw  "  hill."   The 
name  is  remarkable  in  so  far  as  it  contains  a  Scand.  gen.  form  and  an  Engl. 
second  el.    We  must  assume  that  O.E.  hldw  had  been  adopted  by  Scand.  settlers. 
The  loss  of  n  and  change  of  d  to  d  is  found  also  in  Osmotherley,  Yks. 
Broughton  Beck  (h.) :   Broctunebec  c  1246,  Brockton-,  Broghtunbec  c  1272  FC,  the 
name  of  the  brook  on  which  the  hamlet  stands.    The  old  name  of  the  place  was 
Broughton  :   de  Broghton  1332  LS,  de  Broghtona  1333,  Broghtonam  a  1412  FC. 
O.E.  Broctun. 

4.  Egton  with  Newland  (N.E.  of  Ulverston,  on  Leven  Sands  and  the  Crake). 
Newland  (the  S.  part) :  Neulande  1276  FC,  Neweland  1418  CR.    The  place  may 
originally  have  been  a  piece  of  newly  cultivated  land  belonging  to  the  townfield 
of  Ulverston  or  Plumpton. 

Egton  (the  N.  part)  :  Egetona  1248  LPD  II.  171,  Egeton  1262  ib.  175,  Egton 
1272  FC,  Eggeton  FC  I.  413  ;  now  [ektn].  There  is  no  hamlet  called  Egton. 
The  place  was  very  likely  near  the  present  hamlet  of  Penny  Bridge,  which  was 
named  from  a  family  resident  there.  An  early  name  of  the  ford  that  preceded 
the  bridge  was  Tunewat(h)  FC  I.  348,  378,  i.e.,  "  the  village  ford,"  probably 
"  Egton  village  ford."  Egton  may  be  O.E.  Ecgan  tun,  as  the  earliest  forms  seem 
to  suggest,  or  ecg-tun,  i.e.,  "  the  tun  at  the  edge  or  hill-side."  The  hills  slope 
sharply  towards  the  Crake. 

Greenodd  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Crake  and  the  Leven  ;  v.) :  Green  Odd  1774 
West  (map).  The  name  means  "  the  green  promontory."  It  need  not  be  old, 
as  odd  (O.N.  oddi)  is  still  used  in  Lane,  dialects  in  the  sense  "  a  small  point  of 
land  "  (EDD). 

Nettleslack  (h.) :  de  Nettlisclak  1264  FC  II.  (orig.),  Netylslake  1544  DL.  The 
place  stands  in  a  slight  hollow  or  valley.  The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N. 
netla  or  O.E.  netele  "  nettle  "  and  O.N.  slakki  "  valley." 

Plumpton  (E.  of  Ulverston,  on  the  flat  shore  of  the  Leven)  :  (landam  de)  Plumb- 
tun,  Plumton  1180-4  Ch,  (Haya  de)  Plumtun  1276  FC,  Plunton  Ho'  1867  Morris. 
O.E.  plume  "  plum- tree  "  and  tun. 

Scathwaite,  High  and  Low  (hamlets  ;  in  the  higher  W.  part; :  Scafthwait  1246, 
1272  FC,  Scafthauith  1248  FC  II.,  Skathwayt  1336  FC  II.,  Scait(w)hait  1597  RW 
168  ;  now  [ska]?at].  Cf.  also  Lindkvist  p.  121.  Lindkvist  suggests  as  first  el. 
O.N.  skaf  "  peeled  bark  used  as  fodder."  More  probable  is  perhaps  the  O.N. 
pers.  n.  Skapti,  or  Norw.  skapt  in  the  sense  "  lower  spur  jutting  out  from  a  hill." 
Toppin  Rays  (on  a  hill) :  Toppinraise  1590,  1599  RW  184.  Engl.  dial.  toppin(g) 
means  "  a  hill."  Rays  is  O.N.  hreysi  "  cairn." 

5.  Lowick  (N.  of  Egton  with  Newland  and  Osmotherley)  :    Lofwic  1202  LF, 
Lowyk  1246  LAR,  Laufwik,  -wic,  -wyk,  Louwyk,  Lofwyk  FC  I.  435fi.,  Lewike  1577 
Harr.  ;    now  [lo'ik].     Lindkvist,  p.  147,  suggests  as  the  elements  of  the  name 
O.N.  lauf"  leaf,  foliage  "  or  a  beck-name  Laufa  and  O.N.  vik  "  bend  of  a  river." 
The  existence  of  a  beck-name  Laufa  may  to  some  extent  be  corroborated  by 
Harrison's  statement  that  the  brook  which  rises  at  Lowick  chapel  was  called 
the  Lew.    But  probably  the  name  Lew  is  a  back-formation  from  Lewike,  and  the 


first  alternative,  Laufvik  "  leafy  bend,"  seems  to  me  preferable.    Laufvik  is  a 

common  name  in  Norway  ;    cf.  e.g.  NG  XI.  62.     Lowick  Bridge  and  Lowick 

Green  are  on  the  Crake,  which  makes  several  bends. 

Groffa  Crag  :    Crophacrage    1636    RW  76,  Bropha-cragg  1662  RW  77  ;    now 

[grofo  krag].    The  farm  is  on  the  slope  of  a  rocky  hill,  called  Groffa  Scars.    I 

imagine  the  name  represents  an  O.N.  Grof-haugr  (cf.  Norw.  Grovhaugen  NG  V. 

113),  the  first  el.  being  O.N.  grof  "  hole,  hollow  ;   brook."    A  quarry  may  have 

been  at  the  place,  or  a  natural  hollow  may  be  meant. 

Hawkswell  :   Hawkeswell  1561,  1563  DL.    O.N.  Haukr  pers.  n.  and  O.E.  wella 

"  well,  brook."    A  small  brook  runs  past  the  farm. 

Knapperthaw:  Knapthall  1591f.  RW  283,  Knapathow  1674  ib.  32  ;  now  [napa)>o-]. 

The  farm  stands  at  a  ridge  with  a  round  knoll  at  one  end.    The  first  el.  is  an  O.E. 

cnceppede  "  provided  with  a  cncepp"    O.E.  cncepp  means  "  top  of  a  hill,"  dial. 

knap  also  "  bump,  knob."    The  second  el.  is  no  doubt  O.N.  haugr  "  hill."    The 

name  accurately  describes  the  hill. 

6.  Subberthwaite  (a  hilly  district  in  the  W.  part  of  the  par.) :    de  Sulbythwayt 
1284  LAR,  Sulbithwayt  1346  VHL  VIII.  357,  Soelbythwayt  1489  PatR,  Sober- 
thwayt  1538  FC  II.,  Sowberthwat  1577  Saxton,  Soberthat  1592  RW  32  ;  now 
[suba]?at].    The  earliest  forms  point  decisively  to  the  first  el.  being  a  place-name 
in  -by,  no  doubt  identical  with  Soulby  in  Cumb.  and  WmL,  and  probably  having 
as  first  el.  the  pers.  n.  Suli  found  in  O.Dan,  or  possibly  O.N.  sul  "  pillar."    We 
must  assume  that  there  was  once  a  place  called  Sulby  somewhere  near  Subber- 
thwaite.   The  later  forms  seem  to  be  due  to  association  with  M.E.  bergh  "  hill." 
A  plausible  explanation  is  that  a  neighbouring  hill  had  the  name  Solberg,  identical 
with  Sulber  Hill  in  Yks.  (Solberge  DB,  Solberhe  FC)  from  O.N.  Solbiarg  "  sunny 
hill."    This  may  have  been  the  name  of  Lin  Crag,  at  the  foot  of  which  Subber- 
thwaite stands.    Solbiarg,  now  Solberg,  is  a  common  name  in  Norway,  and  is 
held  to  mean  sometimes  "  sunny  hill,"  sometimes  "  a  hill  situated  in  the  west  " 
(NG  IX.  110,  XL  12). 

Gawthwaite  or  Goathwaite  :  Golderswatt  1552  LF  ;  cf.  VHL  VIII.  354.  Second 
el.  O.N.  pveit ;  the  first  is  doubtful. 

Stennerley  (High  and  Low) :  de  Stainnerlid  1200-35  FC  II.,  de  Stainerlith  1251 
LPD  II.  175,  Staynerlyth  1285  LAR,  de  Staynerlyth  1316  LI.  Cf.  Lindkvist  p.  81. 
O.N.  Steinarr  pers.  n.  and  hlib  "  slope,  hill-side."  The  hamlets  are  on  the  slope 
of  a  hill  reaching  788ft. 

Tottlebank  :  Totlbank  1612  RW  283.  The  place  stands  at  the  foot  of  a  hill  of 
700ft.,  close  to  Blawith  Knott  (812ft.).  I  believe  Tottle-  is  M.E.  tote-hill  "  look- 
out hill."  Bank  means  "  hill." 

7.  Blawith  (at  the  S.  end  of  Coniston  Water  ;    h.) :    (foresta  de)  Blawit  1276, 
Blawith  1341  FC,  Blathe  1600  RW  185;    now  [bla'5,  bla^j.     O.N.  Bld-vidr 
"  the  black  wood  " ;   cf.  Bldskogr  in  Iceland  and  Myrkvidr  in  Norway  with  the 
same  meaning.    Blawith  is  an  old  forest  district. 

Birkrow  :  Byrkerowe  1564  DL,  Birkraye  1640  RW  176.  Second  el.  apparently 
O.N.  (v)rd  "  corner,"  etc.  Bouldrey  or  Bouthrey  Bridge  perhaps  has  the  same 
second  el. 

Cockenshell  :  de  Cockanscales  1284  LAR,  de  Cokainscalis  14  cent.  FC,  Cokenscale 
1632  Torver  R.  Cocken-  cannot  be  anything  else  than  the  place-name  Cocken 


(Dalton)  ;    cf.  p.  203.     The  name  would  seem  to  show  that  the  fells  in  High 

Furness  were  common  land  belonging  to  the  townships  in  the  south.    The  second 

el.  is  O.N.  skdli  "  hut." 

Houkler  Hall  :  Hoglerhowe  1609  RW  284,  Houghler  Hall  1637  ib. ;  now  [haukte 

ho-1].    The  farm  stands  at  Spout  Crag  (over  300ft.)  W.  of  Blawith  chapel.    The 

name  no  doubt  originally  denoted  the  hill,  the  second  el.  being  O.N.  haugr 

"  hill."    The  first  el.  is  doubtful ;   it  is  very  likely  a  compound  containing  ergh 

"  a  shieling." 

Picthall  :    Pickthowe  1609  RW  175,  Pickthawe  1644  RW  289  ;    now  [pik)>o-l]. 

No  doubt  identical  with  Pikedhowe  FC  I.  203  (W.  Yks.).    "  Pointed  hill  "  ;   cf. 

Pike  Law  in  Bl.    The  place  stands  at  a  small  pointed  hill,  characterized  also  by 

pointed  rocks  on  its  sides. 

Stable  Harvey  (in  a  valley  near  Coniston  Water) :  de  Stableheruy  1332  LS.    This 

must  be  "  the  stable  of  Harvey."    Harvey  is  a  French  name. 

Water  Yeat  (on  a  small  brook) :    Wateryate  myll  1539  FC  II.,  Wotteryait  1597 

RW  3  ;  now  [wo-tajet].     Yeat  is  O.E.  geat  "  gate." 

8.  Torver  (W.  of  Coniston  Water) :    Thoruergh  1190-9  Ch,  Thorwerghe  1202  LF, 
Thorfergh  1246  LF,    Torver(e)gh,    Thoruergh  1246  LAR,    Torweg  1252  LAR, 
Toruerg  1272-80,  1299-1320  LPD  II.  193,  Torver  1537  LR.    The  second  el.  is 
ergh  "  a  shieling."     The  first  is  doubtful.     If  it  began  in  T-,  either  O.N.  torf 
"  turf,  peat  "  or  the  O.N.  pers.  n.  Torfi  or  Torfa  would  yield  a  satisfactory 
etymology.    If  the  name  began  in  Th-,  a  Scand.  name  in  por-  must  be  the  first 
el.,  e.g.,  purwif  (a  woman's  name  ;   cf.  Bjorkman)  or  porolfr,  but  neither  seems 
to  go  well  with  the  early  forms. 

Grassguards  :  Gresgards  1599  Torver  R.    O.N.  gresgardr  "  grass  enclosure." 
Hoathwaite :  Holtwayt  1272-80  LPD  II.  193.    The  place  is  on  a  brook  in  a  deep 
valley.    Lindkvist's  suggestion  that  the  first  el.  is  O.E.  or  O.N.  hoi  "  hollow  " 
seems  thus  very  plausible. 

9.  Church  Coniston  (at  the  N.  end  of  Coniston  Water  ;  v.) :  'Coningeston  1157-63 
Ch  (orig.),  Koningeston  1196  LF,   Coningeston  1257  LAR,  Kunyngston  1336 
FC  II.;  now  [kunistn].    O.N.  *Kunungstun  "the  king's  tun."    The  name  might 
be  an  O.N.  adaptation  of  O.E.  Cyningestun,  but  is  more  probably  Scandinavian 
and  possibly  preserves  the  memory  of  a  small  Scandinavian  mountain  kingdom. 
A  Norwegian  "  kingdom  "  was  not  a  large  district.     A  sea-king  might  command 
quite  a  small  fleet.    There  is  no  intrinsic  improbability  in  the  suggestion  that 
Coniston  with  adjoining  districts  formed  a  Viking  kingdom.    Its  extent  may  be 
indicated  by  the  names  Thurston  Water  for  Coniston  Water  and  part  of  the 
Crake,  and  Cunsey  on  Lake  Windermere.    Thurston  Water  was  named  from  one 
Thurstan,  an  early  owner.    The  southern  boundary  of  his  possessions  was  possibly 
the  point  where  Thurston  Water  changed  its  name  to  Crake  (cf .  p.  192).    Thurstan 
may  have  been  the  founder  or  one  of  the  early  kings  of  the  kingdom.    Cunsey  is 
very  likely  O.N.  Kunungs-d  and  may  have  been  named  from  the  same  king  as 
Coniston.     If  so,  his  kingdom  must  have  comprised  at  least  part  of  the  land 
between  Coniston  Water  and  Lake  Windermere.    But,  of  course,  Coniston  may 
have  belonged  to  some  larger  Scandinavian  kingdom. 

Little  Arrow  :   Little  Array  1610,  Little  Harrow  1671  RW  112.    Probably  ergh 
"  a  shieling." 


Haws  Bank  :  Howhousebancke  1645  Coniston  R.  Howhouse  has  as  first  el.  O.N. 
haugr  "  hill."  Bank  means  "  hill." 

Tilberthwaite  :  Tildesburgthwait  1196  LF,  c  1200  FC,  Tilburthwait  a  1412  FC  ; 
now  [tilb8]?8t].  Tilberthwaite  farms  stand  2|  miles  N.  of  Coniston  in  a  valley. 
The  first  el.  is  a  lost  place-name  tillesburc  1157-63  Ch  (orig.),  which  contains  a 
pers.  n.,  O.E.  Tilli,  as  in  Tilbury  (Lindkvist),  or  perhaps  rather  one  identical 
with  that  in  Tildesley,  De.  The  el.  burg  suggests  that  there  was  once  a  fort  at 
the  place.  There  are  possibly  traces  of  one  at  Low  Tilberthwaite. 


The  district  between  the  Crake  and  the  S.  part  of  Coniston  Water  on  the  W. 
and  the  Leven  and  the  S.  part  of  Windermere  on  the  E.  It  is  mostly  hilly 
except  in  the  southernmost  part  and  along  Colton  Beck  and  Rusland  Pool. 
It  consists  to  a  great  extent  of  fell  country  and  forest  land.  Colton  till  1676 
belonged  to  Hawkshead.  There  is  no  division  into  townships,  but  the  customary 
division  into  hamlets  may  be  in  the  main  followed. 

(a)  Colton  (the  S.W.  part ;  h.) :  Coleton  1202  LF,  de  Colton  1332  LS,  Colton 
1336  FC  II.,  Coltona  1400  FC  ;  now  [koltn,  ko'ltn].  Colton  h.,  with  the  church, 
stands  on  Colton  Beck.  The  earliest  form  points  to  a  first  el.  with  I,  not  II, 
and  probably  dissyllabic.  I  suppose  it  is  O.E.  Cola  pers.  n.  Cola  is  not  found 
very  early  (929  Wilts,  etc.),  and  is  looked  upon  by  Bjorkman  as  probably  Scan- 
dinavian, while  Redin  thinks  it  is  at  any  rate  not  genuinely  English.  As  Koli 
is  rare  at  least  in  O.N.  and  O.Dan,  (while  Kolr  is  common),  and  Collingbourne 
is  a  place-name  in  Wilts,  where  we  do  not  expect  to  find  Scand.  names  in  very 
early  times,  I  think  Scand.  origin  improbable,  and  see  no  reason  why  O.E.  Cola, 
like  O.H.G.  Colo,  should  not  be  a  native  name.  Derivation  from  a  brook-name 
is  in  itself  possible  ;  Kola  is  a  common  Norw.  name  of  streams,  meaning  "  the 
coal-black  one."  But  such  a  sense  at  least  does  not  suit  Colton  Beck.  A  third 
possibility  is  that  the  first  el.  is  O.N.  kola  "  charcoal  burning."  On  Scand.  names 
apparently  containing  this  word  see  Lid  en,  NoB  IV.  117ff. 
Bandrake  Head  :  banryghed  c  1535  Beck  329,  Banryghed  1539  FC  II.  The  place 
stands  at  the  S.  end  of  a  ridge  now  called  the  Rigg.  Banrig,  obviously  the 
original  name  of  this  ridge,  no  doubt  stands  for  Bandrig,  band  being  band  "  a 
ridge  of  a  hill ;  a  long  ridge-like  hill,"  a  word  common  in  the  Lake  District  and 
probably  from  O.N.  band  "  band,  tie,"  in  Norw.  place-names  also  used  of  "  a 
long  narrow  mountain."  Cf.  Scandinavians,  p.  17f. 

Haybridge  (on  Rusland  Pool)  :  Haybryge  c  1535  Beck  329,  Haybryg  1537  LR. 
Hay-  may  be  O.E.  haga  or  O.N.  hagi  "  enclosure." 

Bouth  (h.) :  Bouthe  1336  FC  II,  1400  FC,  1577  Saxton,  Bowth  1577  Harr. ;  now 
[bau5].  O.N.  bud  "  booth,  hut."  Bouth  was  no  doubt  originally  a  dairy-farm 
belonging  to  Colton. 

Hulleter  :  Hullater  1538  FC  II,  1648  RW  226.  The  place  is  on  the  slope  of  a 
hill  called  Hulleter  Scar.  Cf.  Latterbarrow,  p.  194. 

Kirkthwaite  :  Kyrkwythe  c  1535  Beck  329,  Kyrkthwayte  1537  LR.  The  place 
stands  a  good  way  from  Colton  church.  There  must  be  some  special  reason  why 
the  thwaite  was  named  from  the  church. 

COLTON  PAR.  217 

Legbarrow  Point  (at  the  confluence  of  the  Crake  and  the  Leven)  :  Legbarro  1577 

Saxton.    The  second  el.  is  M.E.  bergh  "  hill."    The  wood-clad  point  is  not  very 

high,  but  rather  prominent.     The  name  may  be  identical  with  the  first  el.  of 

Legburthwaite,  Cumb.,  which  is  of  doubtful  origin. 

Ravensty  :  the  Ravenstie  1509  Beck  303,  the  Ravenstye  1537  FC  II.    Apparently 

O.N.  Hrafns  stigr  "  Hrafn's  path."    The  name  is  lost.    Manor  courts  were  held 

at  the  Ravensty,  which  seems  to  have  formed  a  boundary  within  Furness  Fells  ; 

cf.  West  p.  154,  Beck  p.  303. 

Sales  :    Saylys  c  1535  Beck  329,  Sayles  1537  LR,  1539  FC  II.  ;    now  [se-lz]. 

Perhaps  the  plur.  of  O.N.  seyla  (Norw.  seyla  "  mire,  pool,  puddle  ") ;   cf.  Seyla, 

the  name  of  a  place  in  Iceland.   But  the  place  is  in  a  high  situation ;  Sales  Bank 

reaches  559ft. 

Tottlebank  :  totyle  banke  c  1535  Beck  329,  Totilbanke  1537  FC  II.    Cf.  the  same 

name  p.  214.    There  is  a  prominent  hill  at  the  place. 

Whitestock  Hall  :    Whitstockhowe  1597  RW  52.     Presumably  "  the  hill  with 

white  stock  or  tree-trunk." 

(6)  Haverthwaite  (between  Rusland  Pool  and  the  Leven) :    Haverthwayt  1336 

FC  II.,  1539  ib. ;   now  [hava)>9t].    O.N.  hafri  "  oats  "  and  thwaite.    The  village 

is  on  a  slight  hill  close  to  the  Leven. 

Abbot's  Reading  :    Abbot  Ridding  1661  RW  238.    On  ridding  "  clearing,"  see 

p.  16. 

(c)  Finsthwaite  (at  the  S.  end  of  Lake  Windermere  ;   v.) :    Fynnesthwayt  1336, 
Lower,  Outer  Fynswyth  1539  FC  II.    "  Finn's  thwaite."    Finnr  is  a  well-known 
O.N.  name. 

Newby  Bridge  (on  the  Leven)  :   New  bridge  1577  Saxton,  Newbridge  1577  Harr., 

Newbybridge  1659  Hawkshead  R.    The  original  name  would  seem  to  have  been 

New  Bridge.    If  the  name  Newby  Bridge  is  original,  Newby  is  probably  a  family 


Stot  Park  :    Stot  parke  c  1535  Beck  329,  Stotparke  1537  LR.    M.E.  slot  means 

"  a  bullock  "  and  "  a  horse."     The  usual  meaning  of  the  word  in  Northern 

dialects  is  "  young  bull  or  ox."    Park  means  "  paddock,  enclosure." 

(d)  Rusland  (on  Rusland  Pool ;   v.)  :   Rolesland  1336  FC  II.,  -e  1400  FC,  Rwse- 
lande  1537  LR  ;  now  [ruzlan(d)].    The  first  el.  is  apparently  a  pers.  n.  represent- 
ing e.g.  O.N.  Hroaldr  or  Hrolfr.    Rusland  Pool  is  a  stream  with  a  very  slow 
course.    Cf.  on  pool  "  a  stream,"  p.  15. 

(e)  Nibthwaite  (E.  of  the  Crake  ;  High  and  Low  Nib  thwaite  villages  are  near  the 
river)  :  [Thornebuthwait  1202  LF,  Tornbetheweit  1207,  Thornubythuieitht,  -thueith 
1208  LF],  Neubethayt  1246  LAR,  Neburthwait  1336  FC,  Neburthwayt  1336  FC  II., 
Neburthwaite  1400  FC,  Nybthwayt  1537  LR,  Nybthwayte,  Nybthwaytgrange  1539 
FC  II.  ;    now  [nib]?9t].     The  variation  in  the  early  forms  renders  a  definite 
etymology  difficult.    The  bracketed  forms  are  usually  held  to  refer  to  Nibthwaite. 
The  place  called  Thornebuthwait  must  have  been  situated  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Nibthwaite,  and  the  identification  is  plausible.     If  so,  Thor  is  no  doubt  a 
distinctive  addition,  there  being  two  Nibthwaites,  either  the  pers.  n.  Thor  or 
thorn  "  thornbush."    But,  as  pointed  out  in  VHL  VIII.  363,  there  is  mentioned 
in  a  deed  of  1522  a  place  Furnebuthetwayt  in  Blawith.    This  may  be  a  later  form 
of  Thornebuthwait.    Nibthwaite  may  have  as  first  el.  a  compound  of  the  adj. 


new  (O.N.  nyr)  and  O.N.  byr  or  bud.  A  base  Newbuththwait  is  perhaps  the  most 
plausible.  The  forms  in  Nebur-  seem  to  be  due  to  association  with  the  word 
neighbour.  The  change  of  New-  to  Ne-  may  be  due  to  the  following  labial ;  cf. 
safe  from  sauf,  etc.,  and  [nibikan]  for  Newbigging,  Cumb. 

Arklid  (on  a  slope  near  the  Crake)  :  Arkeredyn  1573  DL.  The  second  el.  may 
be  ridding  "  clearing  "  with  change  of  r  to  I  owing  to  dissimilation. 
Hill  Park:  Hellparke  c  1535  Beck  329,  Hellpark  1539  FC  II.,  Helparke  1537  FC II. 
The  regular  e  in  the  early  forms  shows  that  the  first  el.  cannot  be  O.E.  hyll. 
O.N.  hella  "  stone,  flat  hill,"  etc.,  or  hellir  "  cave,  hole,"  or  hialli  "  a  ledge,  a 
terrace  "  may  be  thought  of. 

(/)  Bethecar  Moor  (a  hilly  district  reaching  over  1,000ft.,  E.  of  Coniston  Water)  : 
Bothaker  1509  Beck  304,  bethokar  c  1535  ib.  329,  Betaker  1537  LR,  Betacre, 
Bettaker  1539  FC  II.  ;  now  [be}>aka].  High  and  Low  Bethecar  are  high  up  on 
the  hill  side.  Neither  O.E.  cecer  "  field  "  nor  O.N.  kiarr  "  carr  "  seems  probable 
as  second  el.  The  places  are  no  doubt  old  shielings,  and  I  suppose  the  second  el.  is 
ergh  "  a  shieling,"  the  first  being  the  Gael.  pers.  n.  Beathag,  earlier  Bethoc  (McBain, 
p.  412).  Cf.  Bedrule  (Jedburgh) :  Rulebethok  1280  Johnston,  Pl.N.  of  Scotland. 
Ickenthwaite  :  Yccornewayt  c  1535  Beck  329,  Ykhornthwayt  1537  LR,  Eccorn- 
thwayt,  Yckorntwayte  1538f.  FC  II.  O.N.  ikorni  "  squirrel  "  and  pveit. 
Parkamoor  :  Parkamore  c  1535  Beck  329,  1539  FC  II.  The  place  is  in  a  high 
situation.  The  name  apparently  means  "  the  enclosure  on  the  moor." 


A  district  W.  of  Lake  Windermere.  Most  of  it  is  fell  country,  but  there  are 
stretches  of  level  ground  on  Esthwaite  Water  in  the  centre,  and  on  Lake  Winder- 
mere  and  Coniston  Water.  Hawkshead,  till  1578,  was  a  chapelry  under  Dalton. 
1.  Hawkshead  and  Monk  Coniston  with  Skelwith  (the  N.  part). 
Hawkshead  (town):  Hovkesete  1198-1208  Ch  (orig.),  Haukesset  c  1220  FC, 
Haukeset,  Hoxeta  13  cent.  FC,  Haukesheved  1336  FC  II.  ;  now  [ho'ksed,  ho'ksad]. 
O.N.  Haukr  pers.  n.  and  set,  sat  "  shieling."  Hawkshead  was  originally  no  doubt 
a  dairy-farm  under  Coniston.  Hawkshed  Field  :  Hawkershedfeylde  c  1535  Beck. 
Hawkshead  Hill  (h.) :  Hyll  c  1535  Beck  329. 

Birkwray  (in  a  valley) :  Byrkwray  1600  RS  XII.  ;  now  [ba'k  re'].  O.N.  birki 
"  birches  "  and  (v)rd  "  corner,"  etc. 

Esthwaite  :  Estwyth  1539  FC  II.,  Easthwaite  1670  RW  243 ;  now  [estwat]. 
The  first  el.  may  be  the  adj.  east  or  O.N.  eski  "  ash-trees."  Earlier  forms  are 
wanted  ;  the  form  Estwayt  of  1326  given  by  Wyld  refers  to  a  place  in  Notts. 
Esthwaite  Water  is  called  Estwater  1537  Beck  Ixv,  the  Mere  of  Hawkshed 
Estwater  1539  FC  II.  This  may  seem  to  point  to  the  adj.  east  as  the  first  el.  of 
Esthwaite,  but  Estwater  might  be  a  contraction  of  Esthwaite  Water. 
Fieldhead  (N.  of  Hawkshead  town) :  ffeyldehed  c  1535  Beck  329,  Feldhed  1539 
FC  II.  Probably  "  the  upper  end  of  Hawkshead  townfield."  Cf.  Waterhead 
(Waterhed  1537  LR)  at  the  N.  end  of  Coniston  Water. 

Hannakin  :  Anykinsyke  1659,  1683,  Han(n)ikin  sicke  1678f.  Hawkshead  R. 
Perhaps  the  pers.  n.  Hankin  (or  a  diminutive  of  Ann)  mistaken  (in  combinations 
like  those  above)  for  a  place-name. 


Monk  Coniston  (a  district  N.E.  of  Coniston  Water,  adjoining  Church  Coniston)  : 
Monke  Coneston  1568  DL.  The  district  belonged  to  the  monks  of  Furness. 
Brantwood  :  ?  Brentwode  1356  FC.  The  place  is  on  a  steep  slope.  The  first  el. 
may  be  M.E.  brant,  brent  "  steep."  But  brent  "  burnt  "  is  possible. 
Skelwith  :  Schelwath  1246  LAR,  de  Skelwath  1332  LS,  SMwyth  1537  LR  ;  now 
[skelij?].  The  original  Skelwith  was  no  doubt  where  the  present  Skelwith  Bridge 
over  the  Brathay  is,  an  excellent  place  for  a  ford.  The  second  el.  of  the  name 
is  O.N.  vad  "  ford."  The  first  might  be  O.N.  skiol  "  hut."  But  I  believe  it  is 
an  old  name  of  Skelwith  Force,  a  waterfall  just  above  the  bridge.  O.N.  skiallr 
means  "  loud,  resounding."  From  it  Norw.  river-names  seem  to  have  been 
formed.  Magnus  Olsen,  NG  XI.  557,  thinks  the  name  Skjeldalen  contains  a 
river-name  Skipll  "  the  loud  one."  A  waterfall  might  well  have  been  called 
Skiallr.  I  believe  Skel-  goes  back  to  such  a  name.  The  roar  of  the  waterfall 
is  heard  from  a  considerable  distance  ;  it  must  have  been  a  valuable  help  to 
wayfarers  in  locating  the  ford. 

Arnside  :  Ernesyde  1537  FC  II.,  Arnesyd  c  1535  Beck  329,  Arneside  1577  Saxton. 
High  Arnside  is  on  the  slope  of  a  hill  (1,056ft.).  The  elements  of  the  name  are 
no  doubt  an  O.N.  pers.  n.  (e.g.,  Ami)  and  set,  sat  "  shieling." 

2.  Claife   (on   Lake  Windermere) :    de  Clayf  1272-80  LPD   II.  193,  de  Clayfe 
1316  LI,  Clayf  1336  FC  II.,  1400  FC  ;   now  [kle'f].    O.N.  kleif  "  steep  hill-side 
up  which  there  is  a  path."    The  name  no  doubt  refers  to  Claife  Heights,  which 
reach  over  800ft. 

Colthouse  (h.) :    Colthowse  c  1535  Beck  329,  Coutehouse  1596  RW  243  ;    now 

[kolthaus].    Self -explaining. 

Lonethwaite  (h.) :  Lonethwayt  1537  LR,  -e  1539  FC  II.,  Lounthwaite  1613  RW  45  ;' 

now  [lo-n]?8t].     Perhaps  identical  with  Lownthwaite  in  Cumb.,  whose  first  el. 

may  be  dial,  loun  from  O.N.  logn  "  calm  "  (Lindkvist  117).    Or  the  first  el.  may 

be  lone,  a  sideform  of  lane. 

Satterhow  :  Satterhow  1588  RW  44,  -e  1597  Hawkshead  R.    Really  the  name  of 

a  hill.    First  el.  very  likely  O.N.  scetr  "  shieling  "  (Collingwood,  Saga  Book  of  the 

Viking  Club  II.  146).    Second  el.  O.N.  haugr  "  hill." 

Sawrey,  Far  and  Near  (villages)  :  Sourer  1336  FC  II.,  1400  FC,  Sawrayes  c  1535 

Beck  329,  Soray  Extra,  Infra  1539  FC  ll.,ffarr  Sawrey  1657,  Nan  Sawrey  1656 

Hawkshead  R  ;    now  [SOTO].     O.N.  saurar,  the  plur.  of  saurr  "  mud,  dirt  " 

(Lindkvist,  p.  162).    Near  Sawrey  is  near  Esthwaite  Water,  while  Far  Sawrey 

is  on  a  brook. 

Tock  How  (on  the  slope  of  Latterbarrow)  :   Tockhowe  1597  RW  45.    The  first  el. 

may  be  O.N.  Toki  or  O.E.  Tocca  pers.  n. 

Wray,  High  Wray  :   Wraye  c  1535  Beck  329,  1537  LR  ;  the  Heywray  1619  RW 

23  ;   now  [re',  hai  re'].    Cf.  Lowrey  1656  Hawkshead  R.    O.N.  (v)rd  "  corner," 

etc.    The  places  are  in  a  remote  situation  near  the  brook  that  empties  Blelham 


3.  Satterthwaite  (the  S.  part ;    h.) :    Saterthwayt  1336  FC  II.,  Saterthwayte, 
-whayte  1539  FC  II.  ;    now  [sata}>ot].    First  el.  as  in  Satterhow. 

Cunsey,  High  and  Low  :  Concey  myll  1537  Beck  Ixv,  Consay  1593,  Consey  nabb 
1649  Hawkshead  R.  The  places  are  on  low  ground  near  Lake  Windermere, 
Low  Cunsey  on  Cunsey  beck.  The  most  probable  etymology  is  O.N.  Kunungsd, 


the  name  being  originally  that  of  the  beck.  But  the  second  el.  may  be  O.N. 
ey  "  island,"  here  "  water-meadow  "  or  the  like.  Cf.  Coniston,  p.  215. 
Force  Forge,  Force  Mill  (on  Rusland  Pool)  :  Forse  Forge  1668  RW  103,  Force 
Myln  1537  DL.  Dial,  force  "  waterfall  "  from  O.N.  fors.  The  part  of  Rusland 
Pool  where  the  places  are  is  called  Force  Beck,  and  Fosse  is  the  name  of  Rusland 
Pool  in  Saxton's  map  of  1577  and  in  Harr.  1577. 

Graythwaite  :  Graythwayt  1336  FC  II.,  1537  LR.  Lindkvist  p.  109  suggests  as 
first  el.  O.N.  grdr  or  O.E.  grceg  "  gray."  But  it  is  remarkable  that  Grathwait 
is  found  in  Bolton-le-Sands.  "  The  grey  thwaite  "  does  not  seem  a  very  plausible 
name.  Perhaps  the  first  el.  is  rather  a  pers.  n.,  derived  from  the  adj. 
grdr.  O.Swed.  and  O.Dan.  Grd  seem  to  occur,  and  O.N.  grdi  is  well  evidenced  as 
a  by-name  ;  cf.  Finnur  Jonsson,  Aarb.  1907,  p.  259.  Or  we  might  think  of  O.N. 
greidr  "  ready,  free  "  as  the  first  el.  of  Graythwaite.  This  adj.  is  used  as  an 
epithet  to  leid  "  road." 

Grizedale  (on  Grizedale  Beck  ;  h.) :  Grysdale  1336  FC  II.,  1537  LR.  The  first 
el.  is  O.N.  griss  "  pig,"  less  probably  Griss  pers.  n. 


This  large  parish  occupies  the  N.W.  part  of  the  Furness  district,  being  bounded 
on  the  W.  and  N.  by  the  Duddon,  on  the  E.  by  a  chain  of  high  hills.  Most  of  it 
is  fell  country,  but  there  is  some  level  land  in  the  S.  part  on  the  rivers  Duddon, 
Lickle,  and  Steers  Pool. 

I.  Kirkby  Ireleth  (the  S.E.  part) :  Kirkebi  1191-8  FC,  Kirchabi  1175-1200  LPD 

II.  178,  Kirkebi/  1227  LF,  1292  FC,  Kirkebi  Irlid  1180-99  Ch  (orig.),  Kirkeby 
Irelith  1278  LAR,  Kirkeby  Irlith  1332  LS  ;  now  [ka'bi].    O.N.  Kirkiubyr  "  church 
village."     The  church  is  at  Beckside,  which  seems  to  be  the  original  Kirkby. 
The  old  name  was,  of  course,  Kirkby,  Ireleth,  the  name  of  the  adjoining  part  of 
Dalton,  being  added  for  distinction  from  Kirkby  Lonsdale  and  others. 

Gerleuuorde  DB  has  been  identified  with  Kirkby  Ireleth.  This  is  purely 
conjectural.  Gerle-  is  identical  or  cognate  with  the  first  el.  of  Yarlside,  and 
represents  a  form  of  O.E.  eorl  or  O.N.  jarl.  The  second  el.  is  O.E.  worp  "  enclo- 

There  are  five  customary  divisions,  from  S.  to  N.  :  Low  and  Middle  Quarters, 
Heathwaite,  Woodland,  besides  Kirkby  Moor  in  the  east. 

Ashlack  Hall  (Heathwaite) :  de  Eskeslac  1270-80  FC  II.  (orig.),  1284  LAR,  de 
Esselac  1325  FC  II.  (orig.).  O.N.  eski  "  ash-trees  "  and  slakki  "  valley."  The 
place  is  in  a  valley. 

Beanthwaite  (Middle  Quarter)  :  Benetwhat  1582,  Beanethat  1605  RW  274  ;  now 
[bi*n)>8t].  "  The  clearing  where  beans  are  grown." 

Dove  Bank,  Dove  Ford  (Middle  Quarter)  :  Donefoard  1636  RW  112  ;  now  [duv 
bank,  duf  fo'd].  Dove  Ford  is  not  far  from  Grizebeck,  while  Dove  Bank  is  on 
the  slope  of  a  hill.  Dove  may  be  dove  the  name  of  the  bird,  but  it  may  also  be  an 
old  name  of  the  brook  that  gave  name  to  Grizebeck,  identical  with  Dove  in 
Derby  and  Staffs,  (an  dufan  951  BCS  890),  and  Yks.,  and  probably  of  Brit, 
origin  (Prim.  Celt.  *dubo-  "  black  ").  The  brook  has  clear  water,  but  a  dark 


Grizebeck  (Middle  Quarter  ;  on  a  brook  ;  h.)  :  (piscariam  de)  Grisebek  13  cent. 
FC  ;  now  [graizbek].    First  el.  O.N.  griss  "  pig,"  less  likely  Griss  pers.  n. 
Haverigg  Holme  (Woodland)  :   Haverrigge  13  cent.  FC.    The  place  stands  near 
Steers  Pool  below  a  ridge.     The  elements  of  the  name  are  O.N.  hafri  "  oats  " 
and  hryggr  "  ridge."    Holme  seems  to  mean  "  water-meadow  "  or  the  like. 
Heathwaite  :    Heittheuuot  1273  PatR  (Lindkvist,  p.  110).     Better  material  is 
wanted.    The  early  form  seems  to  point  to  O.N.  hey  or  O.E.  heg  "  hay  "  as  the 
first  el. 

High  Mere  Beck  (Low  Quarter) :  Merbecke  1615  RW  172.  The  place  stands 
on  a  brook  which  forms  the  boundary  between  Kirkby  Ireleth  and  Dalton,  and 
is  called  Merebek  1252  FC,  Merebeck  1422  FC  II.  The  name  means  "  boundary 
brook  "  (O.E.  gemcere  "  boundary  "). 

Raisthwaite  (Woodland)  :    Reisthuathec  (!)  1319  Dugdale  VI.  556,  Raisthwayt 
1538  FC  II.  ;   now  [re'stat].    First  el.  O.N.  hreysi  "  cairn." 
Row   Ridding   (Woodland)  :    Row   Ridding   1649   RW   176 ;   now   [rau   ridn]. 
"  Rough  clearing." 

Soutergate  (Low  Quarter ;  h.) :  de  Soutergate  1332  LS,  Sowtergate  c  1535  Beck 
328  ;  now  [sautage't].  O.E.  sutere  or  O.N.  sutari  "  bootmaker  "  and  O.N.  gata 
"  road." 

Troughton  Hall  (Woodland) :  de  Troughtona  1422  FC  I.  685,  Troughton  Hall  1599 
RW  195.  O.E.  trog  "  trough,"  later  also  "  valley,"  and  tun.  Troughton  Hall 
is  in  the  valley  of  Steers  Pool.  If  Troughton  is  a  name  of  old  standing  in  the 
district,  it  is  of  considerable  interest,  names  in  -tun  being  rare  in  this  part  of 
Furness.  Bartholomew  gives  no  other  Troughton. 
Woodland  :  Kirkeby  wodelands  1544  DL,  Wodland  chap.  1577  Saxton. 
2.  Angerton  Moss  (between  Kirkby  or  Steers  Pool  and  the  Duddon ;  extra- 
parochial)  :  Angertuna  c  1300,  (pastura  de)  Angertona  1293,  (Mussa)  Angertona, 
(mariscum  de)  Angertuna  c  1300  FC,  (marsh  of)  Angerton  1299  LI,  Angertonmosse 
1336  FC  II.  ;  now  [anstn].  The  township  occupies  a  small  area  of  flat  mossland, 
only  partially  reclaimed. 

The  name  Angerton  is  curious.  Names  in  -tun  usually  denote  old  villages 
or  homesteads,  but  the  Angerton  district  must  in  early  times  have  been  prac- 
tically uninhabitable  and  used  only  to  some  small  extent  for  pasture.  One 
explanation  may  be  that  Angerton  once  belonged  to  and  took  its  name  from  some 
place  in  the  neighbourhood  called  Angerton.  No  such  place  is  known  to  have 
existed  ;  also  Angerton  is  used  alone  of  the  district.  The  present  Angerton  farm 
in  Broughton,  situated  at  a  slight  elevation  reaching  over  50ft.  above  sea-level 
just  outside  the  boundary  of  Angerton  Moss,  is  hardly  an  old  settlement.  I  am 
inclined  to  believe  that  there  was  once  a  village  or  homestead  in  the  district, 
which  disappeared  at  an  early  period,  being  destroyed  by  the  inroad  of  the  sea 
or,  more  probably,  by  a  flood  of  Steers  Pool  or  the  Duddon.  Such  a  catastrophe 
is  not  without  parallels  in  the  history  of  Lancashire.  Cf.  Cheetham's  Lancashire 
p.  8f.,  Hird's  Lancashire  Stories  II.  360ff. 

Angerton  Moss  is  situated  on  the  estuary  of  the  Duddon,  that  is,  on  a  deep 
bay.  It  is  therefore  possible  that  Anger-  is  O.N.  angr  "  bay."  The  O.N.  word  is 
common  in  place-names,  but  is  not  in  living  use  in  historic  time.  However,  the 
name  Angry  Head  in  the  Shetland  Islands  (Jakobsen,  Aarboger  1901,  p.  74) 


seems  to  show  that  it  was  still  used  in  the  Viking  Age.  Another  possibility  is 
that  Anger-  is  the  el.  anger  found  in  Angram,  Bl.,  etc.,  and  which  seems  to  be  a 
lost  O.E.  anger  "  pasture,"  etc.,  identical  with  G.  anger  "  meadow,"  etc.  As  the 
name  seems  to  be  very  old,  the  second  alternative  is  perhaps  preferable. 
Waitham  Hill  (on  a  slight  hill).  Now  [we'Sam].  Cf.  Waitham,  p.  198. 
Whelpshead  Crag  (a  rock  S.  of  Angerton  farm)  :  (rupem  de)  Quelpesatecrag  c  1300 
FC.  Whelpshead  appears  as  Welpesat  1235  LF.  The  place  must  have  been  a 
shieling  in  the  moss.  The  second  el.  of  the  name  is  set,  sat  "  a  shieling,  a  pasture." 
The  first  is  identical  with  that  of  Whelpside  (on  the  Mint,  Wml.),  and  of  Whelpe- 
satte-  in  Quelpesatehoues  1280,  Whelpesattehowe  1285  IPM  (Yks.),  which  have  no 
doubt  the  same  second  el.  as  Whelpshead.  Cf.  also  Whelpo  in  Cumb.  (Quesphow 
1285,  Whelphou  1336  ;  Sedgefield).  W help-  seems  to  be  O.N.  Hvelpr  (also 
Hvelpi  NG  IV.  190)  pers.  n.,  originally  a  nickname  (hvelpr  "  a  whelp  ").  It  is 
remarkable  that  Whelp  is  so  common  in  England  and  particularly  that  it  occurs 
thrice  combined  with  set.  Possibly  some  names  contain  the  name  of  the  animal. 
Also  O.E.  hwelp,  like  the  corresponding  G.  word,  may  have  been  used  as  a  pers. 

3.  Broughton1  (between  Steers  Pool  and  the  Duddon,  N.  of  Angerton  Moss  ; 
town) :   Brocton  1196,  1235  LF,  Broghtona  c  1300  FC,  Broghton  1378  LF  ;  now 
[bro'tn].    O.E.  Broctun.    A  small  brook  runs  through  the  town.    The  township 
occupies  several  ridges  and  some  level  land  in  the  river  valleys. 

Appletree worth.    No  early  forms  found.    If  this  is  an  old  name  in  -worth,  it  is 
rather  remarkable,  as  names  in  -worth  are  very  rare  in  Furness. 
Aulthurstside  :  Oulehurst  1618  RW  206,  Aulhirst  1638  RW  167.    This  is  one  of 
the  two  names  in  -hurst  found  in  the  Furness  district.    The  first  el.  is  doubtful. 
Baskell  (on  the  slope  of  a  ridge)  :    Bascall  1592  DL,  Baskell  1609  RW  9.    The 
second  el.  is  no  doubt  O.N.  skdli  "  a  hut."    The  first  is  doubtful. 
Bleansley,  Lower  and  Upper  (on  the  slope  of  a  ridge  W.  of  the  Lickle)  :  Blengeslit 
1292  VHL  VIII.  404,  Bleansle  1570,  1593  RW  102  ;   now  [blrnzli].    First  el. 
apparently  O.N.  Blceingr  pers.  n.,  second  O.N.  hlifi  or  O.E.  hlifi  "  slope." 
Borderiggs  :    de  Borderigges  1330  LI,  Bordriggs  1587  RW  10,  Bordridge  1597 
RW  12  ;   now  [bordarig,  bo'drigz].    The  place  stands  E.  of  Broughton  between 
two  ridges.    The  first  el.  of  the  name  seems  to  be  O.E.  bord  "  board  ;   shield," 
perhaps  referring  to  the  flat  upper  surface  of  the  ridges. 

Bracelet  (near  the  top  of  a  ridge) :  Bracelet  1614  RW  7,  Breuslot  1660,  Braslet 
1663  Torver  R  ;  now  [bre'stet].  The  second  el.  is  probably  dial,  sleet  "  a  flat 
meadow,  a  level  moor  "  (<O.N.  sletta).  The  first  might  be  O.N.  breidr  "  broad." 
Hawthwaite  (on  the  top  of  a  ridge  reaching  300ft.)  :  Hauthwayt  1509-47  DL  ; 
now  [o-)>ot].  First  el.  O.N.  haugr  "  hill." 
Rosthwaite  (h.)  :  Rosthwait,  -bank  13  cent.  FC.  Cf.  the  same  name  p.  197. 

4.  Dunnerdale  with  Seathwaite  (a  district  E.  and  S.  of  the  Duddon,  chiefly  fell 

1  Borch  in  DB  is  held  by  the  editor  of  VHL  to  be  a  corrupt  form  of  Broughton.  This  may 
be  correct.  But  probably  Borch  represents  O.E.  Burh  or  O.N.  Borg.  This  might,  of  course, 
have  been  an  earlier  name  of  Broughton.  But  in  my  opinion  Borch  refers  to  the  same  place 
as  Borgerha  1196  LF.  This  latter  is  to  be  sought  a  good  way  N.  of  Broughton.  Mr.  Colling  - 
wood  is  no  doubt  right  in  locating  Borgerha  at  Castle  How  on  the  W.  bank  of  the  Duddon. 
Borgerha  may  be  O.N.  Borgar-d  or  a  combination  of  O.N.  borg  and  ergh  "  a  shieling." 


Dunnerdale  (the  S.  part)  :  de  Dunerdale  1293  LI,  Dunerdale,  Donerdale  1300  LF, 
Donesdale  a  1412  FC,  Dunerdall  c  1550  RW  221.  Dunnerdale  does  not  now 
denote  the  Duddon  valley  but  the  district  E.  of  the  river.  I  believe  the  name 
meant  originally  "  the  Duddon  valley,"  and  has  as  first  el.  a  Scand.  gen.  form 
of  the  name  Duddon.  This  name  occurs  in  an  early  source  as  Duthen,  which  I 
take  to  be  a  Scandinavianized  form.  The  Scand.  form  may  have  been  *Dudn, 
gen.  Dudnar.  This  latter  became  Dunner-  in  the  same  way  as  Wathenpol  (1291) 
became  Wampole  (1362),  now  Wampool  in  Cumb.  Cf.  also  Tanshelf  (thus  1257) 
from  O.E.  Taddenesscylfe  (Goodall).  In  favour  of  this  suggestion  it  may  be 
pointed  out  that  names  in  dale  very  often  have  a  river  name  as  first  el.  ;  cf. 
Lonsdale,  Roeburndale,  Wyresdale  in  Lancashire.  The  form  Dunnersdale 
1522  DL  is  too  late  to  be  adduced  against  the  suggestion  offered. 
Scrithwaite  :  Skraithwaite  1615  RW  221,  Scrythwaite  1786  Yates  ;  now  [skratyat]. 
The  first  el.  is  no  doubt  O.N.  skrida  "  a  landslip  on  a  hillside,  a  black  streak  on  a 
mountain-side  from  old  slips,"  the  source  of  dial.  Engl.  scree  "  the  debris  or  shale 
which  collects  on  a  steep  mountain-side,"  etc.  (EDD).  Scrithwaite  stands  on 
a  slope. 

Sella  :  Sellaye  1584  RW  223,  Sellowe  1624  RW  59.  The  place  stands  at  a  round 
hill  on  the  bank  of  the  Duddon.  The  elements  may  be  O.N.  sel  "  hut  on  a  shiel- 
ing," and  haugr  "  hill." 

Stonestar  :  Stonescarre  1584  RW  221,  Stonester  1786  Yates ;  now  [sto*n  ste'r]. 
The  place  stands  on  the  Duddon  at  the  foot  of  a  steep,  rocky  hill.  The  second  el. 
of  the  name  is  O.N.  sker,  whence  Engl.  dial,  scar  "  a  precipice  ;  a  cliff  ;  a  steep, 
bare  bank." 

Seathwaite  (the  N.  part) :  Seathwhot  1592  RW  47,  Seathwhat  1598  RW  88, 
Seathut  Waugh.  "  The  clearing  by  the  lake  "  (O.N.  seer  and  pveit).  The  place 
was  named  from  Seathwaite  Tarn,  which  is  high  up  among  the  fells  (1,210ft. 
above  sea-level).  There  is  not  now  any  farm  at  the  tarn. 
Troutal  (on  the  Duddon)  :  Trutehil  1157-63  Ch  (orig.).  In  the  early  example 
the  name  designates  a  pool  in  the  Duddon  :  "  de  sicut  aqua  descendit  de  Wraines- 
hals  in  Trutehil  et  inde  per  Dudenam  vsque  mare."  The  second  el.  is  O.N. 
hylr  "  a  pool,"  the  first  apparently  being  O.E.  truht  "  a  trout."  But,  of  course, 
the  first  el.  might  be  the  pers.  n.  Trute  (apparently  of  Goidelic  origin)  found  in 
Troutbeck,  Cumb. ;  cf.  Sedgefield. 


IN  this  chapter  an  attempt  will  be  made  to  draw  some  conclusions  from  place- 
names  as  regards  early  Lancashire,  especially  its  history. 


There  is  one  direct  testimony  to  the  survival  of  a  British  population  in 
Lancashire  after  the  Anglian  immigration.  According  to  Hist.  St.  Cuthbert 
(Sim.  Durh.,  Surtees  Soc.  LI  141)  Ecgfrith,  King  of  Northumbria  (670-685), 
gave  Cartmel  "  et  omnes  Britannos  cum  eo  "  to  St.  Cuthbert.  There  is  no 
definite  reason  to  doubt  the  substantial  correctness  of  this  statement.  If  it  is 
correct,  it  tells  us  that  in  the  Cartmel  district  a  British  population  lived  on,  in 
a  subject  position,  after  the  Anglian  invasion. 

In  the  same  direction  point  place-names  containing  an  English  or  a  Scan- 
dinavian word  for  "  Briton."  Here  belongs  first  of  all  the  name  Walton  from 
O.E.  Wala-tun,  no  doubt  "  the  tun  of  the  Britons."  There  are  four  Waltons  in 
Lancashire  :  Walton-on-the  Hill  (De),  Walton-le-Dale  (Bl),  Ulnes  Walton  (Le), 
and  Walton  near  Cartmel.  To  these  may  be  added  Waltoncote,  near  Dalton-in- 
Furness.  These  names,  of  course,  do  not  prove  that  a  British  element  was 
recognized  long  after  the  invasion. 

Of  greater  importance  are  names  containing  Scand.  Bretar.  These  names  are 
few.  A  certain  case  is  Birkby,  near  Cartmel.  Here  probably  belong  Brettargh 
(Woolton,  De)  and  Bretteroum  (Bolton-le-Sands).  At  least  the  first  two  cannot 
well  be  older  than  the  tenth  century.1 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  Birkby  and  Walton,  near  Cartmel,  are  situated 
fairly  high  and  at  some  distance  from  the  broad  Eea  valley.  The  names  seem  to 
tell  us  that  the  Britons  had  to  give  up  the  best  land  and  settle  in  more  remote 

The  Britons  who  gave  name  to  the  Waltons  and  Birkby  may  be  supposed 
to  have  been  landholders  and  freemen.  Their  status  may  have  been  that  of 
the  Wealas  mentioned  in  Ine's  laws,  whose  wergeld  was  half  that  of  the  freeborn 

It  should  be  added  that  names  such  as  Walton,  Birkby  do  not  testify  to  a 
considerable  British  element.  They  rather  suggest  that  British  villages  and 
homesteads  were  exceptions. 

Better  information  than  by  direct  testimonies  is  offered  by  place-names. 
The  British  element  in  Lancashire  place-names,  though  not  very  considerable, 
is  by  no  means  negligible. 

River-names  in  Lancashire,  as  in  other  parts  of  England,  are,  to  a  great  extent, 
British.  No  safe  conclusions  can  be  drawn  from  such  as  to  the  survival  for  any 

1  An  interesting  name  is  Brettestret,  found  in  WhC  p.  318,  as  the  name  of  the  Roman  road 
that  runs  past  Downham  ;  cf.  Brettestreet  13  cent.  VHL  vi.  365  (in  Clitheroe),  referring  to 
the  same  road.  The  identical  name  is  found  in  Westmorland  :  Brestrett,  Brethstrette,  -strede 
1220-47  (15  cent,  copy)  CWNS  x.  436ff.,  the  name  of  a  road  near  Martindale.  A  Roman 
road,  now  called  High  Street,  runs  close  to  Martindale  Common.  Apparently  Roman  roads 
were  in  some  places  held  to  be  of  British  origin.  In  fact,  Geoffrey  of  Monmouth  says  the 
British  roads  were  first  made  by  King  Belinus  (Windisch,  Das  keltische  Britannien,  p.  163). 
The  first  element  of  these  names  is  O.E.  Brettas  "  Britons." 


length  of  time  of  a  British  element.  The  same  remark  applies  to  names  of 
places  which  had  acquired  some  importance  already  in  pre-English  time, 
as  Manchester  or  to  that  of  a  prominent  hill  such  as  Pendle.  Of  most  value 
are  such  names  as  seem  to  have  denoted  ordinary  British  settlements,  hamlets 
or  homesteads.  Yet  also  names  of  insignificant  streams  may  be  used  as 

The  British  (or  probably  British)  names1  are  not  evenly  distributed.  To 
some  extent  groups  of  such  names  may  be  pointed  out. 

In  the  south-east,  in  the  hilly  district  east  and  north-east  of  Manchester,  we 
find  Alt,  Chadderton,  Hanging  Chadder,  Glodwick,  Werneth,  also  the  stream- 
names  Beal,  Irk,  Tame.  These  names  seem  to  suggest  a  British  population 
driven  up  among  the  hills. 

Another  cluster  of  British  names  is  found  north-west  of  Manchester, 
in  the  Eccles  and  Manchester  districts :  Cheetham  (Cheetwood),  Eccles, 
Pendleton  (Pendlebury),  perhaps  Worsley.  Further  north  are  Croichlow, 

In  Blackburn  hundred  British  names  are  few  and  scattered.  Certain  examples 
are  Colne  (an  old  stream-name),  Eccleshill,  Ightenhill,  Mellor  (an  old  hill-name). 
Rossendale  very  likely  contains  an  old  British  stream-name.  Alkincoats, 
Dinckley,  Winkley  are  etymologically  obscure. 

In  West  Derby  hundred  a  comparatively  large  group  of  British  names  is 
found  in  the  old  Newton  hundred,  south  of  Wigan.  The  old  name  of  the  district, 
Makerfield,  seems  to  contain  a  British  word.  Here  belong  :  Culcheth,  Haydock, 
Kenyon,  possibly  Brynn  (Winwick  par.),  Ince,  Pemberton,  Wigan  (Wigan  par.). 
To  these  may  be  added  the  now  lost  Roskit  1199-1222  CC  695,  Rosket  1531  VHL 
iv.  119  (Aspull,  Wigan).  In  the  CC  passage  Roskit  is  used  of  a  brook,  but  it  was 
no  doubt  originally  the  name  of  a  locality,  as  it  is  in  the  example  of  1531.  The 
name  may  be  identified  with  le  Rongoet  in  Brittany  (Rosquoet  nemus  1270 
Loth  229),  a  compound  of  ros  "  hill  overgrown  with  heather,  etc.,"  and  koat 
"  wood  "  (cf.  Cheetham  p.  33).  Near  this  district,  though  in  Leigh  par.,  is 
Chaddock,  and  Eccleston  and  Penketh  (Prescot  par.)  are  not  far  off.  Glaze- 
brook  and  Sankey  are  streams  in  this  district. 

The  rather  considerable  number  of  British  names  in  the  eastern  part  of  West 
Derby  hundred  seems  to  tell  us  that  in  this  district  a  British  population  was  left 
in  undisturbed  possession  for  a  comparatively  long  time.  As  the  district  is  not 
separated  by  natural  boundaries  from  the  surrounding  ones,  the  inference  is 
plausible  that  it  was  in  the  old  days  chiefly  an  inaccessible  forest  district.  At  the 
time  of  the  Domesday  survey  Newton  hundred  was  still  largely  forest  (VHL  i. 

In  the  rest  of  West  Derby  hundred  there  are  only  two  or  three  British  names  : 
Ince  Blundell  (Sefton),  Haskayne  and  ?  Maghull  (both  in  Halsall). 

Only  a  few  examples  occur  in  Leyland  hundred  :  Charnock,  Eccleston, 
Heskin,  Penwortham.  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  Charnock,  Heskin,  and  Pen- 

1  As  British  names  are  reckoned  also  such  as  contain  British  elements.  I  do  not  here  take 
into  consideration  elements  of  possibly  British  origin  found  in  living  use  in  M.E.  and  Mn.E. 
dialects,  such  as  crag  (cf.  p.  9)  or  cumb,  or  British  pers.  names  in  common  use  in  O.E.  time, 
as  Ccedmon,  Ceadwealla. 


wortham  are  near  each  other,  and  that  Cokerdene  and  Wymott  Brook  are 
streams  not  far  west  of  Eccleston. 

Amounderness  hundred  yields  a  better  harvest.  Here  we  find  the  interesting 
name  Treales.  Near  this  place  are  Eccleston,  Preese,  Preesall,  also  Inskip  and 
Tulketh  ;  Savick  Brook  runs